source: branches/2.2.10/mondo-doc/mondorescue-howto.sgml @ 2850

Last change on this file since 2850 was 2850, checked in by bruno, 6 years ago

svn merge -r 2773:2849 2.2.9 in 2.2.10

  • Adds 3 binaries called potentially by udev o support USB key mount at restore time (Victor Gattegno)
  • Really support both mkisofs and genisoimage everywhere
  • Try to handle netfs_user better in all cases (NFS and SSHFS)
    • Improve logging in init script
    • Format improvement
    • Removes a warning when trying to launch udevadm and it doesn't exist (RHEL 5 e.g.)
    • Fix syntax description in mondoarchive man page for -E & -I with |
  • Adds download entries for new distro supported (Mageia, Fedora 15, Ubuntu 11.04)

-Fix mindi-get-perl-modules when perl dirs in @INC are symlinks (case on Ubuntu 11.04)

  • Fix option --findkernel in case of Xen kernel so that mondoarchive get a correct answer instead of an empty one.
  • Fix multi-media restore by umounting it before looping to ask for the next (as if already mounted, will not pass to the next alone)
  • Fix 485 by replacing a wrong call to mr_asprintf which was provoking core dumped.
  • Fix -E and -I example in man page which were lacking the '|' as separator
  • Fix #484 by adding support for the arcmsr driver (to support the Areca ARC-1220 RAID Controller)
    • Avoids error msgs if no mondo-restore.cfg file exists (when mindi used stdalone)
    • Adds the swapon feature to mindi-busybox
    • Attempt to fix Xen kernel support by avoiding to remove xen kernel fro; the possible_kernels list too early, whereas it's used afterwards to get them.
    • Fix #481 by supporting the new kbd file in latest Ubuntu 10.10+ (victor.gattegno_at_hp.com)
  • Update from Lester Wade on P2V doc including RHEL6 validation and some minor additions
  • removes telinit call in busybox o try to fix problems whn reboot at end of restore.
  • if -E option for mondoarchive was not specified, variable excp points to NULL, so string exclude_pathes contained '(null)' instead of being avoided (derived from a patch from taguchi_at_ff.iij4u.or.jp)
  • fix -maxdepth option for find command. it sould be '-maxdepth .. -name ..', not '-name .. -maxdepth ..' (patch from taguchi_at_ff.iij4u.or.jp)
  • Adds an extraversion for revision support
  • Adds support for ifconfig and ping for PXE+NFS boot for this version of mindi-busybox
  • Example of MINDI_ADDITIONAL_BOOT_PARAMS in mindi.conf added
  • fix a compilation error
  • Remove an absolute ref in the docs web page
File size: 97.7 KB
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1<!DOCTYPE BOOK PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook V4.1//EN" [
2<!ENTITY curdate "PBDATE">
3<!ENTITY curver "PBVER-rPBREV">
4
5<!ENTITY WWWB "http://www.mondorescue.org/">
6<!ENTITY WWW '<ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org">MondoRescue</ulink>'>
7<!ENTITY ML '<ulink url="http://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/mondo-devel">mondorescue mailing list</ulink>'>
8<!ENTITY gfdl SYSTEM "fdl.sgml">
9]>
10
11<book>
12
13<bookinfo>
14<title>MondoRescue HOWTO</title>
15<subtitle>
16Utilisation and Configuration of Mondo and Mindi under Linux (Version &curver;)
17</subtitle>
18<graphic fileref="images/protected-by-mondo" align="center">
19
20<pubdate>
21in its latest version the
22&curdate;
23</pubdate>
24
25<abstract>
26<para>
27This document describes the use of mondo and mindi tools to realize disaster recovery backup of your systems. It provides information on installation, backup and restore modes, hardware and software requirements, and answers to some frequently asked questions.
28The goals are to offer a general view of the functions and their best usages.
29Mondo Rescue is a Disaster Recovery Solution which allows you
30to effortlessly backup and interactively restore Linux, Windows and
31other supported filesystem partitions to/from CD/DVD-+R/RW media, tape,
32NFS, ... and Mindi Linux provides the bootable emergency restore
33media which Mondo uses at boot-time.
34</para>
35</abstract>
36
37<author>
38<firstname>Bruno</firstname>
39<surname>Cornec</surname>
40<affiliation>
41<orgname>MondoRescue Project</orgname>
42<address><email>bruno@mondorescue.org</email></address>
43</affiliation>
44</author>
45<author>
46<firstname>Conor</firstname>
47<surname>Daly</surname>
48<affiliation>
49<orgname>MondoRescue Project</orgname>
50<address><email>conor.daly_at_met.ie</email></address>
51</affiliation>
52</author>
53<!--
54Hugo Rabson
55Mikael Hultgren
56Stan Benoit
57Randy Delfs
58Cafeole
59Bryan J. Smith
60-->
61
62<copyright>
63<year>2000-2006</year>
64<holder role="mailto:bruno@mondorescue.org">Bruno Cornec</holder>
65</copyright>
66
67<legalnotice>
68<title>License</title>
69<para>
70</para>
71<para>
72This HOWTO is a free documentation. you may copy, redistribute and/or modify it under the terms of the
73<Link LinkEnd="gfdl">
74GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1
75</link>.</para>
76<para>
77or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts. This document is distributed hoping it will be useful, but <emphasis>without any guaranty</emphasis>; you're completely responsible of its use, and coulnd't complain in case it doesn't work, or even if it breaks the hardware. All the software included in it, if not already copyrighted is released under the GPL.
78</para>
79</legalnotice>
80
81<revhistory>
82<revision>
83    <revnumber>2.0.7</revnumber>
84    <date>2006-05-16</date>
85    <authorinitials>Bruno Cornec</authorinitials>
86    <revdescription>
87    <para>
88    Integration of a chapter on HOWTO run mondo interactively using cron written by Conor Daly
89    </para>
90    </revdescription>
91</revision>
92<revision>
93    <revnumber>2.06</revnumber>
94    <date>2006-01-16</date>
95    <authorinitials>Bruno Cornec</authorinitials>
96    <revdescription>
97    <para>
98    First SGML version publically available, remade from the HTML docs of the project.
99    </para>
100    </revdescription>
101</revision>
102</revhistory>
103</bookinfo>
104
105<toc></toc>
106<lot></lot>
107
108
109<chapter id="intro">
110<title>About this Guide</title>
111
112<sect1 id="intro-purpose">
113<title>Purpose / Scope of this Guide</title>
114
115<para>
116This HOWTO serves to help people get started with using
117mondo/mindi as way to backup/restore their system. This is a work
118constantly evolving. It was started by Hugo Rabson and has
119since been worked upon by a number of people. See the
120'<ulink url="&WWWB;about.shtml#devteam">About</ulink>' web
121page for a list of members of the development team.</para>
122
123<para>There are many ways to contribute to the Linux movement
124without actually writing code. One of the most important is writing
125documentation, allowing each person to share their knowledge with
126thousands of others around the world. This HOWTO is designed to
127help you get familiar with how Mondo/Mindi works.</para>
128
129<para>
130Opinions expressed here are those of the authors.
131Informations are provided in the aim to be useful to the readers.
132However, there can't be, through this document, any warranty of any kind
133on the way it works on your systems, nor the author could be responsible for any problem caused by the use of these informations.
134However, software editors don't garantee you a lot either (re-read the contracts).
135</para>
136</sect1>
137
138<sect1 id="intro-newversion"><title>New versions of this document</title>
139
140<para>The newest version of this document can always be found on
141MondoRescue's homepage &WWW;.</para>
142<para>
143If you make a translation of this document into another language, please let meknow so that I can include a reference to it here.
144</para>
145</sect1>
146
147<sect1><title>Suggestions / Feedback</title>
148<para>
149I rely on you, the reader, to make this HOWTO useful. THis HOWTO is probably incomplete even if it tries to be accurate to the best of our knowledge.
150If you have any suggestions, corrections, recommandations or congratulations :-) don't hesitate to send them to me
151<email>bruno@mondorescue.org</email>,
152and I will try to incorporate them in a next revision or to the &ML;;
153e-mail the list at
154<ulink url="mailto:mondo-devel@lists.sourceforge.net">mondo-devel@lists.sourceforge.net</ulink>;
155tell us what is wrong and how it should be fixed.
156Include the section title and recommended changes. Whenever possible, include
157the exact, spell-checked, grammar-checked text that you think would
158improve the document.
159</para>
160<para>See Mondo's
161        <ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org/support.shtml">Support</ulink> page for
162more information.
163</para>
164<para>
165Please note that we do our best to help everyone but it is
166difficult for us to help you if you do not attach a log file to
167your e-mail. Let me say that again - attach your log file to your
168e-mail! Thank you. Without it we can't offer
169any tangible help because you aren't either. That's what the log
170file is for. It is located at <filename>/var/log/mondoarchive.log</filename>; and <filename>/var/log/mindi.log</filename> (if called alone) or at <filename>/var/log/mondorestore.log</filename>
171</para>
172<para>
173This document was originaly written by native english speakers, but is maintained by a non-native english speaker so help me correct mistaques (sic) instead of rumbling that I've done one :-)
174</para>
175<para>
176I am also willing to answer general questions on MondoRescue, the best I can.
177Before doing so, please read all of the information in this HOWTO, and then send me detailed information about the problem, especially including the logs generated by the tools, or traces obtained (Did I say that already :-].
178</para>
179<para>
180If you publish this document on a CD-ROM or in hardcopy form, a complimentary copy would be appreciated; mail me for my postal address. Also consider making a donation to the Linux Documentation Project to help support free documentation for Linux. Contact the Linux HOWTO coordinator,
181Guylhem AZNAR <email>guylhem@rrremovethis.oeil.qc.ca</email>.
182</para>
183</sect1>
184
185<sect1 id=intro-thanks><title>Aknowledgements</title>
186
187<para>Thanks goes to these people for helping and adding to this
188HOWTO.</para>
189
190<para>Document maintainer:</para>
191<itemizedlist mark="bullet" spacing="Compact">
192<listitem>
193<para>Bruno Cornec</para>
194</listitem>
195</itemizedlist>
196<para>Original Design Assistance by:</para>
197<itemizedlist>
198<listitem>
199<para>Xion Network.com</para>
200</listitem>
201</itemizedlist>
202<para>Original Document Assistance by:</para>
203<itemizedlist>
204<listitem>
205<para>Cafeole</para>
206</listitem>
207<listitem>
208<para>Troff</para>
209</listitem>
210<listitem>
211<para>Randy Delfs</para>
212</listitem>
213<listitem>
214<para>Mikael Hultgren</para>
215</listitem>
216</itemizedlist>
217<para>Original LinuxDoc and LaTeX Reformat by:</para>
218<itemizedlist>
219<listitem>
220<para>Bryan J. Smith</para>
221</listitem>
222</itemizedlist>
223<para>Original DocBook Reformat by:</para>
224<itemizedlist>
225<listitem>
226<para>Mikael Hultgren</para>
227</listitem>
228</itemizedlist>
229<para>Original author; 1.6x material:</para>
230<itemizedlist>
231<listitem>
232<para>Hugo Rabson</para>
233</listitem>
234</itemizedlist>
235
236</sect1>
237</chapter>
238
239<chapter id="quickstart"><title>QuickStart</title>
240<itemizedlist mark="bullet" spacing="Compact">
241<listitem>
242<para>We recommend that you read this complete
243HOWTO. However, if you are too busy or impatient, then
244please use this QuickStart guide to stay out of trouble.</para>
245</listitem>
246<listitem>
247<para>Install the tarball, RPM, or DEB mindi and mondo
248packages. (see <link linkend="installation">Installation</link>
249for more details)</para>
250</listitem>
251<listitem>
252<para>Execute as root (type 'su -' to become root if you are not
253logged in as root)</para>
254<para></para>
255
256<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
257<row>
258<entry>
259
260bash# mondoarchive
261
262</entry>
263</row>
264</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
265
266</listitem>
267</itemizedlist>
268<para></para>
269
270<informaltable><tgroup cols="2"><tbody>
271<row>
272<entry>
273<ulink url="images/mamain.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
274<imagedata fileref="images/mamain-mini">
275</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
276</ulink>
277</entry>
278<entry>
279Choose from the list of supported backup media types. The media you
280will use most often are CD/DVD-+R, CD/DVD-+RW, tape, NFS and hard disk. If
281you want to backup/restore over a network, choose 'NFS'. If you
282want to backup/restore to/from a local partition or if you simply
283want to store the ISO images in a local directory until you have
284time or facilities to burn them to CD's, choose 'hard disk'. If you
285choose 'CD/DVD-+R[W]' or 'tape' then in general your hardware will be
286detected and configured for you.
287</entry>
288</row>
289<row>
290<entry>
291<ulink url="images/maburnproof.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
292<imagedata fileref="images/maburnproof-mini">
293</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
294</ulink>
295</entry>
296<entry>
297        If you are backing up to CD/DVD-+R[W] then Mondo will ask you if your CD
298burner has BurnProof technology, is inside a laptop, or is
299otherwise eccentric. If you are backing up to a tape streamer then
300you will not see this message.
301</entry>
302</row>
303<row>
304<entry>
305<ulink url="images/macompression.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
306<imagedata fileref="images/macompression-mini">
307</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
308</ulink>
309</entry>
310<entry>
311How much compression do you want? None, if your tape streamer has
312built-in hardware compression. Maximum, if your CPU is blazingly
313fast. Average should do just fine for most situations.
314</entry>
315</row>
316<row>
317<entry>
318<ulink url="images/mainclude.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
319<imagedata fileref="images/mainclude-mini">
320</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
321</ulink>
322</entry>
323<entry>
324If you want to backup the whole computer (excluding /sys and /proc,
325naturally) then leave this as / which is the default. Otherwise,
326specify subsets, (e.g. /usr/local /home ) being sure to put a space
327in between each path.
328</entry>
329</row>
330<row>
331<entry>
332<ulink url="images/maexclude.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
333<imagedata fileref="images/maexclude-mini">
334</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
335</ulink>
336</entry>
337<entry>
338If you are backing up your whole computer then you might want to
339exclude certain directories, e.g. /shared/MP3. Please specify them
340in the 'exclude directories' dialog box. Please put a space in
341between each path, e.g. /shared/private /scratch /nfs /windows
342</entry>
343</row>
344<row>
345<entry>
346<ulink url="images/maverifyq.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
347<imagedata fileref="images/maverifyq-mini">
348</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
349</ulink>
350</entry>
351<entry>
352If you want to verify the archives after writing them to media, say
353'yes' here. If you have absolute faith in your hardware and your
354Linux distribution, say 'no'... and a little prayer.
355</entry>
356</row>
357<row>
358<entry>
359<ulink url="images/maproceedq.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
360<imagedata fileref="images/maproceedq-mini">
361</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
362</ulink>
363</entry>
364<entry>
365If you are sure you want to go ahead, say 'yes' and find something
366else to do while Mondo backs up your computer. If you say 'no' then
367you will be unceremoniously dumped at the shell prompt. :-)
368</entry>
369</row>
370<row>
371<entry>
372<ulink url="images/1.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
373<imagedata fileref="images/1-mini">
374</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
375</ulink>
376</entry>
377<entry>
378The backup process will now commence. There are some pre-backup
379tasks to be carried out first but the backup is essentially
380underway. To simplify the backup process, you were asked a series
381of questions. Next time, if you like, you could call mondoarchive
382with various command-line switches to control its behavior, instead
383of answering a series of questions. See the man page for details.
384</entry>
385</row>
386<row>
387<entry>
388<ulink url="images/3.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
389<imagedata fileref="images/3-mini">
390</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
391</ulink>
392</entry>
393<entry>
394Mondo will make a catalog of all files to be backed up. This may
395take up to five minutes. The list of files will be divided into
396sets, approximately 4 MB (before compression) of files per set.
397This typically takes one minute.
398</entry>
399</row>
400<row>
401<entry>
402<ulink url="images/4.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
403<imagedata fileref="images/1-mini">
404</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
405</ulink>
406</entry>
407<entry>
408Mondo calls Mindi. Mindi generates bootable media image and
409auxiliary data disk images which are based on your existing Linux
410distribution and filesystem. That way, you can be sure Mondo's
411tools will be compatible with your existing filesystems and
412binaries: Mondo's tools are your tools. Mindi takes up to five
413minutes to run.
414</entry>
415</row>
416<row>
417<entry>
418<ulink url="images/5tape.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
419<imagedata fileref="images/5tape-mini">
420</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
421</ulink>
422</entry>
423<entry>
424Finally, Mondo begins backing up your computer. This process may
425take a few minutes or a few hours, depending on how much data you
426are archiving, how fast your CPU is, how much RAM you have, and so
427on. It will backup your regular files and then your large files
428(files larger than approximately 32MB). If you have opted to verify
429your backups, Mondo will do that too.
430</entry>
431</row>
432</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
433
434<itemizedlist>
435<listitem>
436<para>Try to boot from the first media of the backup.
437Choose 'Compare Mode' by typing compare at the boot screen.
438</para>
439</listitem>
440<listitem>
441<para>If you can boot, fine. If not, make a Mindi "Test" CD to
442checkout the compatibility of your system. (see
443<link linkend="test-mindi">Testing Mindi</link> for more
444details). Remove the media; boot your computer as usual;
445execute as root</para>
446<para></para>
447<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
448<row>
449<entry>
450
451        bash# mindi
452</entry>
453</row>
454<row>
455<entry>
456        bash# cd /var/cache/mindi
457
458</entry>
459</row>
460</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
461
462<para>(for CD-R)</para>
463<para></para>
464<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
465<row>
466<entry>
467bash# cdrecord dev=0,0,0 speed=4 -eject -v mindi.iso
468</entry>
469</row>
470<row>
471<entry>
472bash# wodim dev=0,0,0 speed=4 -eject -v mindi.iso
473</entry>
474</row>
475</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
476
477<para>(for CD-RW)</para>
478<para></para>
479<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
480<row>
481<entry>
482bash# cdrecord dev=0,0,0 speed=4 blank=fast -eject -v mindi.iso
483</entry>
484</row>
485<row>
486<entry>
487bash# wodim dev=0,0,0 speed=4 blank=fast -eject -v mindi.iso
488</entry>
489</row>
490</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
491
492<para>Reboot your system with the created Mindi CD, with the BIOS
493set to boot from CD. If the result is a command line in 'Expert'
494mode, your system checks out. Remove the CD and reboot your
495system.</para>
496</listitem>
497<listitem>
498<para>If you still cannot boot from Mindi's CD then please e-mail
499the &ML; for help.
500</para>
501</listitem>
502</itemizedlist>
503<para>When making a backup on a live system, there will always be
504processes running that will write out data on the system after you
505have made the backup and before you have made the compare, this
506will result in difference showing up when comparing your backup.
507For a full explanation and what can be done to avoid this, please
508read this section.</para>
509<itemizedlist>
510
511        <listitem>
512<para>This QuickStart covers the ideal case. Upon receiving any
513system feedback/errors, read each related HOWTO section.</para>
514<para>Example 2-1. A test backup of your /home directory to CD-Rs
515using the command line</para>
516<para></para>
517<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
518<row>
519<entry>
520
521bash# mondoarchive -OVc 4 -I /home -gF
522
523</entry>
524</row>
525</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
526
527<para>The 'c' means you must be writing to CD-Rs, not CD-RWs (the
528latter would require 'w' instead of 'c'). The '4' is the speed of
529your CD writer. The string after -I is the path to be backed up.
530The '-gF' means you are going to see the pretty yellow-on-blue
531screen instead of the boring white-on-black screen. :) It also
532means Mondo will not offer to create physical boot media for
533you. It is assumed that you are able to boot from the CD which
534Mondo has generated.</para>
535<para>Example 2-2. A backup of your whole filesystem to NFS using
536the command line</para>
537<para></para>
538<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
539<row>
540<entry>
541
542        bash# mkdir -p /mnt/nfs
543</entry>
544</row>
545<row>
546<entry>
547        bash# mount nfs://192.168.1.28:/home/nfs /mnt/nfs
548        </entry>
549</row>
550<row>
551<entry>
552        bash# mondoarchive -OVn nfs://192.168.1.28:/home/nfs -gF[...]
553        </entry>
554</row>
555<row>
556<entry>
557bash# umount /mnt/nfs
558        </entry>
559</row>
560<row>
561<entry>
562        bash# cdrecord dev=0,0,0 speed=4 -eject -v /var/cache/mindi/mindi.iso
563</entry>
564</row>
565</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
566
567<para>Note that you have to mount the NFS partition, backup to it,
568unmount it, and create a boot CD to allow you to restore from
569scratch if necessary. To reassure yourself that you will be able to
570restore from the NFS share even if your PC is wiped, please boot
571from the Mindi CD and type 'compare'. The on-screen instructions
572from that point on should be sufficient.</para>
573<para>Example 2-3. A backup of your whole
574filesystem to tape using the command line</para>
575<para></para>
576<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
577<row>
578<entry>
579
580bash# mondoarchive -OVt -d /dev/st0 -9 -L -g
581
582</entry>
583</row>
584</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
585
586<para>In this case, we assume Syslinux is incompatible with your
587boot media. For some reason, some BIOSes just don't like Syslinux.
588If you find this to be the case for your computer, please use '-L'
589to force Mondo to use LILO instead of Syslinux as the boot loader
590for its media. (NB: This has nothing to do with which boot
591loader your hard drive uses.) Also, it is a good habit to specify
592your tape streamer with '-d &lt;device&gt;'. You don't usually need
593to but it's good to be on the safe side. Some computers call your
594tape streamer /dev/osst0, some call it /dev/ftape, ...
595Also, depending on the tape streamer model, a tape should be inserted
596in the tape drive before starting mondoarchive, otherwise it may not
597recognize the drive.</para>
598</listitem>
599</itemizedlist>
600
601</chapter>
602
603<chapter id="overview"><title>Overview</title>
604
605<sect1 id="overview-mondorescue">
606<title>Mondo Rescue</title>
607<para>Mondo Rescue backs up your file system to CD, tape, NFS
608(archives stored remotely) or ISO's (archives stored locally).
609Mondo uses afio as the backup engine; afio is a well-respected
610replacement for tar. In the event of catastrophic data loss, you
611may restore some or all of your system, even if your hard drives
612are now blank. Mondo Rescue can do a lot of other cool
613things:</para>
614<itemizedlist>
615<listitem>
616<para>You can use Mondo to clone an installation of Linux. Just
617backup the crucial stuff and exclude /home, /var/log, etc.</para>
618</listitem>
619<listitem>
620<para>You can backup a non-RAID file system and restore it as RAID
621including the root partition (if your kernel supports that).</para>
622</listitem>
623<listitem>
624<para>You can backup a system running on one format and restore as
625another format.</para>
626</listitem>
627<listitem>
628<para>You can restructure your partitions, e.g. shrink/enlarge,
629reassign devices, add hard drives, etc, before you partition and
630format your drives. Mondo will restore your data and amend
631/etc/lilo.conf and /etc/fstab accordingly.</para>
632</listitem>
633<listitem>
634<para>You can backup Linux/Windows systems, including the boot
635sectors. Mondo will make everything right at restore-time.
636(However, do run "Scandisk" when you first boot into Windows, just
637in case.)</para>
638</listitem>
639<listitem>
640<para>You can use your Mondo backup CD to verify the integrity of
641your computer.</para>
642</listitem>
643</itemizedlist>
644<para>Mondo's principal virtue is that it protects you from the
645problems that can arise when you reinstall completely from scratch.
646If you want to wipe and restore your system every year just as a
647matter of 'good practice', Mondo is not for you. However, if you
648want to get up and running again in a hurry after someone breaks
649into your computer and wipes it (or if you accidentally wipe it
650yourself) then Mondo is definitely for you. It will permit you to
651roll back to a known-good installation in a very short period of
652time, sometimes as little as twenty minutes. Even if you backup
653large amounts of data to tape daily and do not want to add yet
654another backup regime, please consider backing up the core
655filesystem (i.e. everything but the directories containing your
656huge database and your prizewinning novel) every month or so, just
657in case. You will be glad you did.</para>
658<para>What is Mondo not?</para>
659<para>Mondo is not an everyday backup program. It is not designed
660to replace tar, afio, kbackup, etc. Mondo is designed to make it
661possible to recover from scratch if necessary. Tar and afio offer a
662quick, convenient way to backup small sets of files, sometimes to
663removable media.</para>
664</sect1>
665
666<sect1 id="overview-mindi">
667<title>Mindi</title>
668<para>
669Mindi Linux creates a set of boot/root media images
670that will let you perform basic system maintenance on your Linux
671distro. The principal virtues of Mindi's boot disks are the fact
672that they contain your kernel, modules, tools and libraries. You
673can ask for additional binaries (or other files) to be included on
674the kit. The libraries will be added for you.
675</para>
676<para>Whichever modules were loaded at backup-time, they are
677reloaded at boot-time. So, in theory, you will boot into almost the
678same environment as you were in when you backed up. If you want to
679add files to your Mindi boot disks, edit '&lt;INSTALLPATH OF
680MINDI&gt;/mindi/deplist.txt' and add the files to that list. The
681added files and dependencies, will be spread across the data disks
682at run-time.
683</para>
684<para>Mindi makes sure that Mondo has all the tools it needs at
685boot-time. Mondo uses fdisk, mkfs, cat, less, more, afio, gzip,
686bzip2, your keyboard configuration, your glibc libraries, your
687other libraries, your kernel, your modules, ... which is a lot of tools!
688Mindi takes care of all that, so that Mondo can get on with the job of backing
689up or restoring your data.
690</para>
691<para>Mindi is also handy for making boot CDs/disks which stand on
692their own. You do not need Mondo. Indeed, if you like, you could
693use another backup/restore program with Mindi. Just add it to
694Mindi's dependency list (type 'locate deplist.txt' to find it).
695Mindi will include your software on its boot CD/disks the next time
696you run mindi.
697</para>
698</sect1>
699
700
701<sect1 id="overview-linuxbackup">
702<title>Linux Backup</title>
703<para>Mondo Rescue and Mindi Linux are used primarily as Linux
704backup and cloning tools. The fall in prices of CD-RW drives and
705writable discs will allow current users to keep good backups and
706future users to leverage the cloning capability.</para>
707<para>Tape drives are more likely to suit your needs if you run a
708larger installation (or have lots of MP3's). Warning! OnStream
709drives do not play well with Mondo. I do not know why. It is, in my
710opinion, something which OnStream should look into. Mondo uses
711fopen(), fread(), fwrite() and fclose() to interact with tape
712drives. That works for most drives but some drives just don't like
713that.
714Also, depending on the tape streamer model, a tape should be inserted
715in the tape drive before starting mondoarchive, otherwise it may not
716recognize the drive.</para>
717<para>Mondo Rescue has been tested thousands of times on various computers.
718It has worked for them.
719Thousands of users testify to Mondo's stability and its ease of
720use. However, please test it on your own system before you rely on
721it. In fact, do not rely on any software until you have tested it
722to see if it performs as expected.</para>
723<para>To establish that Mondo will behave well in an emergency,
724please be prepared. Run a test backup as follows:-</para>
725<itemizedlist>
726<listitem>
727<para>Run mondoarchive without any command-line options.</para>
728</listitem>
729<listitem>
730    <para>Backup a subset of files - e.g. /usr/local - to CD or
731            tape. Say 'yes' when asked if you want to verify them.</para>
732</listitem>
733<listitem>
734    <para>If you are not backing up to CD, please create boot
735    media when prompted.</para>
736</listitem>
737</itemizedlist>
738<para>Next, restore archives to your live filesystem.</para>
739<itemizedlist>
740<listitem>
741<para>When mondoarchive terminates, run mondorestore without any
742command-line options.</para>
743</listitem>
744<listitem><para>Insert the media when prompted.
745                Press &lt;Enter&gt;. Wait a moment.</para></listitem>
746<listitem><para>Select a subset of files to restore, e.g. /usr/local/man
747                and /usr/local/bin. Hit OK.</para></listitem>
748<listitem><para>Restore files to /tmp or /root/RESTORED or something
749                similar.</para></listitem>
750<listitem><para>When mondorestore terminates, compare the restored files
751                to the originals using cmp or diff.</para></listitem>
752</itemizedlist>
753<para>Finally, simulate an emergency restore.</para>
754<itemizedlist>
755<listitem>
756<para>Boot from media.</para>
757</listitem>
758<listitem><para>Select 'Interactive Mode' at boot-time. (Type
759                'interactive' and hit &lt;Enter&gt;.)</para></listitem>
760<listitem><para>Hit OK when shown the mountlist. Say 'yes' when asked if
761                you accept the mountlist.</para></listitem>
762<listitem><para>Select files to restore, e.g. /usr/local/man and
763                /usr/local/bin. Hit OK.</para></listitem>
764<listitem><para>Restore files to /tmp or /root/RESTORED or something
765                similar.</para></listitem>
766<listitem><para>When mondorestore terminates, please reboot and compare
767                the restored files to the originals.</para></listitem>
768</itemizedlist>
769<para>FYI, the subroutines to repartition and reformat your drives
770are very stable. If you are a RAID or LVM user, you
771might&nbsp;encounter some difficulties when wiping and restoring
772from scratch because of the sheer range of filesystem layouts and
773the impossibility of testing Mondo on every single one. If you have
774trouble, just drop to the command-line and partition/format
775manually. Then, call mondorestore, select Interactive Mode, and say
776'no' when asked if you want Mondo to partition or format your
777drives for you.</para>
778<para>You see, even if you have trouble, you still have two hands
779and most of the tools you need - lvchange, pvcreate, fdisk, mkraid,
780etc. - to do it manually. After you have prepped and formatted your
781drives manually (if you have to), just run mondorestore again and
782say 'no' when asked if you want to prep or format your drives. What
783could be easier?</para>
784</sect1>
785
786<sect1 id="overview-winbackup">
787<title>Windows Backup</title>
788<para>Backing up windows partitions.</para>
789<sect2 id="overview-winbackup-win95"><title>Windows ME/95/98</title>
790<para>Verify that the partition is listed in /etc/fstab and is
791mounted (e.g. /dev/hda1). Mondo will take care of everything else.
792The files will be archived just like all other files in the live
793file system. At restore-time, Mondo will take care of the boot
794sector of /dev/hda1 prior to the restore.</para>
795<para>Note: if Windows ME/95/98 is not located on /dev/hda1 or
796/dev/sda1, then Mondo will not take care of the boot sector of
797/dev/hda1. The user will have to boot from a DOS floppy and run SYS
798C: to correct the Windows boot sector.</para>
799</sect2>
800<sect2 id="overview-winbackup-winnt"><title>Windows NT4/2K/XP</title>
801<para>Windows NT4/2K/XP typically use the NTFS file system, not
802VFAT.. The user should use '-x /dev/hda1' (or whichever device the
803Windows partition resides). Mondo will treat the partition as a
804biggiefile. Mondo will also add an entry to the mountlist to
805reflect the size and type of the partition. The user may not edit
806that partition's size at restore-time (for obvious reasons).</para>
807<para>Please bear in mind that Mondo was written for Linux users.
808If Mondo does not backup or restore your Windows system well, you
809might want to consider reporting it to the &ML;
810</para>
811</sect2>
812</sect1>
813
814<sect1 id="overview-history">
815<title>Mondo Rescue and Mindi Linux
816History</title>
817<para>Mondo Rescue was created in December 1999 by Hugo Rabson as a utility to
818clone Linux/Windows installations. Norton Ghost would not do the
819job, and his boss wanted to jump on the Linux bandwagon. So, he wrote
820a few scripts and shoehorned them into the latest Linux-Mandrake
821CD. Since that time, Mondo grew into a disaster recovery suite for
822Linux and Windows. Mondo forced him to learn about the kernel, its
823initrd initial ramdisk, modules, library dependencies, disk
824partitioning, and the myriad differences between the Top 10 Linux
825distributions.</para>
826<para>The first formal release was made on February 18th, 2000.
827Mondo is currently one of the top five Linux backup/restore
828programs. Mondo has been compared favorably to ArcServe, Arkeia and
829BRU. Although Mondo lacks the more advanced, enterprise-level
830features of ArcServe and Arkeia, for workstations and small- to
831medium-size servers it is ideal because it is small, fast,
832efficient, stable, comes with source code, and is being actively
833developed and supported.</para>
834<para>
835        Since November 2005, Hugo Rabson has tranfered the maintenance
836        of the Mondo Rescue suite to Andree Leidenfrost and Bruno Cornec,
837        both previous developers and packagers of the tool since nearly
838        the begining.
839</para>
840</sect1>
841
842<sect1 id="overview-sysreq">
843<title>System Requirements</title>
844<sect2 id="overview-sysrq-hwreq">
845<title>Hardware Requirements</title>
846
847<para>Your computer must have:</para>
848<itemizedlist>
849<listitem>
850        <para>Intel(R)-compatible CPU (ia32, x86_64/amd64 or ia64)</para>
851</listitem>
852<listitem>
853<para>64MB of RAM (128MB recommended)</para>
854</listitem>
855<listitem>
856<para>800MB of hard disk space free</para>
857</listitem>
858<listitem>
859<para>CD writer, tape streamer, NFS share or some way to backup the
860backups :)</para>
861</listitem>
862</itemizedlist>
863<para>It is recommended that your computer have very good airflow.
864The backup with Mondo Rescue and Mindi Linux will utilize your CPU,
865CD drive and fixed disk(s) like very few other applications. With a
866few hours of system backup activity, computers without sufficient
867airflow may show symptoms such as not burning full CD discs. The
868solution is a $20 or less additional fan at your local electronics
869discount store.</para>
870</sect2>
871
872<sect2 id="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">
873<title>Kernel Requirements</title>
874
875<para>Your kernel must have:</para>
876<itemizedlist>
877<listitem>
878<para>stable loopfs support, which means it really needs to be
8792.2.19 or 2.4.7 (or later)</para>
880</listitem>
881<listitem>
882<para>CD-ROM device support</para>
883</listitem>
884<listitem>
885<para>ISO9660 file system support</para>
886</listitem>
887<listitem>
888<para>initrd ramdisk support (built-in)</para>
889</listitem>
890<listitem>
891<para>Virtual memory file system support (built-in)</para>
892</listitem>
893<listitem>
894<para>ext2 file system support (built-in)</para>
895</listitem>
896<listitem>
897<para>Support for the backup media (Tape, CD-RW, NFS, Hard
898disk)</para>
899</listitem>
900<listitem>
901<para>If the backup media is CD-RW then you need SCSI emulation
902also</para>
903<para>vfat support in the active kernel - mindi needs this when creating
904syslinux boot media</para>
905</listitem>
906</itemizedlist>
907<para>Please note that the stock kernels of Red Hat/RHEL/Fedora,
908    Mandrake/Mandriva, SuSE/SLES/OpenSuSE, Debian and Slackware
909    all meet Mondo's requirements. If your kernel does not meet Mondo's
910    requirements then there is something wrong with it. Mondo's demands
911    are not unreasonable.</para>
912<para>Mondo (specifically Mindi) does not require any specific
913module. It does require that your kernel support the initrd
914initial ramdisk facility. Typically this is supported by the Linux
915kernel. Modules used are needed to support the CD,
916hard disks, etc. If the support is modular, then the modules will
917be incorporated in a boot disk by Mindi. If the support is built-in
918(static), then it will be available at boot-time by default.</para>
919</sect2>
920<sect2 id="overview-sysrq-swreq">
921<title>Software Requirements</title>
922<para>See Mondo's <ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org/downloads.shtml">Download
923page</ulink> for details.</para>
924<para>Mondo requires afio, bzip2, cdrtools/cdrecord/growisofs (may be part of the dvd+rw-tools package), ncurses, newt,
925        isolinux/syslinux, lzo (optional), lzop (optional), mkisofs/genisoimage, slang,
926and a few other packages.</para>
927<para>Good Linux distributions provide all these packages. If yours
928does not then please go to the aforementioned Download page or surf
929the Net, preferably the website of the distribution you are
930using.</para>
931<para>Mondo's expectations are not unreasonable, either of your
932Linux distribution or of your kernel. However, if your distribution
933fails to meet its expectations and you cannot find out how to
934resolve them, please feel free to e-mail the &ML;
935</para>
936</sect2>
937</sect1>
938</chapter>
939
940<chapter id="installation">
941<title>Installation</title>
942
943<sect1 id="installation-mindi">
944<title>Mindi Installation</title>
945<para>If you are installing from a tarball then copy it to wherever
946you have enough space, for example /tmp and type:</para>
947<para></para>
948<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
949<row>
950<entry>
951
952        bash# cd /tmp
953</entry>
954</row>
955<row>
956<entry>
957        bash# tar -zxvf mindi-1.x.tgz
958        </entry>
959</row>
960<row>
961<entry>
962bash# cd mindi-1.x
963</entry>
964</row>
965<row>
966<entry>
967        bash# ./install.sh
968
969</entry>
970</row>
971</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
972
973<para>This installs mindi additional files into /usr/local/lib/mindi and
974the program into /usr/local/sbin</para>
975<para>Or, if you are installing from an RPM/deb then copy it to
976wherever you have enough space, for example /tmp and type:</para>
977<para></para>
978<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
979<row>
980<entry>
981
982bash# rpm -Uvh /tmp/mindi-1.x-x.i386.rpm
983</entry>
984</row>
985<row>
986<entry>
987
988or
989</entry>
990</row>
991<row>
992<entry>
993
994bash# dpkg -i /tmp/mindi-1.x-x.deb
995
996</entry>
997</row>
998</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
999
1000<para>This installs mindi additional files into /usr/lib/mindi and
1001the program into /usr/sbin.
1002</para>
1003</sect1>
1004
1005<sect1 id="installation-mondo">
1006<title>Mondo Installation</title>
1007<para>If you are installing from a tarball then copy it to wherever
1008you have enough space, for example /tmp and type:</para>
1009<para></para>
1010<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1011<row>
1012<entry>
1013
1014        bash# cd /tmp
1015</entry>
1016</row>
1017<row>
1018<entry>
1019        bash# tar -zxvf mondo-2.xx.tgz
1020        </entry>
1021</row>
1022<row>
1023<entry>
1024bash# cd mondo-2.xx
1025        </entry>
1026</row>
1027<row>
1028<entry>
1029        bash# ./configure
1030        </entry>
1031</row>
1032<row>
1033<entry>
1034bash# make &amp;&amp; make install
1035
1036</entry>
1037</row>
1038</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1039
1040<para>This installs mondo into /usr/local/lib/mondo and installs
1041the programs into /usr/local/sbin</para>
1042<para>Or, if you are installing from an RPM/deb then copy it to copy it
1043to wherever you have enough space, for example /tmp and
1044type:</para>
1045<para></para>
1046<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1047<row>
1048<entry>
1049
1050bash# rpm -Uvh /tmp/mondo-2.x-x.i386.rpm
1051</entry>
1052</row>
1053<row>
1054<entry>
1055
1056or
1057</entry>
1058</row>
1059<row>
1060<entry>
1061
1062bash# dpkg -i /tmp/mondo-2.x-x.deb
1063
1064</entry>
1065</row>
1066</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1067
1068<para>This installs mondo into /usr/lib/mondo and installs
1069the programs into /usr/sbin</para>
1070</sect1>
1071
1072<sect1 id=rpm-verif>
1073        <title>RPM verifications</title>
1074        <para>For RPM based distributions (Fedora, OpenSuSE, Mandriva, ...), you may want to do this post-install in order to check the validity of your installation:</para>
1075<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1076<row>
1077    <entry>
1078        bash# rpm -Va mindi mondo
1079    </entry>
1080</row>
1081</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1082<para>
1083    This gives some truly obtuse output. Basically it will list all files that do NOT pass the verify tests (done on size, MD5 signature, etc). Please read rpm man page to discover the meaning of the output.
1084    </para>
1085</sect1>
1086</chapter>
1087
1088<chapter id="test">
1089<title>Tests</title>
1090
1091<sect1 id="test-mindi">
1092<title>Testing Mindi</title>
1093
1094<para>Mindi is a vital part of the backup procedure. If you have
1095used Mondo before or if you are in a hurry, skip steps 6.2 and 6.3;
1096go straight to QuickStart.</para>
1097<para>However, if you have time or if you have been having trouble
1098getting Mondo to work, I would recommend trying out Mindi directly
1099(rather than via Mondo) to see if it can produce a bootable CD on
1100your system.</para>
1101<para>Make sure you are root while doing this, otherwise mindi will
1102fail, now do this.</para>
1103<para>If you have any problems, please:-</para>
1104<itemizedlist>
1105<listitem>
1106<para>less /var/log/mindi.log</para>
1107</listitem>
1108<listitem><para>feel free to edit mindi (it's a shell script, btw) to try
1109                to fix the problem yourself</para></listitem>
1110<listitem><para>contact the &ML; if you get stuck.</para></listitem>
1111</itemizedlist>
1112<para>Type:-</para>
1113<para></para>
1114<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1115<row>
1116<entry>
1117
1118bash# mindi
1119
1120</entry>
1121</row>
1122</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1123
1124<para>Example screen output, selecting to use your own kernel, to
1125create boot disks, and to create a bootable CD image:</para>
1126<para></para>
1127<screen>
1128
1129# mindi
1130Mindi Linux mini-distro generator v1.09-r762
1131
1132Latest Mindi is available from http://www.mondorescueg
1133
1134------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1135Do you want to use your own kernel to build the boot disk (y/n) ?y
1136Would you like to use LILO (instead of syslinux)
1137for your boot media (y/n) ?n
1138Analyzing dependency requirements                               Done.
1139Making complete dependency list                                 Done.
1140Analyzing your keyboard's configuration.
1141
1142Adding the following keyboard mapping tables: us-latin1         Done.
1143Assembling dependency files...................................................................                                                  Done.
1144The files have been subdivided into 5 directories.                              Your mountlist will look like this:-
1145    Finding all volume groups
1146  No volume groups found
1147  No volume groups found
1148  No volume groups found
1149  No volume groups found
1150        DEVICE          MOUNTPOINT      FORMAT          SIZE (MB)
1151        /dev/hda1       /               ext3                399
1152        /dev/hda9       /home           ext3              48478
1153        /dev/hda6       /usr            ext3               4999
1154        /dev/hda7       /var            ext3               1000
1155        /dev/hda5       swap            swap                349
1156        /dev/hda8       swap            swap               2003
1157    Finding all volume groups
1158  No volume groups found
1159  No volume groups found
1160  No volume groups found
1161  No volume groups found
1162Tarring and zipping the groups..................                Done.
1163Creating data disk #1...#2...#3...#4...#5...                    Done.
1164Making 1722KB boot disk...........................1440+0 enregistrements lus.
11651440+0 enregistrements écrits.
1166mke2fs 1.38 (30-Jun-2005)
1167Failed to copy /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.12-15mdk-i686-up-4GB to ramdisk
1168
1169Making 2880KB boot disk...........................mkfs.vfat 2.10 (22 Sep 2003)
1170... 2880 KB boot disks were created OK                          Done.
1171In the directory '/var/cache/mindi' you will find the images:-
1172   mindi-data-1.img    mindi-data-2.img    mindi-data-3.img    mindi-data-4.img    mindi-data-5.img mindi-root.1440.img
1173Shall I make a bootable CD image? (y/n) y
1174NB: Mindi's bootable CD always uses isolinux.
1175
1176For a bootable CD w/LILO, please use Mondo.
1177
1178Finished.
1179
1180Boot and data disk images were created.
1181
1182#
1183       
1184</screen>
1185
1186<para>If your kernel is too large (more than about 900KB) then you
1187cannot make boot media, although you can still make a bootable
1188CD image. The easiest way to test Mindi in either case is to say
1189'n' to its first question and 'y' to its second, then use the
1190separate application cdrecord or wodim to make a bootable CD-R or
1191CD-RW.</para>
1192<para>Use the cdrecord or wodim application to write the CD image:</para>
1193<para></para>
1194<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1195<row>
1196<entry>
1197        bash# cd /var/cache/mindi
1198</entry>
1199</row>
1200<row>
1201        <entry>
1202        bash# cdrecord -scanbus
1203</entry>
1204</row>
1205<row>
1206        <entry>
1207        bash# wodim --devices
1208</entry>
1209</row>
1210</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1211
1212<para>The output of the above call will tell you your
1213CD writer's node. It is usually '0,0,0'. Choose one of the
1214following calls to write the CD, depending on whether the disk in
1215the drive is a CD-R or a CD-RW. Please replace 'x,x,x' with your
1216writer's node. For further information, type 'man cdrecord" from a
1217Linux command line.</para>
1218<para>If writing to a CD-RW Drive/Disc:</para>
1219<para></para>
1220<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1221<row>
1222<entry>
1223bash# cdrecord -v blank=fast dev=x,x,x speed=4 mindi.iso (for CD-RW)
1224</entry>
1225</row>
1226<row>
1227<entry>
1228        bash# wodim -v blank=fast dev=/dev/xxx speed=4 mindi.iso (for CD-RW)
1229</entry>
1230</row>
1231</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1232
1233<para>If writing to a CD-R Drive/Disc:</para>
1234<para></para>
1235<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1236<row>
1237<entry>
1238bash# cdrecord -v dev=x,x,x speed=4 mindi.iso (for CD-R)
1239</entry>
1240</row>
1241<row>
1242<entry>
1243        bash# wodim -v dev=/dev/xxx speed=4 mindi.iso (for CD-R)
1244</entry>
1245</row>
1246</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1247</sect1>
1248
1249<!--
1250<sect1 id="test-mondo">
1251<title>Testing Mondo</title>
1252</sect1>
1253-->
1254</chapter>
1255
1256<chapter id="backup">
1257<title>Backup</title>
1258
1259<sect1 id="backup-recommandations">
1260<title>Recommendations</title>
1261<itemizedlist>
1262<listitem>
1263<para>Shut down all possible applications (this minimizes any
1264        compare differences following the backup). Especially shutdown
1265        properly any running database on your system, as the recovery
1266        may lead to corrupted data. Or if applicable, boot to single user mode.</para>
1267</listitem>
1268<listitem>
1269<para>Type:</para>
1270</listitem>
1271</itemizedlist>
1272<para></para>
1273<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1274<row>
1275<entry>
1276
1277bash# mondoarchive
1278
1279</entry>
1280</row>
1281</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1282
1283<para>For most users, that should be enough. :-) Mondoarchive will
1284usually autodetect your hardware and configure it for you.</para>
1285<para>If you are a power user (or you like to control every detail
1286of how Mondo runs) then you may want to look at the command-line
1287switches. For example:-</para>
1288<para></para>
1289<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1290<row>
1291<entry>
1292
1293bash# mondoarchive -Ow9 -gF -I /home
1294
1295</entry>
1296</row>
1297</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1298
1299<para>cdrecord or wodim will tell you where your CD recorder lives, in SCSI
1300terms, which looks like '0,0,0'. The previous call to mondoarchive tells
1301Mondo to backup everything to a 4x CD-RW drive that has
1302a CD-RW disk in it. (Use -Oc instead of -Ow if you are using
1303CD-R.)</para>
1304<para>Please put the first CD-R(W) in the drive now. You will be
1305prompted to insert CD #2 but you will not be prompted to insert the
1306first disk. However, if you forget, do not worry: if Mondo fails to
1307write the first (or any) disk, it will offer to retry, abort or
1308fail.</para>
1309<para>Find the speed/compression
1310compromise that best suits your needs. Here maximum (-9) compression level is used.</para>
1311<para>If you are using cron then please consult the chapter that Conor Daly has dedicated to that <link linkend="backup-cron">topic</link>
1312</para>
1313</sect1>
1314
1315<sect1 id="backup-cmd">
1316<title>Backup Commands and Options</title>
1317
1318<para>Backup Command:</para>
1319<para></para>
1320<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1321<row>
1322<entry>
1323
1324mondoarchive &lt;-option1&gt; &lt;-option2&gt; ... &lt;-optionN&gt;
1325
1326</entry>
1327</row>
1328</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1329
1330<para>E.g.,</para>
1331<para></para>
1332<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1333<row>
1334<entry>
1335
1336bash# mondoarchive -E "/mnt/dos|/mnt/cdrom" -9 -Oc 8
1337
1338</entry>
1339</row>
1340</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1341
1342<para>Would create backup CD to a CD-R disc at the highest
1343compression level, writing at speed 8 and ignoring the /mnt/dos and
1344/mnt/cdrom directories.</para>
1345<para>To see a detailed list of switches and their meaning, see the
1346<ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org/docs/mondoarchive.8.html">HTML
1347man page</ulink> on the website or type 'man mondoarchive' at the
1348console.</para>
1349<sect2 id="backup-cmd-cdr">
1350<title>Standard Example With CD-R</title>
1351<para></para>
1352<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1353<row>
1354<entry>
1355
1356bash# mondoarchive -Oc 2 -g
1357
1358</entry>
1359</row>
1360</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1361
1362<para>Replace '2' in '-Oc 2' with the writer's speed. If
1363mondoarchive cannot find your CD-R then please add '-d 0,0,0' (or
1364whatever your CD writer's SCSI node is; usually, it is 0,0,0) to
1365the call.</para>
1366<para>Please insert the first disk in the writer while the PC is
1367chugging away. If Mondo needs additional CD-R(W) then it will ask
1368for them.</para>
1369</sect2>
1370<sect2 id="backup-cmd-cdrw">
1371<title>Standard Example With CD-RW</title>
1372<para></para>
1373<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1374<row>
1375<entry>
1376
1377bash# mondoarchive -Ow 2 -g
1378
1379</entry>
1380</row>
1381</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1382
1383<para>Replace '2' in '-Ow 2' with the writer's speed.</para>
1384</sect2>
1385<sect2 id="backup-cmd-tape">
1386        <title>Standard Example With Tape</title>
1387<para></para>
1388<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1389<row>
1390<entry>
1391
1392bash# mondoarchive -Ot -d /dev/st0 -g
1393
1394</entry>
1395</row>
1396</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1397
1398</sect2>
1399<sect2 id="backup-cmd-network">
1400        <title>Standard Example With Network Backup</title>
1401<para></para>
1402<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1403<row>
1404<entry>
1405
1406        bash# mount 192.168.1.3:/home/nfs -t nfs /mnt/nfs
1407</entry>
1408</row>
1409<row>
1410        <entry>
1411        bash# mondoarchive -OVn nfs://192.168.1.3:/home/nfs -g -s 200m
1412</entry>
1413</row>
1414<row>
1415        <entry>
1416        bash# umount /mnt/nfs
1417
1418</entry>
1419</row>
1420</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1421
1422<para>The resultant ISO's can be burned to CD's if you want (which
1423isn't a good idea unless you're a Mondo expert because they'll try
1424to restore over a network by default, which is silly because the
1425archives are on the CD's). Or, you can boot from the Mindi media
1426(or mondorescue.iso) and hit ENTER a few times to restore.</para>
1427<para>Those ISO images can also be used for a PXE restore. For this
1428        to work, please refer to the file README.pxe provided with
1429        your mindi package.
1430</para>
1431</sect2>
1432
1433</sect1>
1434</chapter>
1435
1436<chapter id="backup-cron">
1437<title>HOWTO run mondo interactively using cron</title>
1438
1439<sect1 id="backup-cron-overview">
1440<title>Overview</title>
1441
1442<para>
1443        Mondoarchive is designed to run interactively (at least where
1444 media changes are necessary). Cron does not allow user interaction
1445 with a job. This section addresses the problem by using screen as a
1446 wrapper for mondo.
1447</para>
1448<para>
1449        This section is Copyright 2003 Conor Daly.
1450</para>
1451</sect1>
1452<sect1 id="backup-cron-intro">
1453        <title>Introduction</title>
1454
1455<para>
1456Mondoarchive is designed to run interactively. That's not strictly
1457 true, if you run mondoarchive without the '-g' switch, it will just
1458 run. However, there is a problem where media changes are necessary.
1459 The user must change the media and tell mondoarchive that the change
1460 has been done. The problem lies in the fact that cron does not allow
1461 user interaction with a job. If you schedule a mondoarchive job via
1462 cron, you better be sure it needs only one media. In practical terms,
1463 this means using tapes or ISOs (if CD-R(W) is your backup medium).
1464 However, for tape users, there's always the possibility that the
1465 backup will overflow the tape while for CD-R(W) users, there is the
1466 added hassle of burning the ISOs in the morning. If your CD_R(W)
1467 backup routinely occupies more than one media, this is not for you
1468 (use the ISO option and burn the CDs in the morning). This HOWTO
1469 addresses the problem by using screen as a wrapper for mondo.
1470</para>
1471</sect1>
1472<sect1 id="backup-cron-who">
1473        <title>Who should read this?</title>
1474<sect2><title>Insurance</title>
1475<para>
1476Mondo users who wish to automate the backup and whose backups
1477 routinely occupy close to one media are the best audience. If you
1478 backup to tape, the occasion will arise when the backup will overflow
1479 your tape. In this instance, mondoarchive will ask for another tape.
1480 If you're using cron to start the backup, you won't be able to tell
1481 mondo that the new tape is mounted and the backup will fail. If you
1482 backup to CD-R(W), the same situation will arise but sooner.
1483 </para>
1484 </sect2>
1485 <sect2><title>Efficiency</title>
1486<para>
1487If your backup already occupies two media, this method will allow
1488 as much of the backup as possible to proceed during quiet periods.
1489 Time the backup to start with enough time to complete the first media
1490 shortly before the operator arrives for work. The next media can
1491 be mounted and the backup completed asap and minimises the time for
1492 which users are inconvenienced by the backup (eg. database locked...).
1493 </para>
1494 </sect2>
1495 </sect1>
1496 <sect1 id="backup-cron-problem">
1497         <title>The Problem</title>
1498<sect2><title>Cron's environment</title>
1499<para>
1500When a user submits a job with cron, their environment is not
1501 preserved. This is reasonable since cron jobs are typically ongoing
1502 and may be adversely affected if the user's environment changes subsequent
1503 to the cron submission. Thus, a cron job should call a script that
1504 set's up the correct environment before starting the user's desired
1505 program. The 'at' command does this nicely.
1506 </para>
1507 </sect2>
1508 <sect2><title>Interactivity</title>
1509<para>
1510When a job is started with cron, it runs as a background process.
1511 No interaction with the program is possible (unless it is capable
1512 of interacting via a FIFO or some such) except termination via its
1513 pid. The only program that I know of that allows such interaction
1514 and serves as a wrapper for other processes is 'screen'
1515 </para>
1516 </sect2>
1517 <sect2><title>Screen</title>
1518<para>
1519There's one little problem with screen though. It expects to
1520 attach to a terminal when it first starts. This won't happen under
1521 cron so screen will fail. Fortunately, screen comes with a "start
1522 detached" (-d) option.
1523 </para>
1524 </sect2>
1525 </sect1>
1526 <sect1 id="backup-cron-solution">
1527         <title>The Solution</title>
1528<sect2><title>Briefly</title>
1529<para>
1530<itemizedlist>
1531<listitem>
1532        <para>Use 'at' to run your usual mondoarchive command</para>
1533</listitem>
1534<listitem>
1535        <para>Grab the script generated by 'at' and make a copy of it</para>
1536        </listitem>
1537<listitem>
1538        <para>Edit that script to use 'screen -m -d &lt;your mondoarchive command&gt;'</para>
1539        </listitem>
1540<listitem>
1541        <para>Run that script from your crontab</para>
1542        </listitem>
1543<listitem>
1544        <para>Use 'screen -r' to attach to the mondo screen to change CDs</para>
1545        </listitem>
1546<listitem>
1547        <para>Use '&lt;CTRL&gt;-a d' to detach the screen again</para>
1548</listitem>
1549</itemizedlist>
1550</para>
1551</sect2>
1552<sect2><title>In Detail</title>
1553        <sect3><title>at</title>
1554<para>
1555Use the 'at' command to submit your usual mondoarchive command.
1556My mondoarchive command is:
1557</para>
1558<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1559<row>
1560<entry>
1561
1562        # mondoarchive -D -Ow 10 -S /home/mondo/ -T /home/mondo/ -g \
1563        -E "/home/cdaly/GIS/W2K|/home/mondo" -9
1564
1565</entry>
1566</row>
1567</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1568<para>
1569        To submit the mondoarchive command with 'at' do:
1570</para>
1571<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1572<row>
1573<entry>
1574
1575    # at now + 5 min
1576mondoarchive -D -Ow 10 -S /home/mondo/ -T /home/mondo/ -g \
1577-E "/home/cdaly/GIS/W2K|/home/mondo" -9
1578&lt;CTRL&gt;-d
1579</entry>
1580</row>
1581</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1582<para>
1583
1584This generates a script in /var/spool/at/ which sets up your
1585 environment and runs your command. Grab this script to become your
1586 cron job.
1587 </para>
1588 </sect3>
1589 <sect3><title>Grab the 'at' script</title>
1590<para>
1591        Make a copy of the script generated by the 'at' command to use
1592        as the basis for your cron job.
1593        </para>
1594<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1595<row>
1596<entry>
1597
1598grep mondo /var/spool/at/*
1599</entry>
1600</row>
1601<row>
1602        <entry>
1603cp /var/spool/at/&lt;file-from-grep&gt; /root/mondo-cronscript
1604</entry>
1605</row>
1606</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1607<para>
1608
1609        You'll need to edit this.
1610</para>
1611 </sect3>
1612<sect3><title>Edit mondo-cronscript</title>
1613<para>
1614To use screen, you'll need to edit the cronscript and add the
1615 screen command. My mondo-cronscript looks like:
1616</para>
1617<screen>
1618
1619#!/bin/sh
1620# atrun uid=0 gid=0
1621# mail    cdaly 0 umask 22
1622PWD=/root; export PWD
1623XAUTHORITY=/root/.xauthyOrD4f; export XAUTHORITY
1624HOSTNAME=bofh.irmet.ie; export HOSTNAME
1625PVM_RSH=/usr/bin/rsh; export PVM_RSH
1626QTDIR=/usr/lib/qt-2.3.1; export QTDIR
1627LESSOPEN=\|/usr/bin/lesspipe.sh\ %s; export LESSOPEN
1628XPVM_ROOT=/usr/share/pvm3/xpvm; export XPVM_ROOT
1629KDEDIR=/usr; export KDEDIR
1630USER=root; export USER
1631LS_COLORS=no=00:fi=00:di=01\;34:ln=01\;36:pi=40\;33:so=01\;35:bd=40\;33\;01:cd=40\;33\;01:or=01\;05\;37\;41:mi=01\;05\;37\;41:ex=01\;32:\*.cmd=01\;32:\*.exe=01\;32:\*.com=01\;32:\*.btm=01\;32:\*.bat=01\;32:\*.sh=01\;32:\*.csh=01\;32:\*.tar=01\;31:\*.tgz=01\;31:\*.arj=01\;31:\*.taz=01\;31:\*.lzh=01\;31:\*.zip=01\;31:\*.z=01\;31:\*.Z=01\;31:\*.gz=01\;31:\*.bz2=01\;31:\*.bz=01\;31:\*.tz=01\;31:\*.rpm=01\;31:\*.cpio=01\;31:\*.jpg=01\;35:\*.gif=01\;35:\*.bmp=01\;35:\*.xbm=01\;35:\*.xpm=01\;35:\*.png=01\;35:\*.tif=01\;35:; export LS_COLORS
1632MACHTYPE=i386-redhat-linux-gnu; export MACHTYPE
1633MAIL=/var/spool/mail/root; export MAIL
1634INPUTRC=/etc/inputrc; export INPUTRC
1635BASH_ENV=/root/.bashrc; export BASH_ENV
1636LANG=en_US; export LANG
1637LOGNAME=root; export LOGNAME
1638SHLVL=1; export SHLVL
1639II_SYSTEM=/usr/local/ingres; export II_SYSTEM
1640USERNAME=root; export USERNAME
1641HOSTTYPE=i386; export HOSTTYPE
1642OSTYPE=linux-gnu; export OSTYPE
1643HISTSIZE=1000; export HISTSIZE
1644LAMHELPFILE=/etc/lam/lam-helpfile; export LAMHELPFILE
1645PVM_ROOT=/usr/share/pvm3; export PVM_ROOT
1646HOME=/root; export HOME
1647SSH_ASKPASS=/usr/libexec/openssh/gnome-ssh-askpass;
1648export SSH_ASKPASS
1649PATH=/usr/local/ingres/ingres/bin:/usr/local/ingres/ingres/utility:/usr/kerberos/sbin:/usr/kerberos/bin:/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/bin/X11:/usr/X11R6/bin:/root/bin; export PATH
1650cd /root || {
1651echo 'Execution directory inaccessible' >&2     
1652exit 1
1653}
1654screen -m -d mondoarchive -D -Ow 10 -S /home/mondo/ \
1655-T /home/mondo/ -g -E "/home/cdaly/GIS/W2K|/home/mondo" -9
1656#done
1657
1658</screen>
1659<para>
1660        The crucial line is this one:
1661</para>
1662<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1663<row>
1664<entry>
1665        screen -m -d mondoarchive -D -Ow 10 -S /home/mondo/ -T /home/mondo/ -g -E "/home/cdaly/GIS/W2K|/home/mondo" -9
1666</entry>
1667</row>
1668</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1669<para>
1670This uses 'screen -m -d' to <quote>-m -d Start screen in "detached" mode. This creates a new session
1671 but doesn't attach to it. This is useful for system startup scripts.
1672 (From 'man screen')
1673</quote>   
1674</para>
1675<para>
1676    When screen starts, it will be in the background and "detached".
1677</para>
1678</sect3>
1679<sect3><title>Run the thing with cron</title>
1680<para>
1681        To get the whole thing running, do:
1682</para>
1683<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1684<row>
1685<entry>
1686        crontab -e
1687        </entry>
1688</row>
1689</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1690<para>
1691and add the following lines:
1692</para>
1693<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1694<row>
1695<entry>
1696&num; run mondoarchive at 23:59 weekdays
1697</entry>
1698</row>
1699<row>
1700        <entry>
170159 23 * * 1-5 /root/mondo-cronscript
1702</entry>
1703</row>
1704</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1705<para>
1706        Your mondoarchive job will run at 23:59 monday-friday.
1707</para>
1708<para>
1709DON'T FORGET TO CHANGE TAPES!
1710</para>
1711</sect3>
1712<sect3><title>Getting at it...</title>
1713<para>
1714Once your cron job is running regularly, you'll want to get to
1715 it to change tapes and check status etc.
1716</para>
1717<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1718<row>
1719<entry>
1720screen -r
1721</entry>
1722</row>
1723</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1724<para>
1725attaches to the running screen where you can change CDs etc
1726</para>
1727<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1728<row>
1729<entry>
1730&lt;CTRL&gt;-a d
1731</entry>
1732</row>
1733</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1734<para>
1735detaches the running screen again.
1736</para>
1737</sect3>
1738<sect3><title>Caveat</title>
1739<para>
1740The script generated by 'at' is unique to the user/machine combination.
1741 You MUST regenerate it on each machine where it will be used. Using
1742 the one above will NOT work for you. MAKE YOUR OWN!
1743</para>
1744</sect3>
1745</sect2>
1746</sect1>
1747</chapter>
1748
1749<chapter id="compare">
1750<title>Compare</title>
1751<para>Before you trust your backup CD, make sure your BIOS can boot
1752CD (and that it is configured to do so).</para>
1753<itemizedlist>
1754<listitem>
1755<para>Boot from the first CD.</para>
1756</listitem>
1757<listitem>
1758<para>Type:</para>
1759</listitem>
1760</itemizedlist>
1761<para></para>
1762<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1763<row>
1764<entry>
1765
1766LILO: compare
1767
1768</entry>
1769</row>
1770</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1771
1772<para>Follow the on-screen instructions. This will compare your
1773backup against your original file system.</para>
1774<para>FYI, no bad archives have been created since May 2000. Having
1775said that, I would still encourage you to run Compare before
1776trusting the backups.</para>
1777<para>To view the file differences, look at the file
1778'/tmp/changed.txt'. Normal differences include logs and other
1779dynamic system files that changed during the time of the backup
1780process. If only a few files differ - e.g. files in /var, files
1781ending in '&amp;#732;', logs, temporary files, /etc/mtab,
1782/etc/adjtimex - then you know the archives are good. Your logs will
1783change over time, too. Bear in mind that a difference between the
1784backup and the live copy does not&nbsp;indicate a flaw in Mondo. It
1785indicates that you or your filesystem changed the files, so the
1786backup is no longer 100% up to date. However, that is inevitable,
1787as your filesystem changes from moment to moment (which is why you
1788back it up regularly).</para>
1789
1790</chapter>
1791
1792<chapter id="restore">
1793<title>Restore</title>
1794
1795<sect1 id="restore-overview">
1796<title>Overview</title>
1797
1798<para>I hope you don't have to restore from scratch very often.
1799It's nerve-wracking until you realize that Mondo's restore engine
1800is very reliable.
1801</para>
1802<para>If you find that you cannot make your PC boot from the CD,
1803take heart: the first backup media of each set contains disk
1804images to give you the same functionality as this media (minus the
1805archives, of course) on other boot media. Remember, your Mondo CD is a
1806fully functional CD-based mini-distribution as well as a recovery
1807CD.</para>
1808<para>You can choose from the following modes:</para>
1809
1810<variablelist>
1811<varlistentry><term>Interactive</term>
1812<listitem><para>Restore step-by-step, or restore a subset of the
1813archives. This is the method you should mainly use for your
1814recovery needs.</para>
1815</listitem></varlistentry>
1816<varlistentry><term>Nuke</term>
1817<listitem><para>Wipe your drives and restore everything,
1818automatically and unattended. Warning: This does exactly what is
1819says, so be careful using it.</para>
1820</listitem></varlistentry>
1821<varlistentry><term>Expert</term>
1822<listitem><para>Boot to a shell prompt. If you want to do anything
1823creative, you should boot into Expert Mode. It's called expert, I
1824think that says it all.</para>
1825</listitem>
1826</varlistentry>
1827</variablelist>
1828
1829<para>If the CD is not found during the initial restore CD boot
1830attempt, reboot the PC a second time prior to reporting failure.
1831Occasional timing errors and hardware/software/system conflicts do
1832occur.</para>
1833</sect1>
1834
1835<sect1 id="restore-tips">
1836<title>Tips and Tricks</title>
1837
1838<para>Ideally, restore your system to a spare hard drive to test
1839the integrity and reliability of your disks. To do that, either
1840edit your mountlist to make the devices point to your spare hard
1841drive, or swap your hard drive cables between boots.</para>
1842<para>At a bare minimum, compare your CD against your file system
1843before you decide whether to trust them.</para>
1844<para>To test Mondo's ability to handle your LILO or GRUB boot
1845loader and accompanying configuration file:</para>
1846<itemizedlist>
1847<listitem>
1848<para>Boot from the backup CD into Expert Mode</para>
1849</listitem>
1850<listitem>
1851<para>Type:</para>
1852</listitem>
1853</itemizedlist>
1854<para></para>
1855<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1856<row>
1857<entry>
1858
1859bash# mondorestore -Z mbr
1860
1861</entry>
1862</row>
1863</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1864
1865<itemizedlist>
1866<listitem>
1867<para>To fix any mess it made (not that it should) type:</para>
1868</listitem>
1869</itemizedlist>
1870<para></para>
1871<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1872<row>
1873<entry>
1874        bash# mount-me
1875</entry>
1876</row>
1877<row>
1878<entry>
1879        bash# chroot /mnt/RESTORING
1880        </entry>
1881</row>
1882<row>
1883<entry>
1884        </entry>
1885</row>
1886<row>
1887<entry>
1888bash# lilo OR grub-install '(hd0)'
1889        </entry>
1890</row>
1891<row>
1892<entry>
1893bash# exit
1894</entry>
1895</row>
1896<row>
1897<entry>
1898        bash# unmount-me
1899
1900</entry>
1901</row>
1902</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1903
1904<itemizedlist>
1905<listitem>
1906<para>If it did not work then please copy /tmp/mondorestore.log to
1907to your hard disk, USB key, ..., gzip it and e-mail it to the
1908&ML;.</para>
1909</listitem>
1910</itemizedlist>
1911
1912<sect2>
1913    <title>Barebones (Nuke) Restore</title>
1914<para>Imagine that your hard drives happen to be wiped,
1915deliberately or accidentally. Or, imagine that you want to clone
1916your existing operating system. In either case, you want to run in
1917Nuke Mode.</para>
1918<para>If you want to wipe everything and restore your whole system
1919from CD, please:</para>
1920<itemizedlist>
1921<listitem>
1922<para>Use the -H option when invoking mondoarchive</para>
1923</listitem>
1924<listitem>
1925<para>Boot from the first Mondo CD</para>
1926</listitem>
1927<listitem>
1928<para>Press RESTORE&lt;enter&gt;</para>
1929</listitem>
1930<listitem>
1931<para>Insert the subsequent CD when asked</para>
1932</listitem>
1933<listitem>
1934<para>Watch the screen for errors</para>
1935</listitem>
1936</itemizedlist>
1937<para>That's it. The restoration process for tape or NFS users is
1938similarly easy: just boot, answer the on-screen prompts, and
1939wait.</para>
1940<para>Now, should something go wrong, you will be able to examine
1941/tmp/mondorestore.log to see what happened. All is not lost. You
1942can fdisk and format the partitions yourself, using the tools that
1943come with the CD. You can then run mondorestore in Interactive Mode
1944and say 'no' when asked if you want Mondo to partition/format your
1945drives.</para>
1946<para>If you want to see exactly what Mondo is doing while it is
1947restoring, press &lt;Alt&gt;&lt;left cursor&gt; to view its
1948logfile, in a virtual console, scrolling past.</para>
1949</sect2>
1950<sect2>
1951<title>Interactive Restore</title>
1952<para>Interactive Mode is for people who have lost a subset of data
1953from their live file system, or perhaps who have lost some data
1954from their latest backup and want to restore a subset of data from
1955an earlier backup. If you want to restore only some files or if you
1956do not want to prep/format your drives, then you should boot into
1957Interactive Mode. The interactive mode will provide an 'Editing
1958mountlist screen' that allows you to setup a different disk
1959geometry.</para>
1960<para>To move up and down between partitions in the 'Editing
1961mountlist screen', use the Up and Down arrows. To move between the
1962main window and the buttons at the bottom, use the Left and Right
1963cursor keys. TAB shifts focus from one screen item to the other in
1964a haphazard fashion, owing to the complexities of the Newt
1965library.</para>
1966<para>If you want to restore selectively, just press &lt;enter&gt;
1967and follow the on-screen instructions. You will be asked to say
1968yes/no to a range of questions.</para>
1969<para>If you are planning to modify your partition table, you would
1970do well to read up on the partition layout and the use of fdisk, it
1971gives you some pointers on how to best lay out partitions.
1972You can find a good guide at the
1973<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Partition/index.html">Partition HOWTO</ulink>
1974</para>
1975<para>If you want to restore a subset of the backup then:</para>
1976<itemizedlist>
1977<listitem>
1978<para>Boot from the CD</para>
1979</listitem>
1980<listitem>
1981<para>Type:</para>
1982</listitem>
1983</itemizedlist>
1984<para></para>
1985<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1986<row>
1987<entry>
1988
1989bash# interactive
1990
1991</entry>
1992</row>
1993</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1994
1995<itemizedlist>
1996<listitem>
1997<para>Then, after booting, answer the questions as follows:</para>
1998</listitem>
1999</itemizedlist>
2000<para></para>
2001<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2002<row>
2003<entry>
2004
2005        Do you want to partition your devices? no
2006        </entry>
2007</row>
2008<row>
2009<entry>
2010Do you want to format them? no
2011        </entry>
2012</row>
2013<row>
2014<entry>
2015Do you want to restore everything? no
2016        </entry>
2017</row>
2018<row>
2019<entry>
2020Do you want to restore something? yes
2021        </entry>
2022</row>
2023<row>
2024<entry>
2025Which path do you want to restore? /mydata [e.g.]
2026        </entry>
2027</row>
2028<row>
2029<entry>
2030Do you want to run LILO to setup your boot sectors? Yes
2031
2032</entry>
2033</row>
2034</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2035
2036</sect2>
2037
2038<sect2>
2039<title>Expert Restore</title>
2040<para>If you are planning to modify your partition table, you would
2041do well to read up on the partition layout and the use of fdisk, it
2042gives you some could pointers on how to best lay out partitions.
2043You can find good a guide at the
2044<ulink url="http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/mini/Partition/index.html">Partition HOWTO</ulink></para>
2045<para>To restore manually, please:</para>
2046<itemizedlist>
2047<listitem>
2048<para>Boot from the first CD, then type:</para>
2049</listitem>
2050</itemizedlist>
2051<para></para>
2052<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2053<row>
2054<entry>
2055
2056bash# expert
2057
2058</entry>
2059
2060</row>
2061</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2062
2063<itemizedlist>
2064<listitem>
2065<para>Then do whatever you like. :) You may type the following, of
2066course:</para>
2067</listitem>
2068</itemizedlist>
2069<para></para>
2070<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2071<row>
2072<entry>
2073
2074bash# mondorestore
2075
2076</entry>
2077</row>
2078</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2079</sect2>
2080       
2081<sect2>
2082<title>Modified partitions - Restore to a different disk geometry</title>
2083<para>One of the nice things about Mondo is that it lets you wipe
2084your existing system and restore it in any layout you like (within
2085reason). You can move from non-RAID to RAID,install and utilize
2086additional drives, move from ext2 to ReiserFS, etc., all without
2087risking the loss of data.</para>
2088<para>If the user excluded a particular partition from backup and
2089specifically excluded it from the mountlist itself using -E then
2090Mondo will insert a small (32MB) partition at restore-time, in
2091order to avoid having to re-jig fstab, the partition table,
2092etc.</para>
2093<para>To do this:</para>
2094<itemizedlist>
2095<listitem>
2096<para>Boot into Expert Mode, then type:</para>
2097</listitem>
2098</itemizedlist>
2099<para></para>
2100<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2101<row>
2102<entry>
2103
2104bash# mondorestore
2105
2106</entry>
2107</row>
2108</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2109
2110<itemizedlist>
2111<listitem>
2112<para>(edit the mountlist using the on-screen editor)</para>
2113</listitem>
2114</itemizedlist>
2115<para>If you want to move from ext2 to ReiserFS, you can do it here
2116(so long as your kernel supports ReiserFS). Ditto for XFS, JFS or
2117ext3, ext4.</para>
2118<para>Mondorestore will try to modify your /etc/fstab to reflect
2119changes you have made to the mountlist. If you are not using LILO,
2120you can still create your own /mnt/RESTORING/etc/lilo.conf and run
2121lilo -r /mnt/RESTORING to configure your boot sectors and Master
2122Boot Record.</para>
2123<para>Mondo (technically, Mindi on behalf of Mondo) creates a file
2124called a mountlist. This can be found on the ramdisk at
2125/var/cache/mindi/mountlist.txt; it looks something like this:</para>
2126<para></para>
2127<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2128<row>
2129<entry>
2130
2131        /dev/hda1   /mnt/windows    vfat        4096000
2132</entry>
2133</row>
2134<row>
2135<entry>
2136        /dev/hda5   /               reiserfs    6023000
2137</entry>
2138</row>
2139<row>
2140<entry>
2141        /dev/hda6   /tmp            xfs         955000
2142</entry>
2143</row>
2144<row>
2145<entry>
2146        /dev/hda7   /usr            ext3        4096000
2147
2148</entry>
2149</row>
2150</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2151
2152<para>It is fairly easy to understand the list. Each line refers to
2153a single device/partition. The line format is:</para>
2154<para></para>
2155<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2156<row>
2157<entry>
2158
2159&lt;device&gt; &lt;partition&gt; &lt;format&gt; &lt;Kilobytes&gt;
2160
2161</entry>
2162</row>
2163</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2164
2165<para>If you have added a hard drive and want to take advantage of
2166the additional space, you could amend the above mountlist to
2167read:</para>
2168<para></para>
2169<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2170<row>
2171<entry>
2172
2173        /dev/hda1   /mnt/windows    vfat        6096000
2174</entry>
2175</row>
2176<row>
2177<entry>
2178        /dev/hda5   /               reiserfs    9123000
2179</entry>
2180</row>
2181<row>
2182<entry>
2183        /dev/hda6   /tmp            xfs         955000
2184</entry>
2185</row>
2186<row>
2187<entry>
2188        /dev/hdb1   /usr            ext3        8192000
2189</entry>
2190</row>
2191<row>
2192<entry>
2193        /dev/hdb2   /home           xfs         8192000
2194
2195</entry>
2196</row>
2197</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2198
2199<para>This assumes that your old hard drive is /dev/hda and the new
2200hard drive is /dev/hdb.</para>
2201<para>Or, if you want to add RAID support, create a new
2202/etc/raidtab on the ramdisk (which is beyond the scope of this
2203HOWTO) and then write a mountlist like this:</para>
2204<para></para>
2205<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2206<row>
2207<entry>
2208
2209        /dev/hda1   /mnt/windows    vfat        6096000
2210</entry>
2211</row>
2212<row>
2213<entry>
2214        /dev/md0    /               reiserfs    9123000
2215</entry>
2216</row>
2217<row>
2218<entry>
2219        /dev/md1    /tmp            xfs         955000
2220</entry>
2221</row>
2222<row>
2223<entry>
2224        /dev/md2    /usr            ext3        8192000
2225</entry>
2226</row>
2227<row>
2228<entry>
2229        /dev/md3    /home           xfs         8192000
2230
2231</entry>
2232</row>
2233</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2234
2235<para>So long as your /etc/raidtab file is sane, Mondo can
2236automatically partition and format your disks for you, including
2237the RAID devices.</para>
2238<para>Once you have finished editing /var/cache/mindi/mountlist.txt using
2239mondorestore's built-in editor then you may choose 'OK'. Please
2240note that this will not write anything to your hard disk. You will
2241only reformat or repartition your disks if you say 'Yes' when asked
2242if you want to do those things.</para>
2243</sect2>
2244
2245<sect2>
2246<title>Advanced</title>
2247<para>It is now possible to restore to a live filesystem using
2248Mondo. In other words, you do not have to boot your PC from your
2249media in order to restore files. Mondo was originally designed
2250for disaster recovery - situations in which you cannot boot your
2251PC. If you can boot your PC, it is not really a disaster, is it? :)
2252Well, if you have wiped out your priceless collection of "MTV's
2253Bjork Unplugged" MP3's, perhaps it is. Anyway, just type this as
2254root</para>
2255<para></para>
2256<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2257<row>
2258<entry>
2259
2260bash# mondorestore
2261
2262</entry>
2263</row>
2264</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2265
2266<para></para>
2267<informaltable><tgroup cols="2"><tbody>
2268<row>
2269<entry>
2270<ulink url="images/rest1.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
2271<imagedata fileref="images/rest1-mini">
2272</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
2273</ulink>
2274</entry>
2275<entry>
2276Choose your type of backup media. The live restoration process is
2277very similar to what you'll experience if you type mondorestore
2278with no parameters after booting from a Mondo media.
2279</entry>
2280</row>
2281<row>
2282<entry>
2283<ulink url="images/rest2.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
2284<imagedata fileref="images/rest2-mini">
2285</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
2286</ulink>
2287</entry>
2288<entry>
2289Hit 'OK' when you have inserted the tape/CD. If you generated a
2290tape backup, the tape itself should be enough. If you generated a
2291CD backup, the first CD should be enough. Otherwise, you may need
2292the boot media.
2293</entry>
2294</row>
2295<row>
2296<entry>
2297<ulink url="images/rest3.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
2298<imagedata fileref="images/rest3-mini">
2299</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
2300</ulink>
2301</entry>
2302<entry>
2303Flag the files and directories you wish to restore. Use the 'More'
2304and 'Less' buttons to open and close subdirectories.
2305</entry>
2306</row>
2307<row>
2308<entry>
2309<ulink url="images/rest4.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
2310<imagedata fileref="images/rest4-mini">
2311</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
2312</ulink>
2313</entry>
2314<entry>
2315Specify the location to restore the files to. In general, '/' is
2316appropriate. If you do not want to overwrite newer versions of the
2317files you are restoring then specify /tmp/BKP or similar as the
2318restore path.
2319</entry>
2320</row>
2321<row>
2322<entry>
2323<ulink url="images/rest5.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
2324<imagedata fileref="images/rest5-mini">
2325</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
2326</ulink>
2327</entry>
2328<entry>
2329Mondorestore will retrieve configuration information from the
2330media. (The sample screen is for tape users. CD users will see
2331something different.)
2332</entry>
2333</row>
2334<row>
2335<entry>
2336<ulink url="images/rest6.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
2337<imagedata fileref="images/rest6-mini">
2338</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
2339</ulink>
2340</entry>
2341<entry>
2342Data will be restored to the hard disk - first the regular files,
2343then any big (32MB or greater) files in the restore set.
2344</entry>
2345</row>
2346</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2347
2348<para>I hope this manual was useful for you.</para>
2349</sect2>
2350</sect1>
2351
2352</chapter>
2353
2354<chapter id="faq">
2355<title>FAQ</title>
2356
2357<sect1 id="faq-overview">
2358<title>Overview</title>
2359<para>Are the errors from Mindi or Mondo? Look at
2360        /var/log/mondoarchive.log or /var/log/mindi.log (if run alone). Pipe
2361screen errors which relate to the creation of boot disk(s) and or
2362data disk(s) to a text file.</para>
2363<para>See the &WWW; for details. If you are going to e-mail
2364&ML; then
2365please attach that text file (zipped!) and give :</para>
2366<itemizedlist>
2367<listitem>
2368<para>Your kernel version (uname -a)</para>
2369</listitem>
2370<listitem>
2371        <para>Your Linux distro's name and version (/etc/distro-release)</para>
2372</listitem>
2373<listitem>
2374        <para>Whether your kernel supports initrd and loopfs; it should! (grep -E '^CONFIG_BLK_DEV_LOOP|^CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INITRD' /usr/src/linux/.config </para>
2375</listitem>
2376<listitem>
2377<para>What sort of PC you are using, including hard disk configurations (results of dmidecode, lshw, fdisk -l are useful here)</para>
2378</listitem>
2379</itemizedlist>
2380<para>Mondo is freely available under the GPL and you are given it for no charge.
2381When you e-mail the &ML;, please bear that in mind.</para>
2382</sect1>
2383<sect1 id="faq-general">
2384<title>General Questions</title>
2385
2386<qandaset>
2387<qandaentry>
2388        <question><para>Q: What is "Mindi"?</para></question>
2389        <answer>
2390<para>A: Mindi, a.k.a. Mindi-Linux, makes a mini-distribution from
2391your kernel, modules, modules, tools and libraries. It can also
2392generate an El Torito 2.88/5.76MB boot disk image. Mondo uses Mindi to
2393create a mini-distro, then boots from it and runs on it.</para>
2394</answer>
2395</qandaentry>
2396<qandaentry>
2397        <question><para>Q: Why is it called "Mondo"?</para></question>
2398        <answer>
2399<para>A: The Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles described cool things as
2400'mondo'. Hugo Rabson wasn't sure what to call this project. 'Faust' was one
2401idea he had, partly as a dig at his former boss who practically owned
2402him because of his legal status at the time. In the end, he chose
2403something short and distinctive.</para>
2404</answer>
2405</qandaentry>
2406<qandaentry>
2407<question><para>Q: Mondo does not work on my system. It
2408                keels over and dies. What's wrong?</para></question>
2409<answer>
2410        <para>A: It works on Red Hat 7.x/8/9, RHEL 2.1/3/4, Mandrakelinux 8.x/9.x/10.x/200x, Fedora 4/5/6, Debian 3.x, most flavors
2411                of SuSE/SLES, some flavors of Slackware, etc.
2412The more distributions we support, the more moving targets we have to
2413hit. Please bear this in mind when e-mailing the list. :) If you
2414would like to help us by beta-testing Mondo (or Mindi) on your PC
2415then we would be very interested in working with you to work around
2416the eccentricities of your Linux distro. However, rest assured, 90%
2417of the bugs reported are actually symptoms of FooLinux X.Y's
2418unique way of doing things.</para>
2419<para>Please send a copy of <filename>/var/log/mondoarchive.log</filename> to the &ML;
2420along with a description of your distro, your kernel, etc.
2421Oh, and before sending it, please try to read it.</para>
2422</answer>
2423</qandaentry>
2424<qandaentry>
2425        <question><para>Q: What if the error is in Mindi?</para></question>
2426        <answer>
2427                <para>A: Please send a copy of <filename>/var/log/mindi.log</filename> to the &ML;
2428along with a description of your distro, your kernel, etc.
2429Oh, and before sending it, please read it as it is much easier to understand it.</para>
2430</answer>
2431</qandaentry>
2432<qandaentry>
2433        <question><para>Q: Can I trust Mondo?</para></question>
2434        <answer>
2435<para>A: Mondo has generated reliable archives since May 2000.
2436Lost data occured by using bad CD-R disks and not verifying their
2437contents. Some users have not tried booting from their CD until
2438crunch time. Remember to boot into Compare Mode to verify the
2439backup before you trust it. If Mondo did not work, you would not be
2440reading this. If it does not work for you, your kernel is usually
2441the culprit. Check <link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux Kernel
2442support</link> to see what your kernel should support. Please
2443e-mail the list if you need some help with this.</para>
2444</answer>
2445</qandaentry>
2446<qandaentry>
2447        <question><para>Q: How do I report a bug?</para></question>
2448        <answer>
2449                <para>A: E-mail the bug report (mondo.err.xxxxx.tgz) to the &ML;.
2450                        Ok you've read it already but it's really important if you want help.
2451If you don't send a logfile then there isn't a lot that we can do for you, so
2452PLEASE include a logfile at the very least.</para>
2453</answer>
2454</qandaentry>
2455<qandaentry>
2456<question><para>Q: I think Mondo should (...insert
2457suggestion here...) and I have rewritten it accordingly. Would you
2458like to see my patch?</para></question>
2459<answer>
2460<para>A: Absolutely! :-) The best way for you to make Mondo do what
2461you want is to modify it and then send the patch. That way, we
2462can all benefit.</para>
2463</answer>
2464</qandaentry>
2465<qandaentry>
2466<question><para>Q: I think Mondo should (...insert
2467suggestion here...); will you incorporate this feature for me,
2468please?</para></question>
2469<answer>
2470<para>A: Please enter the suggestion in our feature system at &WWW;
2471</para>
2472</answer>
2473</qandaentry>
2474<qandaentry>
2475<question><para>Q: Mondo says, "XXX is missing," and
2476                then terminates. What's wrong?</para></question>
2477<answer>
2478<para>A: A good Linux distribution should contain XXX but the
2479designers, in their infinite wisdom, decided not to include that
2480particular tool. Check <ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org/downloads.shtml#dependencies">Related
2481        Linux Packages</ulink> and install the missing package. If that
2482fails, contact the vendor/distributor/manufacturer/designer of your
2483distro.</para>
2484</answer>
2485</qandaentry>
2486<qandaentry>
2487<question><para>Q: Can Mondo handle multi-CD backups and
2488                restores?</para></question>
2489<answer>
2490<para>A: Yes, up to twenty CD per set. This 20-CD limit results
2491from laziness on mondorescue's part. I'll be removed in the future. However, if
2492your system occupies more than 20 CD, may it's time for another type of media ?
2493</para>
2494</answer>
2495</qandaentry>
2496<qandaentry>
2497<question><para>Q: Can Mondo handle Linux/Windows
2498                dual-boot systems?</para></question>
2499<answer>
2500<para>A: Yes. If your system currently boots into Linux or Windows
2501via LILO, you can backup and restore both OSes at the same time
2502using Mondo. If you are using NTFS then add the switch, '-x
2503&lt;device&gt;'.</para>
2504</answer>
2505</qandaentry>
2506<qandaentry>
2507<question><para>Q: Can Mondo backup Windows-only
2508                systems?</para></question>
2509<answer>
2510<para>A: Not at the moment.
2511</para>
2512</answer>
2513</qandaentry>
2514<qandaentry>
2515        <question><para>Q: Does Mondo support LVM?</para></question>
2516        <answer>
2517<para>A: Mondo supports LVM v1 and v2. Mondo backs up and restores your
2518existing setup but it does not make it easy for you to change your
2519LVM configuration, at the moment. You have to edit <filename>/var/cache/mindi/i-want-my-lvm</filename> at boot-time
2520to do that.</para>
2521</answer>
2522</qandaentry>
2523<qandaentry>
2524<question><para>Q: What if I don't use LILO? What if I
2525                use GRUB?</para></question>
2526<answer>
2527<para>A: GRUB is supported by Mondo.</para>
2528</answer>
2529</qandaentry>
2530<qandaentry>
2531<question><para>Q: I get the error, 'Cannot find
2532                /tmp/dev.0' or 'Cannot mount device 0x0701'; what do I do?</para></question>
2533<answer>
2534        <para>A: Please free up <filename>/dev/loop0</filename> using 'losetup /dev/loop0 -d' to
2535unmount that loop device. If your OS will not let you do that,
2536contact your local support group or Linux vendor.</para>
2537</answer>
2538</qandaentry>
2539<qandaentry>
2540<question><para>Q: Can I create a Mondo CD and then use
2541                it to create an archive of any OS on any PC?</para></question>
2542<answer>
2543<para>A: Not yet. You can use Mondo to backup Linux or
2544Linux/Windows dual boot. One day, Mondo will let you backup
2545partitions it can't read or write, by treating each partition as
2546one long file to be backed up. This file will be chopped,
2547compressed and archived like any other big file.</para>
2548</answer>
2549</qandaentry>
2550<qandaentry>
2551<question><para>Q: Why do you insist on putting media
2552disk images on Mondo CD? They waste space and I never use them. The
2553CD works just fine, so why keep the media disk images?</para>
2554</question>
2555<answer>
2556<para>A: Because. It helped us in the past. If you
2557really, truly want them gone then please submit a patch to make
2558them optional.</para>
2559</answer>
2560</qandaentry>
2561<qandaentry>
2562<question><para>Q: Why doesn't the Mondo project have a
2563cool-looking animal logo?</para></question>
2564<answer>
2565<para>A: Excellent question! Please submit graphics of candidate
2566        animal logos!</para>
2567        </answer>
2568</qandaentry>
2569<qandaentry>
2570<question><para>Q: Is there a Mondo user 'Code of
2571                Conduct?</para></question>
2572<answer>
2573<para>A: Yes. Read the HOWTO. Submit patches. Recommend realistic
2574improvements. Be courteous to other users on the discussion list.
2575Do not whine.</para>
2576</answer>
2577</qandaentry>
2578</qandaset>
2579</sect1>
2580
2581<sect1 id="faq-booting">
2582<title>Booting and Kernel related Questions</title>
2583<qandaset>
2584<qandaentry>
2585<question><para>Q: When I try to boot from the Mondo CD,
2586                it says, "UPGRADE YOUR RAM". What does that mean?</para></question>
2587<answer>
2588<para>A: Recompile your kernel and add Virtual memory file system
2589support. Take a look at <link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux
2590Kernel support</link> to see what your kernel must support. (Of
2591course, if your PC has less than 64MB of RAM, you could always...
2592what's the phrase? I know, upgrade your RAM!)</para>
2593</answer>
2594</qandaentry>
2595<qandaentry>
2596<question><para>Q: When I try to boot from the Mondo CD,
2597it says something about not finding my CD-ROM drive and then it
2598blames the kernel. What does that mean?</para></question>
2599<answer>
2600        <para>A: Your kernel must support initrd, loopfs, IDE|SCSI|USB CD-ROM's, and
2601ramdisks. Take a look at <link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux
2602Kernel support</link> to see what your kernel must support. If
2603your kernel does not support these things, Mondo will not boot from
2604your CD. However, when running Mindi, you may choose to use _its_
2605kernel instead of your own.
2606</para>
2607</answer>
2608</qandaentry>
2609<qandaentry>
2610<question><para>Q: The LILO Mondo media takes ages to
2611                boot. How can I speed it up?</para></question>
2612<answer>
2613<para>A: Edit mindi (it's a shell script, btw) and change
2614LILO_OPTIONS="" to LILO_OPTIONS="-c". This enables map compaction
2615in lilo and speeds up booting, for more info see the lilo man
2616page.</para>
2617</answer>
2618</qandaentry>
2619<qandaentry>
2620<question><para>Q: Why won't Mondo boot from my CD?
2621It says my kernel is flawed/outdated/ whatever, and when I wrote to
2622the ML, they told me the same thing... but I still don't get it. I
2623mean, my kernel works for everything else. Why not Mondo?</para></question>
2624<answer>
2625<para>A: Because Mondo makes a boot disk using your kernel. I bet
2626your other software doesn't do that. Also, not all kernels are
2627suitable for boot disks. I'm sorry but that's Life. Upgrade your
2628kernel and/or recompile it. Take a look at
2629<link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux Kernel support</link> to see
2630what your kernel must support.</para>
2631</answer>
2632</qandaentry>
2633<qandaentry>
2634<question><para>Q: Why do I only need a boot disk if I'm
2635                using a tape drive? Where are the data disks?</para></question>
2636<answer>
2637<para>A: On the tape. :-) The first 32MB of the tape will be set
2638aside for a large tarball containing the data disks, a list of all
2639files backed up, and other sundries. If Mondo and Mindi do their
2640respective jobs then you won't need additional media, just the
2641boot media and the tape(s).</para>
2642<para>As of 2.2.6 mondorescue does support OBDR for tapes.
2643        So if you have a tape supporting that protocol such as HP tape readers, you may directly boot from the tape as well.</para>
2644</answer>
2645</qandaentry>
2646<qandaentry>
2647<question><para>Q: Why does it say, "Process accounting
2648                FAILED" when I reboot?</para></question>
2649<answer>
2650<para>A: You were using Process Accounting. Red Hat (or whichever
2651distro you are using) does not provide a startup/shutdown script
2652yet. So, when you try to backup the process log, it just grows and
2653grows as Mondo tries to back it up. Mondo doesn't back it up
2654anymore and that's why. The unfortunate side-effect is... well,
2655what you see on your screen. Type 'touch /var/log/pacct' and then
2656'paccton' to fix the error message.</para>
2657</answer>
2658</qandaentry>
2659<qandaentry>
2660<question><para>Q: Why does it say,
2661&amp;#8220;request_module[block-major-1]: Root fs not mounted VFS:
2662Cannot open root device "100" or 01:00 Please append a correct
2663"root=" boot option kernel panic: VFS: Unable to mount root fs on
266401:00&amp;#8221; when i boot from the CD?</para></question>
2665<answer>
2666<para>A: Recompile your kernel and add initrd support. Take a look
2667at <link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux Kernel support</link> to
2668see what your kernel must support.</para>
2669</answer>
2670</qandaentry>
2671
2672<qandaentry>
2673<question><para id="TAPENICE">Q: My tape drive
2674doesn't play nicely with Mondo at boot-time. What do I do?</para></question>
2675<answer><para>A: Play with the 'mt' command (package mt-st). Use its setblksize and
2676defblksize switches to reconfigure your tape drive if necessary.
2677Some tape drives just are painful. If yours is one of
2678them then God help you. Mondo can handle any tape drive whose drive
2679and firmware can handle fopen(), fwrite(), fread() and fclose().
2680Mondo uses standard C libraries to talk to your tape streamer. If
2681your tape streamer can't handle that then you had better call a
2682priest. Either that or ask for a refund.
2683</para>
2684</answer>
2685</qandaentry>
2686</qandaset>
2687</sect1>
2688
2689<sect1 id="faq-install">
2690<title>Installation related Questions</title>
2691<qandaset>
2692<qandaentry>
2693<question><para>Q: Why do I get, "newt.h not found," or
2694"popt.h not found," several times when I try to install
2695Mondo?</para></question>
2696<answer>
2697<para>A: You have not installed libnewt and/or libnewt-devel.
2698Please do so. Check <ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org/downloads.shtml#dependencies">Related Linux
2699Packages</ulink> to see what Mondo requires and where you can get
2700tarballs and RPM's. Make sure you are using the right version of
2701newt/libnewt. Read the error messages carefully.</para>
2702</answer>
2703</qandaentry>
2704<qandaentry>
2705<question><para>Q: Newt won't compile when I try. What's
2706                the problem?</para></question>
2707<answer>
2708<para>A: You are probably missing popt.h, which newt needs to
2709compile, it can be found in the 'popt' package. Check your
2710distribution and see if they have popt, if not check
2711<ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org/downloads.shtml#dependencies">Related Linux Packages</ulink> to
2712see where you can get it.</para>
2713</answer>
2714</qandaentry>
2715<qandaentry>
2716<question><para>Q: I've just used up 6 CD-R, only to
2717                find that Mondo won't boot!</para></question>
2718<answer>
2719<para>A: You should have used CD-RW. ;) In the HOWTO, it gives
2720instructions on how to create a test CD (one, not six).</para>
2721</answer>
2722</qandaentry>
2723<qandaentry>
2724<question>
2725<para id="PACKREQ">Q: Lots of packages,
2726required by Mondo, are missing from my system. What do I do?</para>
2727</question>
2728<answer>
2729<para>
2730A: Install them. :) If you are using RPM or deb
2731then you'll be told which packages you need. Mondo offers a lot of
2732those packages on its
2733<ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org/downloads.shtml">Download</ulink>
2734web page.</para>
2735</answer>
2736</qandaentry>
2737</qandaset>
2738</sect1>
2739
2740<sect1 id="faq-hardware">
2741<title>Hardware related Questions</title>
2742<qandaset>
2743<qandaentry>
2744        <question><para>Q: Can Mondo handle CD-RW?</para></question>
2745        <answer>
2746<para>A: Yes. Use '-Ow &lt;speed&gt; &lt;device&gt;' to make it
2747work.</para>
2748</answer>
2749</qandaentry>
2750<qandaentry>
2751<question><para>Q: Does Mondo support tape
2752                drives?</para></question>
2753<answer>
2754        <para>A: Yes. See above.</para>
2755        <para>Of course, mondo will relay on the kernel to support your tape drive. So you should first check that your kernel found it correctly. Use for example one of the following commands:</para>
2756<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2757<row>
2758<entry>
2759        bash# dmesg | grep tape
2760</entry>
2761</row>
2762<row>
2763<entry>
2764        bash# cat /proc/scsi/scsi
2765</entry>
2766</row>
2767<row>
2768<entry>
2769        bash# mt -f /dev/st0 status
2770</entry>
2771</row>
2772</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2773
2774
2775</answer>
2776</qandaentry>
2777<qandaentry>
2778<question><para>Q: Does Mondo support my tape
2779                drive?</para></question>
2780<answer>
2781<para>A: If your tape drive and its firmware and the kernel-level
2782driver support fopen(), fread(), fwrite() and fclose() - standard C
2783library calls - then yes, Mondo should support it. If not, well,
2784you need a refund. :) Mondo plays nicely with any sane, sensible
2785drives. That's most of them, by the way. :) If your drive doesn't
2786play nicely with Mondo then you may try tinkering with setblksize
2787and defblksize using 'mt', or tweaking Mondo's block size by
2788recompiling it with make INTTAPE=4096 or INTTAPE=8192 or something.
2789Other than that, you need a priest or a refund.
2790Also, depending on the tape streamer model, a tape should be inserted
2791in the tape drive before starting mondoarchive, otherwise it may not
2792recognize the drive.</para>
2793</answer>
2794</qandaentry>
2795<qandaentry>
2796<question><para>Q: Sometimes, my laptop won't mount
2797                Mondo CD properly, or something. Umm...</para></question>
2798<answer>
2799<para>A: Please insert the CD, close the CD-ROM tray, wait a few
2800seconds and then press Enter to acknowledge insertion of the next
2801CD. Your laptop is on crack and is sucking a little too hard on the
2802pipe.</para>
2803</answer>
2804</qandaentry>
2805<qandaentry>
2806        <question><para>Q: Does Mondo support Hardware RAID?</para></question>
2807        <answer>
2808<para>A: Yes. You may backup and restore RAID systems. You may also
2809backup a non-RAID system and restore as RAID (or vice versa) by
2810using the mountlist editor to edit your RAID and non-RAID
2811partitions and their settings. Mondo will do the partitioning and
2812formatting for you.</para>
2813<para>Tested Raid controllers includes all those showing only classical devices
2814        such as /dev/sdx, and SmartArray cciss controllers.</para>
2815</answer>
2816</qandaentry>
2817<qandaentry>
2818<question><para>Q: Where is my CD burner, in SCSI terms?</para></question>
2819<answer>
2820<para>A: Type:</para>
2821<para></para>
2822<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2823<row>
2824    <entry>
2825        bash# cdrecord -scanbus
2826    </entry>
2827</row>
2828<row>
2829    <entry>
2830        bash# wodim --devices
2831    </entry>
2832</row>
2833</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2834<para>or for ATAPI type of devices on older kernel versions:</para>
2835<para></para>
2836<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2837<row>
2838    <entry>
2839        bash# cdrecord -scanbus dev=ATAPI
2840    </entry>
2841</row>
2842</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2843<para>you may replace ATAPI by ATA in the previous line with certain cdrecord versions and hadrware configurations</para>
2844
2845
2846<para>Find your CD burner's device# (e.g. '0,0,0'). Call Mondo with
2847the switch '-Oc &lt;speed&gt;' -d '&lt;device&gt;'. Or, if you feel
2848lucky, just use '-Oc 2'; Mondo will (a) assume you want to write at
28494x to a CD-R and (b) will do its best to find your CD burner.</para>
2850</answer>
2851</qandaentry>
2852<qandaentry>
2853        <question><para>Q: Can Mondo handle SCSI devices?</para></question>
2854        <answer>
2855<para>A: Mondo should be able to handle almost any hardware. So
2856long as your kernel and modules support it, Mindi will support it
2857and therefore so will Mondo.</para>
2858</answer>
2859</qandaentry>
2860<qandaentry>
2861        <question><para>Q: Why doesn't cdrecord -scanbus work ?</para></question>
2862        <answer>
2863                <para>A: If you have a 2.4.x kernel (typical example are fedora legacy kernels for redhat 7.X/8/9) and an IDE CDRW device, and the drive is not
2864listed when you run
2865
2866<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2867<row>
2868<entry>
2869bash# cdrecord -scanbus
2870</entry>
2871</row>
2872</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2873
2874try adding the following kernel option to your boot script to enable
2875SCSI emulation: hdx=ide-scsi, where "hdx" should be replaced with the
2876appropriate drive letter of the CDRW device, e.g., "hdc".
2877(Answer provided by Christopher Moriarity cdm7_at_cdc.gov)
2878</para>
2879</answer>
2880</qandaentry>
2881</qandaset>
2882</sect1>
2883
2884<sect1 id="faq-backup">
2885<title>Backup related Questions</title>
2886
2887<qandaset>
2888<qandaentry>
2889<question><para id="MMKM">Q: Mondo says, 'Cannot
2890                run mindi --makemountlist' and aborts. What do I do?</para></question>
2891<answer>
2892        <para>
2893                A: Look at <filename>/var/log/mindi.log</filename> and see what it
2894                says. Also, try typing 'mindi --makemountlist /var/cache/mindi/mountlist.txt'
2895to see what Mindi says. Send the log to the &ML; if you get stuck.
2896</para>
2897</answer>
2898</qandaentry>
2899<qandaentry>
2900<question><para>Q: Can Mondo burn CD as they are
2901                created?</para></question>
2902<answer>
2903<para>A: Yes. Use the '-Oc &lt;speed&gt;' switch. Use a negative
2904number for a dummy burn.</para>
2905</answer>
2906</qandaentry>
2907<qandaentry>
2908<question><para>Q: Mondo failed to burn my CD. It said
2909something like, "Error CDB A1 01 02 53 ..." and so on. What does
2910that mean?</para></question>
2911<answer>
2912<para>A: Cdrecord reported some serious errors while trying to burn
2913your CD. Check your CD burner, your CD-R and your kernel.</para>
2914</answer>
2915</qandaentry>
2916<qandaentry>
2917<question><para>Q: May I backup my system with one
2918                partition layout and restore with another?</para></question>
2919<answer>
2920<para>A: Yes. Boot in Interactive Mode and edit the mountlist using
2921the snazzy new mountlist editor. Mondo can now edit your RAID
2922partitions for you. Just open /dev/md0 (or whatever) and select
2923"RAID.." to start. Or, to add a RAID device:</para>
2924<itemizedlist>
2925<listitem>
2926<para>Add two or more partitions, of type and mountpoint
2927'raid'</para>
2928</listitem>
2929<listitem>
2930<para>Add device '/dev/md0' and click OK</para>
2931</listitem>
2932<listitem>
2933<para>Follow the prompts and your own common-sense :)</para>
2934</listitem>
2935</itemizedlist>
2936</answer>
2937</qandaentry>
2938<qandaentry>
2939<question><para>Q: Why does Mondo need so much free disk
2940                space?</para></question>
2941<answer>
2942        <para>A: Because it need space to create the archive files with afio, then
2943                again space to create the ISO images that you'll be able to burn.
2944</para>
2945</answer>
2946</qandaentry>
2947<qandaentry>
2948<question><para>Q: I am trying to do something clever,
2949e.g. write my ISO's to an NFS mount, and I get some weird error
2950messages. What do I do?</para></question>
2951<answer>
2952<para>A: Well, (a) use '-T /tmp' or '-T /home' or something in your
2953        call to Mondo. Oh, and (b) check the <filename>/etc/exports</filename> file on your NFS server
2954        and verify the exported filesystem is writable for the client, and relaunch exportfs -a.
2955</para>
2956</answer>
2957</qandaentry>
2958<qandaentry>
2959<question><para>Q: Can Mondo backup to data files on
2960                another partition, e.g. an NFS mount?</para></question>
2961<answer>
2962<para>A: Yes. Just backup as usual but add '-d /mnt/nfs' or
2963wherever your partition is mounted; don't use '-Oc' or '-Ot' at
2964all; just '-Oi -d /root'. Then, after booting from the media
2965which Mondo generates, you need to type 'ISO' at the
2966console.</para>
2967</answer>
2968</qandaentry>
2969<qandaentry>
2970<question><para>Q: Can Mondo backup _to_ an NFS
2971                partition, i.e. backup over a network? How about restoring?</para></question>
2972<answer>
2973<para>A: Yes. Use '-On &lt;mount&gt; &lt;directory&gt;'. Example:
2974</para>
2975<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2976<row>
2977<entry>
2978
2979        bash# mondoarchive -On nfs://192.168.1.3:/home/nfs
2980
2981</entry>
2982</row>
2983</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2984
2985</answer>
2986</qandaentry>
2987<qandaentry>
2988<question><para>Q: Does Mondo handle System or Hidden
2989                attributes when archiving Dos/Win files?</para></question>
2990<answer>
2991<para>A: No. It probably never will, either. Sorry.</para>
2992</answer>
2993</qandaentry>
2994</qandaset>
2995</sect1>
2996
2997<sect1 id="faq-compare">
2998<title>Compare related Questions</title>
2999
3000<qandaset>
3001<qandaentry>
3002<question><para>Q: When I compare my archives to my file
3003system, Mondo tells me there are differences or errors. Are the
3004archives bad?</para></question>
3005<answer>
3006        <para>A: Look at <filename>/tmp/changed.files</filename>; if the files are logfiles,
3007temp files or files which you think you may have changed recently
3008then the archives are simply out of date, albeit only by a few
3009minutes. Not a problem. However, if lots of files in /usr have
3010changed or if you get lots of errors then perhaps your CD, your
3011tapes or even your hardware could be to blame. Check your CD writer
3012or tape streamer.</para>
3013<para>Also, don't forget to review <filename>/var/log/mondoarchive.log</filename> for
3014more information.</para>
3015</answer>
3016</qandaentry>
3017</qandaset>
3018</sect1>
3019
3020<sect1 id="faq-restore">
3021<title>Restore related Questions</title>
3022<qandaset>
3023<qandaentry>
3024<question><para>Q: Can Mondo help me
3025                move/resize/re-allocate my partitions?</para></question>
3026<answer>
3027<para>A: Yes. Just backup your system in Interactive Mode using
3028Mondo. Edit the mountlist when prompted.</para>
3029</answer>
3030</qandaentry>
3031<qandaentry>
3032<question><para>Q: My zip drive is a SCSI drive. When I
3033restore, Mondo craps out, saying it can't mount the drive (because
3034there is no disk in it). What do I do?</para></question>
3035<answer>
3036<para>A: Restore in Interactive Mode. Delete the SCSI drive from
3037the mountlist before you restore. Then Mondo won't try to partition
3038or format it. Next time you backup, use -E /dev/sdd (or whatever
3039your zip drive is). The /dev entry will be excluded from the
3040mountlist but not from the filelist. So, when you restore, you
3041won't accidentally reformat your zip disk. However, after
3042restoring, you will find that /dev/sdd (the _file_) will still be
3043present in your /dev directory. Cool, eh?</para>
3044</answer>
3045</qandaentry>
3046<qandaentry>
3047<question><para>Q: I received a message like, 'Fileset
3048                NNN failed' during restore. What does it mean.</para></question>
3049<answer>
3050<para>A: It usually means either you had a very large (&gt;2GB)
3051file which was not archived owing to a flaw in your distro or your
3052filesystem has changed in relation to the backup.</para>
3053</answer>
3054</qandaentry>
3055<qandaentry>
3056<question><para>Q: Why does my ext3 partition have less
3057                space free than when I backed it up?</para></question>
3058<answer>
3059<para>A: Mondo creates a 10MB journal file area. Your journal was
3060probably smaller than that, hence the difference.</para>
3061</answer>
3062</qandaentry>
3063<qandaentry>
3064<question><para id="SEGF">Q: When I restore after
3065booting from the media, I sometimes get errors like, "Running
3066out of memory" or "Segmentation fault". What is going on?</para></question>
3067<answer><para>A: It sounds as if you are running out of disk
3068space, probably ram disk space. Type 'df -m' to see which
3069partitions are running low on space. Please send as much
3070information as you can to the &ML;. This problem is
3071believed to have been fixed in 1.63 and 1.71.</para>
3072</answer>
3073</qandaentry>
3074<qandaentry>
3075<question>
3076<para id="LVM">Q: I can't nuke-restore my LVM or RAID or
3077LVM-on-RAID setup. I have to do it manually. What now?</para></question>
3078<answer>
3079<para>A: You said it yourself. You have to do it manually. :) Sorry
3080but that's about it. At least you have all the tools to do it. I
3081assume you know how. If you don't, look at i-want-my-lvm (a script
3082on the ramdisk) if you're using LVM. It should give you a few
3083clues. RAID is harder but in general Mondo's RAID support is good.
3084After you've prepped and formatted your drives, run mondorestore
3085again but say 'no' when asked if you want Mondo to prep or format
3086your drives.</para>
3087</answer>
3088</qandaentry>
3089</qandaset>
3090</sect1>
3091</chapter>
3092
3093&gfdl;
3094
3095</book>
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