Changes between Version 3 and Version 4 of TracStandalone


Ignore:
Timestamp:
Apr 24, 2017, 10:36:27 AM (4 weeks ago)
Author:
trac
Comment:

--

Legend:

Unmodified
Added
Removed
Modified
  • TracStandalone

    v3 v4  
    1 = Tracd =
     1= Tracd
    22
    33Tracd is a lightweight standalone Trac web server.
    44It can be used in a variety of situations, from a test or development server to a multiprocess setup behind another web server used as a load balancer.
    55
    6 == Pros ==
     6== Pros
    77
    88 * Fewer dependencies: You don't need to install apache or any other web-server.
     
    1010 * Automatic reloading: For development, Tracd can be used in ''auto_reload'' mode, which will automatically restart the server whenever you make a change to the code (in Trac itself or in a plugin).
    1111
    12 == Cons ==
     12== Cons
    1313
    1414 * Fewer features: Tracd implements a very simple web-server and is not as configurable or as scalable as Apache httpd.
    1515 * No native HTTPS support: [http://www.rickk.com/sslwrap/ sslwrap] can be used instead,
    16    or [http://trac.edgewall.org/wiki/STunnelTracd stunnel -- a tutorial on how to use stunnel with tracd] or Apache with mod_proxy.
    17 
    18 == Usage examples ==
     16   or [trac:wiki:STunnelTracd stunnel -- a tutorial on how to use stunnel with tracd] or Apache with mod_proxy.
     17
     18== Usage examples
    1919
    2020A single project on port 8080. (http://localhost:8080/)
    21 {{{
     21{{{#!sh
    2222 $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project
    2323}}}
    24 Stricly speaking this will make your Trac accessible to everybody from your network rather than ''localhost only''. To truly limit it use ''--hostname'' option.
    25 {{{
     24Strictly speaking this will make your Trac accessible to everybody from your network rather than ''localhost only''. To truly limit it use the `--hostname` option.
     25{{{#!sh
    2626 $ tracd --hostname=localhost -p 8080 /path/to/project
    2727}}}
    2828With more than one project. (http://localhost:8080/project1/ and http://localhost:8080/project2/)
    29 {{{
     29{{{#!sh
    3030 $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
    3131}}}
     
    3535
    3636An alternative way to serve multiple projects is to specify a parent directory in which each subdirectory is a Trac project, using the `-e` option. The example above could be rewritten:
    37 {{{
     37{{{#!sh
    3838 $ tracd -p 8080 -e /path/to
    3939}}}
    4040
    41 To exit the server on Windows, be sure to use {{{CTRL-BREAK}}} -- using {{{CTRL-C}}} will leave a Python process running in the background.
    42 
    43 == Installing as a Windows Service ==
    44 
    45 === Option 1 ===
     41To exit the server on Windows, be sure to use `CTRL-BREAK` -- using `CTRL-C` will leave a Python process running in the background.
     42
     43== Installing as a Windows Service
     44
     45=== Option 1
    4646To install as a Windows service, get the [http://www.google.com/search?q=srvany.exe SRVANY] utility and run:
    47 {{{
     47{{{#!cmd
    4848 C:\path\to\instsrv.exe tracd C:\path\to\srvany.exe
    4949 reg add HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tracd\Parameters /v Application /d "\"C:\path\to\python.exe\" \"C:\path\to\python\scripts\tracd-script.py\" <your tracd parameters>"
     
    5454
    5555If you want tracd to start automatically when you boot Windows, do:
    56 {{{
     56{{{#!cmd
    5757 sc config tracd start= auto
    5858}}}
     
    7474
    7575For Windows 7 User, srvany.exe may not be an option, so you can use [http://www.google.com/search?q=winserv.exe WINSERV] utility and run:
    76 {{{
     76{{{#!cmd
    7777"C:\path\to\winserv.exe" install tracd -displayname "tracd" -start auto "C:\path\to\python.exe" c:\path\to\python\scripts\tracd-script.py <your tracd parameters>"
    78 
    7978net start tracd
    8079}}}
    8180
    82 === Option 2 ===
     81=== Option 2
    8382
    8483Use [http://trac-hacks.org/wiki/WindowsServiceScript WindowsServiceScript], available at [http://trac-hacks.org/ Trac Hacks]. Installs, removes, starts, stops, etc. your Trac service.
    8584
    86 == Using Authentication ==
    87 
    88 Tracd provides support for both Basic and Digest authentication. The default is to use Digest; to use Basic authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` in the examples below. (You must still specify a dialogic "realm", which can be an empty string by trailing the BASICAUTH with a comma.)
    89 
     85=== Option 3
     86
     87also cygwin's cygrunsrv.exe can be used:
     88{{{#!sh
     89$ cygrunsrv --install tracd --path /cygdrive/c/Python27/Scripts/tracd.exe --args '--port 8000 --env-parent-dir E:\IssueTrackers\Trac\Projects'
     90$ net start tracd
     91}}}
     92
     93== Using Authentication
     94
     95Tracd allows you to run Trac without the need for Apache, but you can take advantage of Apache's password tools (`htpasswd` and `htdigest`) to easily create a password file in the proper format for tracd to use in authentication. (It is also possible to create the password file without `htpasswd` or `htdigest`; see below for alternatives)
     96
     97{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     98**Attention:** Make sure you place the generated password files on a filesystem which supports sub-second timestamps, as Trac will monitor their modified time and changes happening on a filesystem with too coarse-grained timestamp resolution (like `ext2` or `ext3` on Linux, or HFS+ on OSX).
     99}}}
     100
     101Tracd provides support for both Basic and Digest authentication. Digest is considered more secure. The examples below use Digest; to use Basic authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` in the command line.
    90102
    91103The general format for using authentication is:
    92 {{{
     104{{{#!sh
    93105 $ tracd -p port --auth="base_project_dir,password_file_path,realm" project_path
    94106}}}
    95 
    96107where:
    97 
    98108 * '''base_project_dir''': the base directory of the project specified as follows:
    99109   * when serving multiple projects: ''relative'' to the `project_path`
     
    103113 * '''realm''': the realm name (can be anything)
    104114 * '''project_path''': path of the project
    105  * **`--auth`** in the above means use Digest authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` if you want to use Basic auth
     115
     116 * **`--auth`** in the above means use Digest authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` if you want to use Basic auth.  Although Basic authentication does not require a "realm", the command parser does, so the second comma is required, followed directly by the closing quote for an empty realm name.
    106117
    107118Examples:
    108119
    109 {{{
     120{{{#!sh
    110121 $ tracd -p 8080 \
    111122   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" /path/to/project1
     
    113124
    114125Of course, the password file can be be shared so that it is used for more than one project:
    115 {{{
     126{{{#!sh
    116127 $ tracd -p 8080 \
    117128   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" \
     
    121132
    122133Another way to share the password file is to specify "*" for the project name:
    123 {{{
     134{{{#!sh
    124135 $ tracd -p 8080 \
    125136   --auth="*,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com" \
     
    127138}}}
    128139
    129 === Using a htpasswd password file ===
     140=== Basic Authorization: Using a htpasswd password file
    130141This section describes how to use `tracd` with Apache .htpasswd files.
    131142
     143  Note: On Windows It is necessary to install the fcrypt package in order to
     144  decode some htpasswd formats. Only `SHA-1` passwords (since Trac 1.0) work
     145  without this module.
     146
    132147To create a .htpasswd file use Apache's `htpasswd` command (see [#GeneratingPasswordsWithoutApache below] for a method to create these files without using Apache):
    133 
    134 {{{
     148{{{#!sh
    135149 $ sudo htpasswd -c /path/to/env/.htpasswd username
    136150}}}
    137151then for additional users:
    138 {{{
     152{{{#!sh
    139153 $ sudo htpasswd /path/to/env/.htpasswd username2
    140154}}}
    141155
    142156Then to start `tracd` run something like this:
    143 
    144 {{{
    145  $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="projectdirname,/fullpath/environmentname/.htpasswd,realmname" /fullpath/environmentname
     157{{{#!sh
     158 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="project,/fullpath/environmentname/.htpasswd,realmname" /path/to/project
    146159}}}
    147160
    148161For example:
    149 
    150 {{{
    151  $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="testenv,/srv/tracenv/testenv/.htpasswd,My Test Env" /srv/tracenv/testenv
    152 }}}
    153 
     162{{{#!sh
     163 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="project,/srv/tracenv/testenv/.htpasswd,My Test Env" /path/to/project
     164}}}
    154165''Note:'' You might need to pass "-m" as a parameter to htpasswd on some platforms (OpenBSD).
    155166
    156 === Using a htdigest password file ===
     167=== Digest authentication: Using a htdigest password file
    157168
    158169If you have Apache available, you can use the htdigest command to generate the password file. Type 'htdigest' to get some usage instructions, or read [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.0/programs/htdigest.html this page] from the Apache manual to get precise instructions.  You'll be prompted for a password to enter for each user that you create.  For the name of the password file, you can use whatever you like, but if you use something like `users.htdigest` it will remind you what the file contains. As a suggestion, put it in your <projectname>/conf folder along with the [TracIni trac.ini] file.
    159170
    160 Note that you can start tracd without the --auth argument, but if you click on the ''Login'' link you will get an error.
    161 
    162 === Generating Passwords Without Apache ===
    163 
    164 If you don't have Apache available, you can use this simple Python script to generate your passwords:
    165 
    166 {{{
    167 #!python
    168 from optparse import OptionParser
    169 # The md5 module is deprecated in Python 2.5
    170 try:
    171     from hashlib import md5
    172 except ImportError:
    173     from md5 import md5
    174 realm = 'trac'
    175 
    176 # build the options
    177 usage = "usage: %prog [options]"
    178 parser = OptionParser(usage=usage)
    179 parser.add_option("-u", "--username",action="store", dest="username", type = "string",
    180                   help="the username for whom to generate a password")
    181 parser.add_option("-p", "--password",action="store", dest="password", type = "string",
    182                   help="the password to use")
    183 parser.add_option("-r", "--realm",action="store", dest="realm", type = "string",
    184                   help="the realm in which to create the digest")
    185 (options, args) = parser.parse_args()
    186 
    187 # check options
    188 if (options.username is None) or (options.password is None):
    189    parser.error("You must supply both the username and password")
    190 if (options.realm is not None):
    191    realm = options.realm
    192    
    193 # Generate the string to enter into the htdigest file
    194 kd = lambda x: md5(':'.join(x)).hexdigest()
    195 print ':'.join((options.username, realm, kd([options.username, realm, options.password])))
    196 }}}
    197 
    198 Note: If you use the above script you must use the --auth option to tracd, not --basic-auth, and you must set the realm in the --auth value to 'trac' (without the quotes). Example usage (assuming you saved the script as trac-digest.py):
    199 
    200 {{{
    201  $ python trac-digest.py -u username -p password >> c:\digest.txt
    202  $ tracd --port 8000 --auth=proj_name,c:\digest.txt,trac c:\path\to\proj_name
    203 }}}
    204 
    205 
    206 Note: If you would like to use --basic-auth you need to use htpasswd tool from apache server to generate .htpasswd file. The remaining part is similar but make sure to use empty realm (i.e. coma after path). Make sure to use -m option for it.  If you do not have Apache, [trac:source:/tags/trac-0.11/contrib/htpasswd.py htpasswd.py] may help.  (Note that it requires a `crypt` or `fcrypt` module; see the source comments for details.)
    207 
    208 It is possible to use md5sum utility to generate digest-password file using such method:
    209 {{{
    210  $ printf "${user}:trac:${password}" | md5sum - >>user.htdigest
    211 }}}
    212 and manually delete " -" from the end and add "${user}:trac:" to the start of line from 'to-file'.
    213 
    214 == Reference ==
     171Note that you can start tracd without the `--auth` argument, but if you click on the ''Login'' link you will get an error.
     172
     173=== Generating Passwords Without Apache
     174
     175Basic Authorization can be accomplished via this [http://aspirine.org/htpasswd_en.html online HTTP Password generator] which also supports `SHA-1`.  Copy the generated password-hash line to the .htpasswd file on your system. Note that Windows Python lacks the "crypt" module that is the default hash type for htpasswd. Windows Python can grok MD5 password hashes just fine and you should use MD5.
     176
     177Trac also provides `htpasswd` and `htdigest` scripts in `contrib`:
     178{{{#!sh
     179$ ./contrib/htpasswd.py -cb htpasswd user1 user1
     180$ ./contrib/htpasswd.py -b htpasswd user2 user2
     181}}}
     182
     183{{{#!sh
     184$ ./contrib/htdigest.py -cb htdigest trac user1 user1
     185$ ./contrib/htdigest.py -b htdigest trac user2 user2
     186}}}
     187
     188==== Using `md5sum`
     189It is possible to use `md5sum` utility to generate digest-password file:
     190{{{#!sh
     191user=
     192realm=
     193password=
     194path_to_file=
     195echo ${user}:${realm}:$(printf "${user}:${realm}:${password}" | md5sum - | sed -e 's/\s\+-//') > ${path_to_file}
     196}}}
     197
     198== Reference
    215199
    216200Here's the online help, as a reminder (`tracd --help`):
     
    228212  -b HOSTNAME, --hostname=HOSTNAME
    229213                        the host name or IP address to bind to
    230   --protocol=PROTOCOL   http|scgi|ajp
     214  --protocol=PROTOCOL   http|scgi|ajp|fcgi
    231215  -q, --unquote         unquote PATH_INFO (may be needed when using ajp)
    232   --http10              use HTTP/1.0 protocol version (default)
    233   --http11              use HTTP/1.1 protocol version instead of HTTP/1.0
     216  --http10              use HTTP/1.0 protocol version instead of HTTP/1.1
     217  --http11              use HTTP/1.1 protocol version (default)
    234218  -e PARENTDIR, --env-parent-dir=PARENTDIR
    235219                        parent directory of the project environments
     
    238222  -r, --auto-reload     restart automatically when sources are modified
    239223  -s, --single-env      only serve a single project without the project list
    240 }}}
    241 
    242 == Tips ==
    243 
    244 === Serving static content ===
     224  -d, --daemonize       run in the background as a daemon
     225  --pidfile=PIDFILE     when daemonizing, file to which to write pid
     226  --umask=MASK          when daemonizing, file mode creation mask to use, in
     227                        octal notation (default 022)
     228  --group=GROUP         the group to run as
     229  --user=USER           the user to run as
     230}}}
     231
     232Use the -d option so that tracd doesn't hang if you close the terminal window where tracd was started.
     233
     234== Tips
     235
     236=== Serving static content
    245237
    246238If `tracd` is the only web server used for the project,
     
    253245Example: given a `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs/software-0.1.tar.gz` file,
    254246the corresponding relative URL would be `/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz`,
    255 which in turn can be written as `htdocs:software-0.1.tar.gz` (TracLinks syntax) or `[/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz]` (relative link syntax).
    256 
    257  ''Support for `htdocs:` TracLinks syntax was added in version 0.10''
     247which in turn can be written as `htdocs:software-0.1.tar.gz` (TracLinks syntax) or `[/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz]` (relative link syntax).
    258248
    259249=== Using tracd behind a proxy
     
    267257See also [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp], [trac:TracNginxRecipe].
    268258
    269 === Serving a different base path than / ===
     259=== Authentication for tracd behind a proxy
     260It is convenient to provide central external authentication to your tracd instances, instead of using `--basic-auth`. There is some discussion about this in [trac:#9206].
     261
     262Below is example configuration based on Apache 2.2, mod_proxy, mod_authnz_ldap.
     263
     264First we bring tracd into Apache's location namespace.
     265
     266{{{#!apache
     267<Location /project/proxified>
     268        Require ldap-group cn=somegroup, ou=Groups,dc=domain.com
     269        Require ldap-user somespecificusertoo
     270        ProxyPass http://localhost:8101/project/proxified/
     271        # Turns out we don't really need complicated RewriteRules here at all
     272        RequestHeader set REMOTE_USER %{REMOTE_USER}s
     273</Location>
     274}}}
     275
     276Then we need a single file plugin to recognize HTTP_REMOTE_USER header as valid authentication source. HTTP headers like '''HTTP_FOO_BAR''' will get converted to '''Foo-Bar''' during processing. Name it something like '''remote-user-auth.py''' and drop it into '''proxified/plugins''' directory:
     277{{{#!python
     278from trac.core import *
     279from trac.config import BoolOption
     280from trac.web.api import IAuthenticator
     281
     282class MyRemoteUserAuthenticator(Component):
     283
     284    implements(IAuthenticator)
     285
     286    obey_remote_user_header = BoolOption('trac', 'obey_remote_user_header', 'false',
     287               """Whether the 'Remote-User:' HTTP header is to be trusted for user logins
     288                (''since ??.??').""")
     289
     290    def authenticate(self, req):
     291        if self.obey_remote_user_header and req.get_header('Remote-User'):
     292            return req.get_header('Remote-User')
     293        return None
     294
     295}}}
     296
     297Add this new parameter to your TracIni:
     298{{{#!ini
     299[trac]
     300...
     301obey_remote_user_header = true
     302...
     303}}}
     304
     305Run tracd:
     306{{{#!sh
     307tracd -p 8101 -s proxified --base-path=/project/proxified
     308}}}
     309
     310Note that if you want to install this plugin for all projects, you have to put it in your [TracPlugins#Plugindiscovery global plugins_dir] and enable it in your global trac.ini.
     311
     312Global config (e.g. `/srv/trac/conf/trac.ini`):
     313{{{#!ini
     314[components]
     315remote-user-auth.* = enabled
     316[inherit]
     317plugins_dir = /srv/trac/plugins
     318[trac]
     319obey_remote_user_header = true
     320}}}
     321
     322Environment config (e.g. `/srv/trac/envs/myenv`):
     323{{{#!ini
     324[inherit]
     325file = /srv/trac/conf/trac.ini
     326}}}
     327
     328=== Serving a different base path than /
    270329Tracd supports serving projects with different base urls than /<project>. The parameter name to change this is
    271 {{{
     330{{{#!sh
    272331 $ tracd --base-path=/some/path
    273332}}}