Changes between Version 2 and Version 3 of TracFastCgi


Ignore:
Timestamp:
Apr 24, 2017, 10:36:27 AM (6 months ago)
Author:
trac
Comment:

--

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  • TracFastCgi

    v2 v3  
    1 = Trac with FastCGI =
    2 
    3 [http://www.fastcgi.com/ FastCGI] interface allows Trac to remain resident much like with [wiki:TracModPython mod_python]. It is faster than external CGI interfaces which must start a new process for each request. However, unlike mod_python, FastCGI supports [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/suexec.html Apache SuEXEC], i.e. run with different permissions than web server. Additionally, it is supported by much wider variety of web servers.
    4 
    5 '''Note for Windows:''' Trac's FastCGI does not run under Windows, as Windows does not implement `Socket.fromfd`, which is used by `_fcgi.py`. If you want to connect to IIS, you may want to try [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp AJP].
    6 
    7 == Simple Apache configuration ==
    8 
    9 There are two FastCGI modules commonly available for Apache: `mod_fastcgi` and
    10 `mod_fcgid` (preferred). The latter is more up-to-date.
    11 
    12 ==== setup with `mod_fastcgi` ====
     1= Trac with FastCGI
     2
     3[[TracGuideToc]]
     4[[PageOutline(2-5, Contents, floated)]]
     5
     6[http://www.fastcgi.com/ FastCGI] interface allows Trac to remain resident much like with [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] or [wiki:TracModWSGI mod_wsgi]. It is faster than external CGI interfaces which must start a new process for each request. Additionally, it is supported by a much wider variety of web servers.
     7
     8Note that unlike mod_python, FastCGI supports [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/suexec.html Apache SuEXEC], ie run with different permissions than the web server runs with. `mod_wsgi` supports the `WSGIDaemonProcess` with user / group parameters to achieve the same effect.
     9
     10'''Note for Windows:''' Trac's FastCGI does not run under Windows, as Windows does not implement `Socket.fromfd`, which is used by `_fcgi.py`. If you want to connect to IIS, you may want to try [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp AJP]/[trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp ISAPI].
     11
     12== Apache configuration
     13
     14There are two FastCGI modules commonly available for Apache: `mod_fastcgi` and `mod_fcgid` (preferred). The latter is more up-to-date.
     15
     16The following sections focus on the FCGI specific setup, see also [wiki:TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication] for configuring the authentication in Apache.
     17
     18Regardless of which cgi module is used, be sure the web server has executable permissions on the cgi-bin folder. While FastCGI will throw specific permissions errors, mod_fcgid will throw an ambiguous error if this has not been done: `Connection reset by peer: mod_fcgid: error reading data from FastCGI server`.
     19
     20=== Set up with `mod_fastcgi`
     21
    1322`mod_fastcgi` uses `FastCgiIpcDir` and `FastCgiConfig` directives that should be added to an appropriate Apache configuration file:
    14 {{{
     23{{{#!apache
    1524# Enable fastcgi for .fcgi files
    1625# (If you're using a distro package for mod_fcgi, something like
     
    2231LoadModule fastcgi_module /usr/lib/apache2/modules/mod_fastcgi.so
    2332}}}
     33
    2434Setting `FastCgiIpcDir` is optional if the default is suitable. Note that the `LoadModule` line must be after the `IfModule` group.
    2535
    26 Configure `ScriptAlias` or similar options as described in TracCgi, but
    27 calling `trac.fcgi` instead of `trac.cgi`.
    28 
    29 You can set up the `TRAC_ENV` as an overall default:
    30 {{{
     36Configure `ScriptAlias` or similar options as described in TracCgi, but calling `trac.fcgi` instead of `trac.cgi`.
     37
     38Add the following to the Apache configuration file (below the `FastCgiIpcDir` line) if you intend to set up the `TRAC_ENV` as an overall default:
     39{{{#!apache
    3140FastCgiConfig -initial-env TRAC_ENV=/path/to/env/trac
    3241}}}
    3342
    34 Or you can serve multiple Trac projects in a directory like:
    35 {{{
     43Alternatively, you can serve multiple Trac projects in a directory by adding this:
     44{{{#!apache
    3645FastCgiConfig -initial-env TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR=/parent/dir/of/projects
    3746}}}
    3847
    39 ==== setup with `mod_fcgid` ====
    40 Configure `ScriptAlias` (see TracCgi for details), but call `trac.fcgi`
    41 instead of `trac.cgi`. Note that slash at the end - it is important.
    42 {{{
     48=== Set up with `mod_fcgid`
     49
     50Configure `ScriptAlias` (see TracCgi for details), but call `trac.fcgi` instead of `trac.cgi`:
     51{{{#!apache
    4352ScriptAlias /trac /path/to/www/trac/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi/
    4453}}}
    4554
    46 To setup Trac environment for `mod_fcgid` it is necessary to use
    47 `DefaultInitEnv` directive. It cannot be used in `Directory` or
    48 `Location` context, so if you need to support multiple projects, try
    49 alternative environment setup below.
    50 
    51 {{{
     55Note the slash at the end.
     56
     57To set up Trac environment for `mod_fcgid` it is necessary to use `DefaultInitEnv` directive. It cannot be used in `Directory` or `Location` context, so if you need to support multiple projects, try the alternative environment setup below:
     58{{{#!apache
    5259DefaultInitEnv TRAC_ENV /path/to/env/trac/
    5360}}}
    5461
    55 ==== alternative environment setup ====
    56 A better method to specify path to Trac environment it to embed the path
    57 into `trac.fcgi` script itself. That doesn't require configuration of server
    58 environment variables, works for both FastCgi modules
    59 (and for [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd] and CGI as well):
    60 {{{
     62=== Alternative environment setup
     63
     64A better method to specify the path to the Trac environment is to embed the path into `trac.fcgi` script itself. That doesn't require configuration of the server environment variables, works for both [trac:FastCgi] modules as well as for [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd] and CGI:
     65{{{#!python
    6166import os
    6267os.environ['TRAC_ENV'] = "/path/to/projectenv"
    6368}}}
    64 or
    65 {{{
     69
     70or:
     71{{{#!python
    6672import os
    6773os.environ['TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR'] = "/path/to/project/parent/dir"
    6874}}}
    6975
    70 With this method different projects can be supported by using different
    71 `.fcgi` scripts with different `ScriptAliases`.
     76With this method different projects can be supported by using different `.fcgi` scripts with different `ScriptAliases`.
    7277
    7378See [https://coderanger.net/~coderanger/httpd/fcgi_example.conf this fcgid example config] which uses a !ScriptAlias directive with trac.fcgi with a trailing / like this:
    74 {{{
     79{{{#!apache
    7580ScriptAlias / /srv/tracsite/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi/
    7681}}}
    7782
    78 == Simple Cherokee Configuration ==
    79 
    80 The configuration on Cherokee's side is quite simple. You will only need to know that you can spawn Trac as an SCGI process.
    81 You can either start it manually, or better yet, automatically by letting Cherokee spawn the server whenever it is down.
    82 First set up an information source in cherokee-admin with a local interpreter.
     83== Cherokee Configuration
     84
     85Configuring [http://cherokee-project.com/ Cherokee] with Trac is straightforward, if you spawn Trac as an SCGI process. You can either start it manually, or better yet, automatically by letting Cherokee spawn the server whenever it is down.
     86
     87First set up an information source in cherokee-admin with a local interpreter:
    8388
    8489{{{
     
    9398
    9499After doing this, we will just have to create a new rule managed by the SCGI handler to access Trac. It can be created in a new virtual server, trac.example.net for instance, and will only need two rules. The '''default''' one will use the SCGI handler associated to the previously created information source.
    95 The second rule will be there to serve the few static files needed to correctly display the Trac interface. Create it as ''Directory rule'' for ''/chrome/common'' and just set it to the ''Static files'' handler and with a ''Document root'' that points to the appropriate files: ''/usr/share/trac/htdocs/''
    96 
    97 == Simple Lighttpd Configuration ==
    98 
    99 The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd].
    100 
    101 lighttpd is a secure, fast, compliant and very flexible web-server that has been optimized for high-performance
    102 environments.  It has a very low memory footprint compared to other web servers and takes care of CPU load.
    103 
    104 For using `trac.fcgi`(prior to 0.11) / fcgi_frontend.py (0.11) with lighttpd add the following to your lighttpd.conf:
     100The second rule will be there to serve the few static files needed to correctly display the Trac interface. Create it as ''Directory rule'' for ''/common'' and just set it to the ''Static files'' handler and with a ''Document root'' that points to the appropriate files: ''$TRAC_LOCAL/htdocs/'' (where $TRAC_LOCAL is a directory defined by the user or the system administrator to place local Trac resources).
     101
     102'''Note:''' If the tracd process fails to start up, and Cherokee displays a 503 error page, you might be missing the [http://trac.saddi.com/flup python-flup] package ([trac:#9903]). Python-flup is a dependency which provides Trac with SCGI capability. You can install it on Debian based systems with:
     103{{{#!sh
     104sudo apt-get install python-flup
     105}}}
     106
     107== Lighttpd Configuration
     108
     109The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.lighttpd.net/ Lighttpd].
     110
     111Lighttpd is a secure, fast, compliant and very flexible web-server that has been optimized for high-performance environments. It has a very low memory footprint compared to other web servers and takes care of CPU load.
     112
     113For using `trac.fcgi`(prior to 0.11) / fcgi_frontend.py (0.11) with Lighttpd add the following to your lighttpd.conf:
    105114{{{
    106115#var.fcgi_binary="/usr/bin/python /path/to/fcgi_frontend.py" # 0.11 if installed with easy_setup, it is inside the egg directory
     
    119128}}}
    120129
    121 Note that you will need to add a new entry to `fastcgi.server` for each separate Trac instance that you wish to run. Alternatively, you may use the `TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR` variable instead of `TRAC_ENV` as described above,
    122 and you may set one of the two in `trac.fcgi` instead of in `lighttpd.conf`
    123 using `bin-environment` (as in the section above on Apache configuration).
    124 
    125 Note that lighttpd has a bug related to 'SCRIPT_NAME' and 'PATH_INFO' when the uri of fastcgi.server is '/' instead of '/trac' in this example, see #Trac2418. This should be fixed since lighttpd 1.4.23, and you may need to add `"fix-root-scriptname" => "enable"` as parameter of fastcgi.server.
     130Note that you will need to add a new entry to `fastcgi.server` for each separate Trac instance that you wish to run. Alternatively, you may use the `TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR` variable instead of `TRAC_ENV` as described above, and you may set one of the two in `trac.fcgi` instead of in `lighttpd.conf` using `bin-environment`, as in the section above on Apache configuration.
     131
     132Note that Lighttpd has a bug related to 'SCRIPT_NAME' and 'PATH_INFO' when the uri of fastcgi.server is '/' instead of '/trac' in this example (see [trac:#2418]). This is fixed in Lighttpd 1.5, and under Lighttpd 1.4.23 or later the workaround is to add `"fix-root-scriptname" => "enable"` as a parameter of fastcgi.server.
    126133
    127134For using two projects with lighttpd add the following to your `lighttpd.conf`:
     
    147154                )
    148155}}}
    149 Note that field values are different.  If you prefer setting the environment
    150 variables in the `.fcgi` scripts, then copy/rename `trac.fcgi`, e.g., to
    151 `first.fcgi` and `second.fcgi`, and reference them in the above settings.
    152 Note that the above will result in different processes in any event, even
    153 if both are running from the same `trac.fcgi` script.
    154 {{{
    155 #!div class=important
    156 '''Note''' It's very important the order on which server.modules are loaded, if mod_auth is not loaded '''BEFORE''' mod_fastcgi, then the server will fail to authenticate the user.
    157 }}}
     156
     157Note that the field values are different. If you prefer setting the environment variables in the `.fcgi` scripts, then copy/rename `trac.fcgi`, eg to `first.fcgi` and `second.fcgi`, and reference them in the above settings.
     158Note that the above will result in different processes in any event, even if both are running from the same `trac.fcgi` script.
     159
     160{{{#!div class=important
     161'''Note:''' The order in which the server.modules are loaded is very important: if mod_auth is not loaded '''before''' mod_fastcgi, then the server will fail to authenticate the user.
     162}}}
     163
    158164For authentication you should enable mod_auth in lighttpd.conf 'server.modules', select auth.backend and auth rules:
    159165{{{
     
    192198               )
    193199
    194 
    195 }}}
    196 Note that lighttpd (I use version 1.4.3) stopped if password file doesn't exist.
    197 
    198 Note that lighttpd doesn't support 'valid-user' in versions prior to 1.3.16.
    199 
    200 Conditional configuration is also useful for mapping static resources, i.e. serving out images and CSS directly instead of through FastCGI:
     200}}}
     201
     202Note that Lighttpd (v1.4.3) stops if the password file doesn't exist.
     203
     204Note that Lighttpd doesn't support 'valid-user' in versions prior to 1.3.16.
     205
     206Conditional configuration is also useful for mapping static resources, ie serving out images and CSS directly instead of through FastCGI:
    201207{{{
    202208# Aliasing functionality is needed
    203209server.modules += ("mod_alias")
    204210
    205 # Setup an alias for the static resources
     211# Set up an alias for the static resources
    206212alias.url = ("/trac/chrome/common" => "/usr/share/trac/htdocs")
    207213
     
    222228}
    223229}}}
     230
    224231The technique can be easily adapted for use with multiple projects by creating aliases for each of them, and wrapping the fastcgi.server declarations inside conditional configuration blocks.
    225 Also there is another way to handle multiple projects and it's to use TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR instead of TRAC_ENV and use global auth, let's see an example:
     232
     233Also there is another way to handle multiple projects and it uses `TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR` instead of `TRAC_ENV` as well as global authentication:
    226234{{{
    227235#  This is for handling multiple projects
     
    253261}}}
    254262
    255 Changing date/time format also supported by lighttpd over environment variable LC_TIME
     263Changing date/time format also supported by lighttpd over environment variable LC_TIME:
    256264{{{
    257265fastcgi.server = ("/trac" =>
     
    267275                 )
    268276}}}
     277
    269278For details about languages specification see [trac:TracFaq TracFaq] question 2.13.
    270279
    271 Other important information like [http://trac.lighttpd.net/trac/wiki/TracInstall this updated TracInstall page], [wiki:TracCgi#MappingStaticResources and this] are useful for non-fastcgi specific installation aspects.
    272 
    273 If you use trac-0.9, read [http://lists.edgewall.com/archive/trac/2005-November/005311.html about small bug]
    274 
    275 Relaunch lighttpd, and browse to `http://yourhost.example.org/trac` to access Trac.
    276 
    277 Note about running lighttpd with reduced permissions:
    278 
    279   If nothing else helps and trac.fcgi doesn't start with lighttpd settings `server.username = "www-data"`, `server.groupname = "www-data"`, then in the `bin-environment` section set `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` to the home directory of `www-data` or some other directory accessible to this account for writing.
    280 
    281 
    282 == Simple !LiteSpeed Configuration ==
     280Other important information like the [wiki:TracInstall#MappingStaticResources mapping static resources advices] are useful for non-fastcgi specific installation aspects.
     281
     282Relaunch Lighttpd and browse to `http://yourhost.example.org/trac` to access Trac.
     283
     284Note about running Lighttpd with reduced permissions: If nothing else helps and trac.fcgi doesn't start with Lighttpd settings `server.username = "www-data"`, `server.groupname = "www-data"`, then in the `bin-environment` section set `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` to the home directory of `www-data` or some other directory accessible to this account for writing.
     285
     286== !LiteSpeed Configuration
    283287
    284288The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.litespeedtech.com/ LiteSpeed].
     
    286290!LiteSpeed web server is an event-driven asynchronous Apache replacement designed from the ground-up to be secure, scalable, and operate with minimal resources. !LiteSpeed can operate directly from an Apache config file and is targeted for business-critical environments.
    287291
    288 === Setup ===
    289 
    290  1. Please make sure you have first have a working install of a Trac project. Test install with “tracd” first.
    291 
    292  2. Create a Virtual Host for this setup. From now on we will refer to this vhost as !TracVhost. For this tutorial we will be assuming that your trac project will be accessible via:
    293 
     292 1. Please make sure you have a working install of a Trac project. Test install with "tracd" first.
     293 1. Create a Virtual Host for this setup. From now on we will refer to this vhost as !TracVhost. For this tutorial we will be assuming that your Trac project will be accessible via:
    294294{{{
    295295http://yourdomain.com/trac/
    296296}}}
    297 
    298  3. Go “!TracVhost → External Apps” tab and create a new “External Application”.
    299 
     297 1. Go "!TracVhost → External Apps" tab and create a new "External Application":
    300298{{{
    301299Name: MyTracFCGI       
     
    313311Instances: 10
    314312}}}
    315 
    316  4. Optional. If you need to use htpasswd based authentication. Go to “!TracVhost → Security” tab and create a new security “Realm”.
    317 
    318 {{{
     313 1. Optional: If you need to use htpasswd based authentication. Go to "!TracVhost → Security" tab and create a new security Realm:
     314 {{{
    319315DB Type: Password File
    320316Realm Name: MyTracUserDB               <--- any name you wish and referenced later
    321317User DB Location: /fullpathto/htpasswd <--- path to your htpasswd file
    322318}}}
    323 
    324 If you don’t have a htpasswd file or don’t know how to create the entries within one, go to http://sherylcanter.com/encrypt.php, to generate the user:password combos.
    325 
    326  5. Go to “!PythonVhost → Contexts” and create a new “FCGI Context”.
    327 
    328 {{{
     319 If you don’t have a htpasswd file or don’t know how to create the entries within one, go to http://sherylcanter.com/encrypt.php, to generate the user:password combos.
     320 1. Go to "!PythonVhost → Contexts" and create a new FCGI Context:
     321 {{{
    329322URI: /trac/                              <--- URI path to bind to python fcgi app we created   
    330 Fast CGI App: [VHost Level] MyTractFCGI  <--- select the trac fcgi extapp we just created
     323Fast CGI App: [VHost Level] MyTractFCGI  <--- select the Trac fcgi extapp we just created
    331324Realm: TracUserDB                        <--- only if (4) is set. select realm created in (4)
    332325}}}
    333 
    334  6. Modify `/fullpathto/mytracproject/conf/trac.ini`
    335 
    336 {{{
     326 1. Modify `/fullpathto/mytracproject/conf/trac.ini`:
     327 {{{
    337328#find/set base_rul, url, and link variables
    338329base_url = http://yourdomain.com/trac/ <--- base url to generate correct links to
     
    340331link = http://yourdomain.com/trac/     <--- link of graphic logo
    341332}}}
    342 
    343  7. Restart !LiteSpeed, “lswsctrl restart”, and access your new Trac project at:
    344 
    345 {{{
    346 http://yourdomain.com/trac/
    347 }}}
    348 
    349 == Simple Nginx Configuration ==
    350 
    351  1. Nginx configuration snippet - confirmed to work on 0.6.32
    352 {{{
     333 1. Restart !LiteSpeed: `lswsctrl restart`, and access your new Trac project at {{{http://yourdomain.com/trac/}}}.
     334
     335== Nginx Configuration
     336
     337[http://nginx.org/en/ Nginx] is able to communicate with FastCGI processes, but can not spawn them. So you need to start FastCGI server for Trac separately.
     338
     339 1. Nginx configuration with basic authentication handled by Nginx - confirmed to work on 0.6.32
     340 {{{#!nginx
    353341    server {
    354342        listen       10.9.8.7:443;
     
    365353        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers   on;
    366354
    367         # (Or ``^/some/prefix/(.*)``.
    368         if ($uri ~ ^/(.*)) {
    369              set $path_info /$1;
     355        # it makes sense to serve static resources through Nginx (or ``~ [/some/prefix]/chrome/(.*)``)
     356        location ~ /chrome/(.*) {
     357             alias /home/trac/instance/static/htdocs/$1;
    370358        }
    371359
    372         # You can copy this whole location to ``location [/some/prefix]/login``
     360        # You can copy this whole location to ``location [/some/prefix](/login)``
    373361        # and remove the auth entries below if you want Trac to enforce
    374362        # authorization where appropriate instead of needing to authenticate
    375363        # for accessing the whole site.
    376         # (Or ``location /some/prefix``.)
    377         location / {
     364        # (Or ``~ location /some/prefix(/.*)``.)
     365        location ~ (/.*) {
    378366            auth_basic            "trac realm";
    379367            auth_basic_user_file /home/trac/htpasswd;
     
    389377            # (Or ``fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME  /some/prefix``.)
    390378            fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        "";
    391             fastcgi_param  PATH_INFO          $path_info;
     379            fastcgi_param  PATH_INFO          $1;
    392380
    393381            ## WSGI NEEDED VARIABLES - trac warns about them
     
    396384            fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port;
    397385            fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;
    398             fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING     $query_string;
    399 
    400             # for authentication to work
     386            fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING       $query_string;
     387
     388            # For Nginx authentication to work - do not forget to comment these
     389            # lines if not using Nginx for authentication
    401390            fastcgi_param  AUTH_USER          $remote_user;
    402391            fastcgi_param  REMOTE_USER        $remote_user;
     392
     393            # for ip to work
     394            fastcgi_param REMOTE_ADDR         $remote_addr;
     395
     396            # For attchments to work
     397            fastcgi_param    CONTENT_TYPE     $content_type;
     398            fastcgi_param    CONTENT_LENGTH   $content_length;
    403399        }
    404400    }
    405401}}}
    406 
    407  2. Modified trac.fcgi:
    408 
    409 {{{
     402 1. Modified trac.fcgi:
     403 {{{#!python
    410404#!/usr/bin/env python
    411405import os
     
    438432
    439433}}}
    440 
    441  3. reload nginx and launch trac.fcgi like that:
    442 
    443 {{{
     434 1. Reload nginx and launch trac.fcgi:
     435 {{{#!sh
    444436trac@trac.example ~ $ ./trac-standalone-fcgi.py
    445437}}}
    446438
    447439The above assumes that:
    448  * There is a user named 'trac' for running trac instances and keeping trac environments in its home directory.
    449  * `/home/trac/instance` contains a trac environment
     440 * There is a user named 'trac' for running Trac instances and keeping Trac environments in its home directory
     441 * `/home/trac/instance` contains a Trac environment
    450442 * `/home/trac/htpasswd` contains authentication information
    451  * `/home/trac/run` is owned by the same group the nginx runs under
     443 * `/home/trac/run` is owned by the same group the Nginx runs under
    452444  * and if your system is Linux the `/home/trac/run` has setgid bit set (`chmod g+s run`)
    453   * and patch from ticket #T7239 is applied, or you'll have to fix the socket file permissions every time
    454 
    455 Unfortunately nginx does not support variable expansion in fastcgi_pass directive.
    456 Thus it is not possible to serve multiple trac instances from one server block.
    457 
    458 If you worry enough about security, run trac instances under separate users.
    459 
    460 Another way to run trac as a FCGI external application is offered in ticket #T6224
     445  * and patch from [trac:#7239] is applied, or you'll have to fix the socket file permissions every time
     446
     447Unfortunately Nginx does not support variable expansion in fastcgi_pass directive.
     448Thus it is not possible to serve multiple Trac instances from one server block.
     449
     450If you worry enough about security, run Trac instances under separate users.
     451
     452Another way to run Trac as a FCGI external application is offered in [trac:#6224].
    461453
    462454----
    463 See also:  TracGuide, TracInstall, [wiki:TracModWSGI ModWSGI], [wiki:TracCgi CGI], [wiki:TracModPython ModPython], [trac:TracNginxRecipe TracNginxRecipe]
     455See also: TracGuide, TracInstall, [wiki:TracModWSGI ModWSGI], [wiki:TracCgi CGI], [wiki:TracModPython ModPython], [trac:TracNginxRecipe TracNginxRecipe]