source: trunk/mondo-doc/mondorescue-howto.sgml @ 588

Last change on this file since 588 was 588, checked in by bcornec, 13 years ago

merge -r 560:587 $SVN_M/branches/stable

File size: 101.2 KB
Line 
1<!DOCTYPE BOOK PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook V4.1//EN" [
2<!ENTITY curdate "DDD">
3<!ENTITY curver "VVV-rRRR">
4
5<!ENTITY WWWB "http://www.mondorescue.org/">
6<!ENTITY WWW '<ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org">MondoRescue</ulink>'>
7<!ENTITY ML '<ulink url="http://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/mondo-devel">mondorescue mailing list</ulink>'>
8<!ENTITY gfdl SYSTEM "fdl.sgml">
9]>
10
11<book>
12
13<bookinfo>
14<title>MondoRescue HOWTO</title>
15<subtitle>
16Utilisation and Configuration of Mondo and Mindi under Linux (Version &curver;)
17</subtitle>
18<graphic fileref="images/protected-by-mondo" align="center">
19
20<pubdate>
21in its latest version the
22&curdate;
23</pubdate>
24
25<abstract>
26<para>
27This document describes the use of mondo and mindi tools to realize disaster recovery backup of your systems. It provides information on installation, backup and restore modes, hardware and software requirements, and answers to some frequently asked questions.
28The goals are to offer a general view of the functions and their best usages.
29Mondo Rescue is a Disaster Recovery Solution which allows you
30to effortlessly backup and interactively restore Linux, Windows and
31other supported filesystem partitions to/from CD/DVD-+R/RW media, tape,
32NFS, ... and Mindi Linux provides the bootable emergency restore
33CD/floppy set which Mondo uses at boot-time.
34</para>
35</abstract>
36
37<author>
38<firstname>Bruno</firstname>
39<surname>Cornec</surname>
40<affiliation>
41<orgname>MondoRescue Project</orgname>
42<address><email>bruno@mondorescue.org</email></address>
43</affiliation>
44</author>
45<author>
46<firstname>Conor</firstname>
47<surname>Daly</surname>
48<affiliation>
49<orgname>MondoRescue Project</orgname>
50<address><email>conor.daly_at_met.ie</email></address>
51</affiliation>
52</author>
53<!--
54Hugo Rabson
55Mikael Hultgren
56Stan Benoit
57Randy Delfs
58Cafeole
59Bryan J. Smith
60-->
61
62<copyright>
63<year>2000-2006</year>
64<holder role="mailto:bruno@mondorescue.org">Bruno Cornec</holder>
65</copyright>
66
67<legalnotice>
68<title>License</title>
69<para>
70</para>
71<para>
72This HOWTO is a free documentation. you may copy, redistribute and/or modify it under the terms of the
73<Link LinkEnd="gfdl">
74GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1
75</link>.</para>
76<para>
77or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invarian
78t Sections, Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts. This document is distributed
79hoping it will be useful, but <emphasis>without any guaranty</emphasis>; you're
80completely responsible of its use, and coulnd't complain in case it doesn't work
81, or even if it breaks the hardware. All the software included in it, if not alr
82eady copyrighted is released under the GPL.
83</para>
84</legalnotice>
85
86<revhistory>
87<revision>
88    <revnumber>2.0.7</revnumber>
89    <date>2006-05-16</date>
90    <authorinitials>Bruno Cornec</authorinitials>
91    <revdescription>
92    <para>
93    Integration of a chapter on HOWTO run mondo interactively using cron written by Conor Daly
94    </para>
95    </revdescription>
96</revision>
97<revision>
98    <revnumber>2.06</revnumber>
99    <date>2006-01-16</date>
100    <authorinitials>Bruno Cornec</authorinitials>
101    <revdescription>
102    <para>
103    First SGML version publically available, remade from the HTML docs of the project.
104    </para>
105    </revdescription>
106</revision>
107</revhistory>
108</bookinfo>
109
110<toc></toc>
111<lot></lot>
112
113
114<chapter id="intro">
115<title>About this Guide</title>
116
117<sect1 id="intro-purpose">
118<title>Purpose / Scope of this Guide</title>
119
120<para>
121This HOWTO serves to help people get started with using
122mondo/mindi as way to backup/restore their system. This is a work
123constantly evolving. It was started by Hugo Rabson and has
124since been worked upon by a number of people. See the
125'<ulink url="&WWWB;about.html#devteam">About</ulink>' web
126page for a list of members of the development team.</para>
127
128<para>There are many ways to contribute to the Linux movement
129without actually writing code. One of the most important is writing
130documentation, allowing each person to share their knowledge with
131thousands of others around the world. This HOWTO is designed to
132help you get familiar with how Mondo/Mindi works.</para>
133
134<para>
135Opinions expressed here are those of the authors.
136Informations are provided in the aim to be useful to the readers.
137However, there can't be, through this document, any warranty of any kind
138on the way it works on your systems, nor the author could be responsible for any problem caused by the use of these informations.
139However, software editors don't garantee you a lot either (re-read the contracts).
140</para>
141</sect1>
142
143<sect1 id="intro-newversion"><title>New versions of this document</title>
144
145<para>The newest version of this document can always be found on
146MondoRescue's homepage &WWW;.</para>
147<para>
148If you make a translation of this document into another language, please let meknow so that I can include a reference to it here.
149</para>
150</sect1>
151
152<sect1><title>Suggestions / Feedback</title>
153<para>
154I rely on you, the reader, to make this HOWTO useful. THis HOWTO is probably incomplete even if it tries to be accurate to the best of our knowledge.
155If you have any suggestions, corrections, recommandations or congratulations :-) don't hesitate to send them to me
156<email>bruno@mondorescue.org</email>,
157and I will try to incorporate them in a next revision or to the &ML;;
158e-mail the list at
159<ulink url="mailto:mondo-devel@lists.sourceforge.net">mondo-devel@lists.sourceforge.net</ulink>;
160tell us what is wrong and how it should be fixed.
161Include the section title and recommended changes. Whenever possible, include
162the exact, spell-checked, grammar-checked text that you think would
163improve the document.
164</para>
165<para>See Mondo's
166        <ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org/feedback/feedback.html">Feedback</ulink> page for
167more information.
168</para>
169<para>
170Please note that we do our best to help everyone but it is
171difficult for us to help you if you do not attach a log file to
172your e-mail. Let me say that again - attach your log file to your
173e-mail! Thank you. Without it we can't offer
174any tangible help because you aren't either. That's what the log
175file is for. It is located at <filename>/var/log/mondo-archive.log</filename>; and <filename>/var/log/miindi.log</filename> or at <filename>/var/log/mondo-restore.log</filename>
176</para>
177<para>
178This document was originaly written by native english speakers, but is maintained by a non-native english speaker so help me correct mistaques instead of rumbling that I've done one :-)
179</para>
180<para>
181I am also willing to answer general questions on MondoRescue, the best I can.
182Before doing so, please read all of the information in this HOWTO, and then send me detailed information about the problem, especially including the logs generated by the tools, or traces obtained (Did I say that already :-].
183</para>
184<para>
185If you publish this document on a CD-ROM or in hardcopy form, a complimentary copy would be appreciated; mail me for my postal address. Also consider making a donation to the Linux Documentation Project to help support free documentation for Linux. Contact the Linux HOWTO coordinator,
186Guylhem AZNAR <email>guylhem@rrremovethis.oeil.qc.ca</email>.
187</para>
188</sect1>
189
190<sect1 id=intro-thanks><title>Aknowledgements</title>
191
192<para>Thanks goes to these people for helping and adding to this
193HOWTO.</para>
194
195<para>Document maintainer:</para>
196<itemizedlist mark="bullet" spacing="Compact">
197<listitem>
198<para>Bruno Cornec</para>
199</listitem>
200</itemizedlist>
201<para>Original Design Assistance by:</para>
202<itemizedlist>
203<listitem>
204<para>Xion Network.com</para>
205</listitem>
206</itemizedlist>
207<para>Original Document Assistance by:</para>
208<itemizedlist>
209<listitem>
210<para>Cafeole</para>
211</listitem>
212<listitem>
213<para>Troff</para>
214</listitem>
215<listitem>
216<para>Randy Delfs</para>
217</listitem>
218<listitem>
219<para>Mikael Hultgren</para>
220</listitem>
221</itemizedlist>
222<para>Original LinuxDoc and LaTeX Reformat by:</para>
223<itemizedlist>
224<listitem>
225<para>Bryan J. Smith</para>
226</listitem>
227</itemizedlist>
228<para>Original DocBook Reformat by:</para>
229<itemizedlist>
230<listitem>
231<para>Mikael Hultgren</para>
232</listitem>
233</itemizedlist>
234<para>Original author; 1.6x material:</para>
235<itemizedlist>
236<listitem>
237<para>Hugo Rabson</para>
238</listitem>
239</itemizedlist>
240
241</sect1>
242</chapter>
243
244<chapter id="quickstart"><title>QuickStart</title>
245<itemizedlist mark="bullet" spacing="Compact">
246<listitem>
247<para>We recommend that you read this complete
248HOWTO. However, if you are too busy or impatient, then
249please use this QuickStart guide to stay out of trouble.</para>
250</listitem>
251<listitem>
252<para>Install the tarball, RPM, or DEB mindi and mondo
253packages. (see <link linkend="installation">Installation</link>
254for more details)</para>
255</listitem>
256<listitem>
257<para>Execute as root (type 'su -' to become root if you are not
258logged in as root)</para>
259<para></para>
260
261<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
262<row>
263<entry>
264
265bash# mondoarchive
266
267</entry>
268</row>
269</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
270
271</listitem>
272</itemizedlist>
273<para></para>
274
275<informaltable><tgroup cols="2"><tbody>
276<row>
277<entry>
278<ulink url="images/mamain.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
279<imagedata fileref="images/mamain-mini">
280</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
281</ulink>
282</entry>
283<entry>
284Choose from the list of supported backup media types. The media you
285will use most often are CD/DVD-+R, CD/DVD-+RW, tape, NFS and hard disk. If
286you want to backup/restore over a network, choose 'NFS'. If you
287want to backup/restore to/from a local partition or if you simply
288want to store the ISO images in a local directory until you have
289time or facilities to burn them to CD's, choose 'hard disk'. If you
290choose 'CD/DVD-+R[W]' or 'tape' then in general your hardware will be
291detected and configured for you.
292</entry>
293</row>
294<row>
295<entry>
296<ulink url="images/maburnproof.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
297<imagedata fileref="images/maburnproof-mini">
298</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
299</ulink>
300</entry>
301<entry>
302        If you are backing up to CD/DVD-+R[W] then Mondo will ask you if your CD
303burner has BurnProof technology, is inside a laptop, or is
304otherwise eccentric. If you are backing up to a tape streamer then
305you will not see this message.
306</entry>
307</row>
308<row>
309<entry>
310<ulink url="images/macompression.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
311<imagedata fileref="images/macompression-mini">
312</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
313</ulink>
314</entry>
315<entry>
316How much compression do you want? None, if your tape streamer has
317built-in hardware compression. Maximum, if your CPU is blazingly
318fast. Average should do just fine for most situations.
319</entry>
320</row>
321<row>
322<entry>
323<ulink url="images/mainclude.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
324<imagedata fileref="images/mainclude-mini">
325</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
326</ulink>
327</entry>
328<entry>
329If you want to backup the whole computer (excluding /sys and /proc,
330naturally) then leave this as / which is the default. Otherwise,
331specify subsets, (e.g. /usr/local /home ) being sure to put a space
332in between each path.
333</entry>
334</row>
335<row>
336<entry>
337<ulink url="images/maexclude.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
338<imagedata fileref="images/maexclude-mini">
339</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
340</ulink>
341</entry>
342<entry>
343If you are backing up your whole computer then you might want to
344exclude certain directories, e.g. /shared/MP3. Please specify them
345in the 'exclude directories' dialog box. Please put a space in
346between each path, e.g. /shared/private /scratch /nfs /windows
347</entry>
348</row>
349<row>
350<entry>
351<ulink url="images/makernel.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
352<imagedata fileref="images/makernel-mini">
353</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
354</ulink>
355</entry>
356<entry>
357Is your kernel sane? Red Hat, Mandrake, SuSE, Debian and Slackware users
358should in general say 'yes' because these vendors are good at
359producing reliable kernels. If you are using Gentoo or LFS
360then your kernel might be non-standard, in which case say 'no' to
361use Mondo's failsafe kernel (provided separately).
362</entry>
363</row>
364<row>
365<entry>
366<ulink url="images/maverifyq.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
367<imagedata fileref="images/maverifyq-mini">
368</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
369</ulink>
370</entry>
371<entry>
372If you want to verify the archives after writing them to media, say
373'yes' here. If you have absolute faith in your hardware and your
374Linux distribution, say 'no'... and a little prayer.
375</entry>
376</row>
377<row>
378<entry>
379<ulink url="images/maproceedq.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
380<imagedata fileref="images/maproceedq-mini">
381</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
382</ulink>
383</entry>
384<entry>
385If you are sure you want to go ahead, say 'yes' and find something
386else to do while Mondo backs up your computer. If you say 'no' then
387you will be unceremoniously dumped at the shell prompt. :-)
388</entry>
389</row>
390<row>
391<entry>
392<ulink url="images/1.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
393<imagedata fileref="images/1-mini">
394</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
395</ulink>
396</entry>
397<entry>
398The backup process will now commence. There are some pre-backup
399tasks to be carried out first but the backup is essentially
400underway. To simplify the backup process, you were asked a series
401of questions. Next time, if you like, you could call mondoarchive
402with various command-line switches to control its behavior, instead
403of answering a series of questions. See the man page for details.
404</entry>
405</row>
406<row>
407<entry>
408<ulink url="images/3.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
409<imagedata fileref="images/3-mini">
410</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
411</ulink>
412</entry>
413<entry>
414Mondo will make a catalog of all files to be backed up. This may
415take up to five minutes. The list of files will be divided into
416sets, approximately 4 MB (before compression) of files per set.
417This typically takes one minute.
418</entry>
419</row>
420<row>
421<entry>
422<ulink url="images/4.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
423<imagedata fileref="images/1-mini">
424</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
425</ulink>
426</entry>
427<entry>
428Mondo calls Mindi. Mindi generates bootable floppy disk images and
429auxiliary data disk images which are based on your existing Linux
430distribution and filesystem. That way, you can be sure Mondo's
431tools will be compatible with your existing filesystems and
432binaries: Mondo's tools are your tools. Mindi takes up to five
433minutes to run.
434</entry>
435</row>
436<row>
437<entry>
438<ulink url="images/5tape.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
439<imagedata fileref="images/5tape-mini">
440</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
441</ulink>
442</entry>
443<entry>
444Finally, Mondo begins backing up your computer. This process may
445take a few minutes or a few hours, depending on how much data you
446are archiving, how fast your CPU is, how much RAM you have, and so
447on. It will backup your regular files and then your large files
448(files larger than approximately 32MB). If you have opted to verify
449your backups, Mondo will do that too.
450</entry>
451</row>
452<row>
453<entry>
454<ulink url="images/10cd.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
455<imagedata fileref="images/10cd-mini">
456</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
457</ulink>
458</entry>
459<entry>
460Do you want to create a boot floppy at the end? Yes, if you're a
461tape or NFS user. No, if you are using CD/DVD-R[W]'s and your computer
462supports bootable CD's. Tape users only need one floppy but other
463users may need more. Mondo will advise accordingly.
464</entry>
465</row>
466</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
467
468<itemizedlist>
469<listitem>
470<para>Try to boot from the first CD of the backup (or the first
471floppy, if you made floppies). Choose 'Compare Mode' by typing
472compare at the boot screen.</para>
473</listitem>
474<listitem>
475<para>If you can boot, fine. If not, make a Mindi "Test" CD to
476checkout the compatibility of your system. (see
477<link linkend="test-mindi">Testing Mindi</link> for more
478details). Remove the CD/floppy; boot your computer as usual;
479execute as root</para>
480<para></para>
481<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
482<row>
483<entry>
484
485        bash# mindi
486</entry>
487</row>
488<row>
489<entry>
490        bash# cd /root/images/mindi
491
492</entry>
493</row>
494</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
495
496<para>(for CD-R)</para>
497<para></para>
498<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
499<row>
500<entry>
501
502bash# cdrecord dev=0,0,0 speed=4 -eject -v mindi.iso
503
504</entry>
505</row>
506</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
507
508<para>(for CD-RW)</para>
509<para></para>
510<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
511<row>
512<entry>
513
514bash# cdrecord dev=0,0,0 speed=4 blank=fast -eject -v mindi.iso
515
516</entry>
517</row>
518</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
519
520<para>Reboot your system with the created Mindi CD, with the BIOS
521set to boot from CD. If the result is a command line in 'Expert'
522mode, your system checks out. Remove the CD and reboot your
523system.</para>
524</listitem>
525<listitem>
526<para>If you still cannot boot from Mindi's CD then please e-mail
527the &ML; for help.
528</para>
529</listitem>
530</itemizedlist>
531<para>When making a backup on a live system, there will always be
532processes running that will write out data on the system after you
533have made the backup and before you have made the compare, this
534will result in difference showing up when comparing your backup.
535For a full explanation and what can be done to avoid this, please
536read this section.</para>
537<itemizedlist>
538
539        <listitem>
540<para>This QuickStart covers the ideal case. Upon receiving any
541system feedback/errors, read each related HOWTO section.</para>
542<para>Example 2-1. A test backup of your /home directory to CD-Rs
543using the command line</para>
544<para></para>
545<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
546<row>
547<entry>
548
549bash# mondoarchive -OVc 4 -I /home -gF
550
551</entry>
552</row>
553</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
554
555<para>The 'c' means you must be writing to CD-Rs, not CD-RWs (the
556latter would require 'w' instead of 'c'). The '4' is the speed of
557your CD writer. The string after -I is the path to be backed up.
558The '-gF' means you are going to see the pretty yellow-on-blue
559screen instead of the boring white-on-black screen. :) It also
560means Mondo will not offer to create physical boot floppies for
561you. It is assumed that you are able to boot from the CD which
562Mondo has generated.</para>
563<para>Example 2-2. A backup of your whole filesystem to NFS using
564the command line</para>
565<para></para>
566<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
567<row>
568<entry>
569
570        bash# mkdir -p /mnt/nfs
571</entry>
572</row>
573<row>
574<entry>
575        bash# mount 192.168.1.28:/home/nfs /mnt/nfs
576        </entry>
577</row>
578<row>
579<entry>
580bash# mondoarchive -OVn 192.168.1.28:/home/nfs -gF[...]
581        </entry>
582</row>
583<row>
584<entry>
585bash# umount /mnt/nfs
586        </entry>
587</row>
588<row>
589<entry>
590bash# cdrecord dev=0,0,0 speed=4 -eject -v /root/images/mindi/mindi.iso
591
592</entry>
593</row>
594</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
595
596<para>Note that you have to mount the NFS partition, backup to it,
597unmount it, and create a boot CD to allow you to restore from
598scratch if necessary. To reassure yourself that you will be able to
599restore from the NFS share even if your PC is wiped, please boot
600from the Mindi CD and type 'compare'. The on-screen instructions
601from that point on should be sufficient.</para>
602<para>Example 2-3. A backup of your whole
603filesystem to tape using the command line</para>
604<para></para>
605<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
606<row>
607<entry>
608
609bash# mondoarchive -OVt -d /dev/st0 -9 -L -g
610
611</entry>
612</row>
613</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
614
615<para>In this case, we assume Syslinux is incompatible with your
616boot media. For some reason, some BIOSes just don't like Syslinux.
617If you find this to be the case for your computer, please use '-L'
618to force Mondo to use LILO instead of Syslinux as the boot loader
619for its CD/floppies. (NB: This has nothing to do with which boot
620loader your hard drive uses.) Also, it is a good habit to specify
621your tape streamer with '-d &lt;device&gt;'. You don't usually need
622to but it's good to be on the safe side. Some computers call your
623tape streamer /dev/osst0, some call it /dev/ftape, ...</para>
624</listitem>
625</itemizedlist>
626
627</chapter>
628
629<chapter id="overview"><title>Overview</title>
630
631<sect1 id="overview-mondorescue">
632<title>Mondo Rescue</title>
633<para>Mondo Rescue backs up your file system to CD, tape, NFS
634(archives stored remotely) or ISO's (archives stored locally).
635Mondo uses afio as the backup engine; afio is a well-respected
636replacement for tar. In the event of catastrophic data loss, you
637may restore some or all of your system, even if your hard drives
638are now blank. Mondo Rescue can do a lot of other cool
639things:</para>
640<itemizedlist>
641<listitem>
642<para>You can use Mondo to clone an installation of Linux. Just
643backup the crucial stuff and exclude /home, /var/log, etc.</para>
644</listitem>
645<listitem>
646<para>You can backup a non-RAID file system and restore it as RAID
647including the root partition (if your kernel supports that).</para>
648</listitem>
649<listitem>
650<para>You can backup a system running on one format and restore as
651another format.</para>
652</listitem>
653<listitem>
654<para>You can restructure your partitions, e.g. shrink/enlarge,
655reassign devices, add hard drives, etc, before you partition and
656format your drives. Mondo will restore your data and amend
657/etc/lilo.conf and /etc/fstab accordingly.</para>
658</listitem>
659<listitem>
660<para>You can backup Linux/Windows systems, including the boot
661sectors. Mondo will make everything right at restore-time.
662(However, do run "Scandisk" when you first boot into Windows, just
663in case.)</para>
664</listitem>
665<listitem>
666<para>You can use your Mondo backup CD to verify the integrity of
667your computer.</para>
668</listitem>
669</itemizedlist>
670<para>Mondo's principal virtue is that it protects you from the
671problems that can arise when you reinstall completely from scratch.
672If you want to wipe and restore your system every year just as a
673matter of 'good practice', Mondo is not for you. However, if you
674want to get up and running again in a hurry after someone breaks
675into your computer and wipes it (or if you accidentally wipe it
676yourself) then Mondo is definitely for you. It will permit you to
677roll back to a known-good installation in a very short period of
678time, sometimes as little as twenty minutes. Even if you backup
679large amounts of data to tape daily and do not want to add yet
680another backup regime, please consider backing up the core
681filesystem (i.e. everything but the directories containing your
682huge database and your prizewinning novel) every month or so, just
683in case. You will be glad you did.</para>
684<para>What is Mondo not?</para>
685<para>Mondo is not an everyday backup program. It is not designed
686to replace tar, afio, kbackup, etc. Mondo is designed to make it
687possible to recover from scratch if necessary. Tar and afio offer a
688quick, convenient way to backup small sets of files, sometimes to
689removable media.</para>
690</sect1>
691
692<sect1 id="overview-mindi">
693<title>Mindi</title>
694<para>
695Mindi Linux creates a set of boot/root floppy disk images
696that will let you perform basic system maintenance on your Linux
697distro. The principal virtues of Mindi's boot disks are the fact
698that they contain your kernel, modules, tools and libraries. You
699can ask for additional binaries (or other files) to be included on
700the kit. The libraries will be added for you.
701</para>
702<para>Whichever modules were loaded at backup-time, they are
703reloaded at boot-time. So, in theory, you will boot into almost the
704same environment as you were in when you backed up. If you want to
705add files to your Mindi boot disks, edit '&lt;INSTALLPATH OF
706MINDI&gt;/mindi/deplist.txt' and add the files to that list. The
707added files and dependencies, will be spread across the data disks
708at run-time.
709</para>
710<para>Mindi makes sure that Mondo has all the tools it needs at
711boot-time. Mondo uses fdisk, mkfs, cat, less, more, afio, gzip,
712bzip2, your keyboard configuration, your glibc libraries, your
713other libraries, your kernel, your modules, ... a lot! Mindi takes
714care of all that, so that Mondo can get on with the job of backing
715up or restoring your data.
716</para>
717<para>Mindi is also handy for making boot CDs/disks which stand on
718their own. You do not need Mondo. Indeed, if you like, you could
719use another backup/restore program with Mindi. Just add it to
720Mindi's dependency list (type 'locate deplist.txt' to find it).
721Mindi will include your software on its boot CD/disks the next time
722you run mindi.
723</para>
724</sect1>
725
726
727<sect1 id="overview-linuxbackup">
728<title>Linux Backup</title>
729<para>Mondo Rescue and Mindi Linux are used primarily as Linux
730backup and cloning tools. The fall in prices of CD-RW drives and
731writable discs will allow current users to keep good backups and
732future users to leverage the cloning capability.</para>
733<para>Tape drives are more likely to suit your needs if you run a
734larger installation (or have lots of MP3's). Warning! OnStream
735drives do not play well with Mondo. I do not know why. It is, in my
736opinion, something which OnStream should look into. Mondo uses
737fopen(), fread(), fwrite() and fclose() to interact with tape
738drives. That works for most drives but some drives just don't like
739that.</para>
740<para>Mondo Rescue has tested thousands of times on various computers.
741It worked for them.
742Thousands of users testify to Mondo's stability and its ease of
743use. However, please test it on your own system before you rely on
744it. In fact, do not rely on any software until you have tested it
745to see if it performs as expected.</para>
746<para>To establish that Mondo will behave well in an emergency,
747please be prepared. Run a test backup as follows:-</para>
748<itemizedlist>
749<listitem>
750<para>Run mondoarchive without any command-line options.</para>
751</listitem>
752<listitem>
753    <para>Backup a subset of files - e.g. /usr/local - to CD or
754            tape. Say 'yes' when asked if you want to verify them.</para>
755</listitem>
756<listitem>
757    <para>If you are not backing up to CD, please create boot
758    floppies when prompted.</para>
759</listitem>
760</itemizedlist>
761<para>Next, restore archives to your live filesystem.</para>
762<itemizedlist>
763<listitem>
764<para>When mondoarchive terminates, run mondorestore without any
765command-line options.</para>
766</listitem>
767<listitem><para>Insert the CD or the first boot floppy when prompted.
768                Press &lt;Enter&gt;. Wait a moment.</para></listitem>
769<listitem><para>Select a subset of files to restore, e.g. /usr/local/man
770                and /usr/local/bin. Hit OK.</para></listitem>
771<listitem><para>Restore files to /tmp or /root/RESTORED or something
772                similar.</para></listitem>
773<listitem><para>When mondorestore terminates, compare the restored files
774                to the originals using cmp or diff.</para></listitem>
775</itemizedlist>
776<para>Finally, simulate an emergency restore.</para>
777<itemizedlist>
778<listitem>
779<para>Boot from CD/floppies.</para>
780</listitem>
781<listitem><para>Select 'Interactive Mode' at boot-time. (Type
782                'interactive' and hit &lt;Enter&gt;.)</para></listitem>
783<listitem><para>Hit OK when shown the mountlist. Say 'yes' when asked if
784                you accept the mountlist.</para></listitem>
785<listitem><para>Select files to restore, e.g. /usr/local/man and
786                /usr/local/bin. Hit OK.</para></listitem>
787<listitem><para>Restore files to /tmp or /root/RESTORED or something
788                similar.</para></listitem>
789<listitem><para>When mondorestore terminates, please reboot and compare
790                the restored files to the originals.</para></listitem>
791</itemizedlist>
792<para>FYI, the subroutines to repartition and reformat your drives
793are very stable. If you are a RAID or LVM user, you
794might&nbsp;encounter some difficulties when wiping and restoring
795from scratch because of the sheer range of filesystem layouts and
796the impossibility of testing Mondo on every single one. If you have
797trouble, just drop to the command-line and partition/format
798manually. Then, call mondorestore, select Interactive Mode, and say
799'no' when asked if you want Mondo to partition or format your
800drives for you.</para>
801<para>You see, even if you have trouble, you still have two hands
802and most of the tools you need - lvchange, pvcreate, fdisk, mkraid,
803etc. - to do it manually. After you have prepped and formatted your
804drives manually (if you have to), just run mondorestore again and
805say 'no' when asked if you want to prep or format your drives. What
806could be easier?</para>
807</sect1>
808
809<sect1 id="overview-winbackup">
810<title>Windows Backup</title>
811<para>Backing up windows partitions.</para>
812<sect2 id="overview-winbackup-win95"><title>Windows ME/95/98</title>
813<para>Verify that the partition is listed in /etc/fstab and is
814mounted (e.g. /dev/hda1). Mondo will take care of everything else.
815The files will be archived just like all other files in the live
816file system. At restore-time, Mondo will take care of the boot
817sector of /dev/hda1 prior to the restore.</para>
818<para>Note: if Windows ME/95/98 is not located on /dev/hda1 or
819/dev/sda1, then Mondo will not take care of the boot sector of
820/dev/hda1. The user will have to boot from a DOS floppy and run SYS
821C: to correct the Windows boot sector.</para>
822</sect2>
823<sect2 id="overview-winbackup-winnt"><title>Windows NT4/2K/XP</title>
824<para>Windows NT4/2K/XP typically use the NTFS file system, not
825VFAT.. The user should use '-x /dev/hda1' (or whichever device the
826Windows partition resides). Mondo will treat the partition as a
827biggiefile. Mondo will also add an entry to the mountlist to
828reflect the size and type of the partition. The user may not edit
829that partition's size at restore-time (for obvious reasons).</para>
830<para>Please bear in mind that Mondo was written for Linux users.
831If Mondo does not backup or restore your Windows system well, you
832might want to consider reporting it to the &ML;
833</para>
834</sect2>
835</sect1>
836
837<sect1 id="overview-history">
838<title>Mondo Rescue and Mindi Linux
839History</title>
840<para>Mondo Rescue was created in December 1999 by Hugo Rabson as a utility to
841clone Linux/Windows installations. Norton Ghost would not do the
842job, and his boss wanted to jump on the Linux bandwagon. So, he wrote
843a few scripts and shoehorned them into the latest Linux-Mandrake
844CD. Since that time, Mondo grew into a disaster recovery suite for
845Linux and Windows. Mondo forced him to learn about the kernel, its
846initrd initial ramdisk, modules, library dependencies, disk
847partitioning, and the myriad differences between the Top 10 Linux
848distributions.</para>
849<para>The first formal release was made on February 18th, 2000.
850Mondo is currently one of the top five Linux backup/restore
851programs. Mondo has been compared favorably to ArcServe, Arkeia and
852BRU. Although Mondo lacks the more advanced, enterprise-level
853features of ArcServe and Arkeia, for workstations and small- to
854medium-size servers it is ideal because it is small, fast,
855efficient, stable, comes with source code, and is being actively
856developed and supported.</para>
857<para>
858        Since November 2005, Hugo Rabson has tranfered the maintenance
859        of the Mondo Rescue suite to Andree Leidenfrost and Bruno Cornec,
860        both previous developpers and packagers of the tool since nearly
861        the begining.
862</para>
863</sect1>
864
865<sect1 id="overview-sysreq">
866<title>System Requirements</title>
867<sect2 id="overview-sysrq-hwreq">
868<title>Hardware Requirements</title>
869
870<para>Your computer must have:</para>
871<itemizedlist>
872<listitem>
873        <para>Intel(R)-compatible CPU (ia32, x86_64/amd64 or ia64)</para>
874</listitem>
875<listitem>
876<para>64MB of RAM (128MB recommended)</para>
877</listitem>
878<listitem>
879<para>800MB of hard disk space free</para>
880</listitem>
881<listitem>
882<para>CD writer, tape streamer, NFS share or some way to backup the
883backups :)</para>
884</listitem>
885</itemizedlist>
886<para>It is recommended that your computer have very good airflow.
887The backup with Mondo Rescue and Mindi Linux will utilize your CPU,
888CD drive and fixed disk(s) like very few other applications. With a
889few hours of system backup activity, computers without sufficient
890airflow may show symptoms such as not burning full CD discs. The
891solution is a $20 or less additional fan at your local electronics
892discount store.</para>
893</sect2>
894
895<sect2 id="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">
896<title>Kernel Requirements</title>
897
898<para>Your kernel must have:</para>
899<itemizedlist>
900<listitem>
901<para>stable loopfs support, which means it really needs to be
9022.2.19 or 2.4.7 (or later)</para>
903</listitem>
904<listitem>
905<para>CD-ROM device support</para>
906</listitem>
907<listitem>
908<para>ISO9660 file system support</para>
909</listitem>
910<listitem>
911<para>initrd ramdisk support (built-in)</para>
912</listitem>
913<listitem>
914<para>Virtual memory file system support (built-in)</para>
915</listitem>
916<listitem>
917<para>floppy disk support (built in)</para>
918</listitem>
919<listitem>
920<para>ext2 file system support (built-in)</para>
921</listitem>
922<listitem>
923<para>Support for the backup media (Tape, CD-RW, NFS, Hard
924disk)</para>
925</listitem>
926<listitem>
927<para>If the backup media is CD-RW then you need SCSI emulation
928also</para>
929<para>vfat support in the active kernel - mindi needs this when creating
930syslinux boot floppies</para>
931</listitem>
932</itemizedlist>
933<para>Please note that the stock kernels of Red Hat/RHEL/Fedora,
934    Mandrake/Mandriva, SuSE/SLES/OpenSuSE, Debian and Slackware
935    all meet Mondo's requirements. If your kernel does not meet Mondo's
936    requirements then there is something wrong with it. Mondo's demands
937    are not unreasonable.</para>
938<para>Mondo (specifically Mindi) does not require any specific
939module. It does require that your kernel support the initrd
940initial ramdisk facility. Typically this is supported by the Linux
941kernel. Modules used are needed to support the CD, floppy disks,
942hard disks, etc. If the support is modular, then the modules will
943be incorporated in a boot disk by Mindi. If the support is built-in
944(static), then it will be available at boot-time by default.</para>
945</sect2>
946<sect2 id="overview-sysrq-swreq">
947<title>Software Requirements</title>
948<para>See Mondo's <ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org/download.html">Download
949page</ulink> for details.</para>
950<para>Mondo requires afio, bzip2, cdrtools/cdrecord/growisofs, ncurses, newt,
951isolinux/syslinux, lzo (optional), lzop (optional), mkisofs, slang,
952and a few other packages.</para>
953<para>Good Linux distributions provide all these packages. If yours
954does not then please go to the aforementioned Download page or surf
955the Net, preferably the website of the distribution you are
956using.</para>
957<para>Mondo's expectations are not unreasonable, either of your
958Linux distribution or of your kernel. However, if your distribution
959fails to meet its expectations and you cannot find out how to
960resolve them, please feel free to e-mail the &ML;
961</para>
962</sect2>
963</sect1>
964</chapter>
965
966<chapter id="installation">
967<title>Installation</title>
968
969<sect1 id="installation-mindi">
970<title>Mindi Installation</title>
971<para>If you are installing from a tarball then copy it to wherever
972you have enough space, for example /tmp and type:</para>
973<para></para>
974<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
975<row>
976<entry>
977
978        bash# cd /tmp
979</entry>
980</row>
981<row>
982<entry>
983        bash# tar -zxvf mindi-1.x.tgz
984        </entry>
985</row>
986<row>
987<entry>
988bash# cd mindi-1.x
989</entry>
990</row>
991<row>
992<entry>
993        bash# ./install.sh
994
995</entry>
996</row>
997</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
998
999<para>This installs mindi additional files into /usr/local/lib/mindi and
1000the program into /usr/local/sbin</para>
1001<para>Or, if you are installing from an RPM/deb then copy it to
1002wherever you have enough space, for example /tmp and type:</para>
1003<para></para>
1004<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1005<row>
1006<entry>
1007
1008bash# rpm -Uvh /tmp/mindi-1.x-x.i386.rpm
1009</entry>
1010</row>
1011<row>
1012<entry>
1013
1014or
1015</entry>
1016</row>
1017<row>
1018<entry>
1019
1020bash# dpkg -i /tmp/mindi-1.x-x.deb
1021
1022</entry>
1023</row>
1024</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1025
1026<para>This installs mindi additional files into /usr/lib/mindi and
1027the program into /usr/sbin.
1028</para>
1029</sect1>
1030
1031<sect1 id="installation-mondo">
1032<title>Mondo Installation</title>
1033<para>If you are installing from a tarball then copy it to wherever
1034you have enough space, for example /tmp and type:</para>
1035<para></para>
1036<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1037<row>
1038<entry>
1039
1040        bash# cd /tmp
1041</entry>
1042</row>
1043<row>
1044<entry>
1045        bash# tar -zxvf mondo-2.xx.tgz
1046        </entry>
1047</row>
1048<row>
1049<entry>
1050bash# cd mondo-2.xx
1051        </entry>
1052</row>
1053<row>
1054<entry>
1055bash# make &amp;&amp; make install
1056
1057</entry>
1058</row>
1059</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1060
1061<para>This installs mondo into /usr/local/lib/mondo and installs
1062the programs into /usr/local/sbin</para>
1063<para>Or, if you are installing from an RPM/deb then copy it to copy it
1064to wherever you have enough space, for example /tmp and
1065type:</para>
1066<para></para>
1067<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1068<row>
1069<entry>
1070
1071bash# rpm -Uvh /tmp/mondo-2.x-x.i386.rpm
1072</entry>
1073</row>
1074<row>
1075<entry>
1076
1077or
1078</entry>
1079</row>
1080<row>
1081<entry>
1082
1083bash# dpkg -i /tmp/mondo-2.x-x.deb
1084
1085</entry>
1086</row>
1087</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1088
1089<para>This installs mondo into /usr/lib/mondo and installs
1090the programs into /usr/sbin</para>
1091</sect1>
1092</chapter>
1093
1094<chapter id="test">
1095<title>Tests</title>
1096
1097<sect1 id="test-mindi">
1098<title>Testing Mindi</title>
1099
1100<para>Mindi is a vital part of the backup procedure. If you have
1101used Mondo before or if you are in a hurry, skip steps 6.2 and 6.3;
1102go straight to QuickStart.</para>
1103<para>However, if you have time or if you have been having trouble
1104getting Mondo to work, I would recommend trying out Mindi directly
1105(rather than via Mondo) to see if it can produce a bootable CD on
1106your system.</para>
1107<para>Make sure you are root while doing this, otherwise mindi will
1108fail, now do this.</para>
1109<para>If you have any problems, please:-</para>
1110<itemizedlist>
1111<listitem>
1112<para>less /var/log/mindi.log</para>
1113</listitem>
1114<listitem><para>feel free to edit mindi (it's a shell script, btw) to try
1115                to fix the problem yourself</para></listitem>
1116<listitem><para>contact the &ML; if you get stuck.</para></listitem>
1117</itemizedlist>
1118<para>Type:-</para>
1119<para></para>
1120<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1121<row>
1122<entry>
1123
1124bash# mindi
1125
1126</entry>
1127</row>
1128</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1129
1130<para>Example screen output, selecting to use your own kernel, to
1131create boot disks, and to create a bootable CD image:</para>
1132<para></para>
1133<screen>
1134
1135# mindi
1136Mindi Linux mini-distro generator v1.06-r343
1137
1138Latest Mindi is available from http://mondorescue.berlios.de
1139
1140BusyBox sources are available from http://www.busybox.net
1141
1142------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1143Do you want to use your own kernel to build the boot disk (y/n) ?y
1144Would you like to use LILO (instead of syslinux)
1145for your boot CD/floppies (y/n) ?n
1146Analyzing dependency requirements                               Done.
1147Making complete dependency list                                 Done.
1148Analyzing your keyboard's configuration.
1149
1150Adding the following keyboard mapping tables: us-latin1         Done.
1151Assembling dependency files...................................................................                                                  Done.
1152The files have been subdivided into 5 directories.                              Your mountlist will look like this:-
1153    Finding all volume groups
1154  No volume groups found
1155  No volume groups found
1156  No volume groups found
1157  No volume groups found
1158        DEVICE          MOUNTPOINT      FORMAT          SIZE (MB)
1159        /dev/hda1       /               ext3                399
1160        /dev/hda9       /home           ext3              48478
1161        /dev/hda6       /usr            ext3               4999
1162        /dev/hda7       /var            ext3               1000
1163        /dev/hda5       swap            swap                349
1164        /dev/hda8       swap            swap               2003
1165    Finding all volume groups
1166  No volume groups found
1167  No volume groups found
1168  No volume groups found
1169  No volume groups found
1170Tarring and zipping the groups..................                Done.
1171Creating data disk #1...#2...#3...#4...#5...                    Done.
1172Making 1722KB boot disk...........................1440+0 enregistrements lus.
11731440+0 enregistrements écrits.
1174mke2fs 1.38 (30-Jun-2005)
1175cp: écriture de `vmlinuz': Aucun espace disponible sur le périphérique
1176Failed to copy /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.12-15mdk-i686-up-4GB to ramdisk
1177
1178Warning - failed to create 1.44MB boot/root floppies
1179
1180Warning - failed to create 1.72MB boot image. Please reduce your kernel's size
1181
1182if you want to make a 1.72MB floppy disk.
1183
1184Making 2880KB boot disk...........................mkfs.vfat 2.10 (22 Sep 2003)
1185... 2880 KB boot disks were created OK                          Done.
1186In the directory '/root/images/mindi' you will find the images:-
1187   mindi-data-1.img    mindi-data-2.img    mindi-data-3.img    mindi-data-4.img    mindi-data-5.img mindi-root.1440.img
1188Would you like to create boot+data floppy disks now (y/n) ?n
1189Shall I make a bootable CD image? (y/n) y
1190NB: Mindi's bootable CD always uses isolinux.
1191
1192For a bootable CD w/LILO, please use Mondo.
1193
1194Finished.
1195
1196Boot and data disk images were created.
1197
1198#
1199       
1200</screen>
1201
1202<para>If your kernel is too large (more than about 900KB) then you
1203cannot make boot floppies, although you can still make a bootable
1204CD image. The easiest way to test Mindi in either case is to say
1205'n' to its first question and 'y' to its second, then use the
1206separate application cdrecord to make a bootable CD-R or
1207CD-RW.</para>
1208<para>Use the cdrecord application to write the CD image:</para>
1209<para></para>
1210<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1211<row>
1212<entry>
1213
1214        bash# cd /root/images/mindi
1215</entry>
1216</row>
1217<row>
1218        <entry>
1219        bash# cdrecord -scanbus
1220
1221</entry>
1222</row>
1223</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1224
1225<para>The output of the above call to cdrecord will tell you your
1226CD writer's node. It is usually '0,0,0'. Choose one of the
1227following calls to write the CD, depending on whether the disk in
1228the drive is a CD-R or a CD-RW. Please replace 'x,x,x' with your
1229writer's node. For further information, type 'man cdrecord" from a
1230Linux command line.</para>
1231<para>If writing to a CD-RW Drive/Disc:</para>
1232<para></para>
1233<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1234<row>
1235<entry>
1236
1237bash# cdrecord -v blank=fast dev=x,x,x speed=4 mindi.iso (for CD-RW)
1238
1239</entry>
1240</row>
1241</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1242
1243<para>If writing to a CD-R Drive/Disc:</para>
1244<para></para>
1245<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1246<row>
1247<entry>
1248
1249bash# cdrecord -v dev=x,x,x speed=4 mindi.iso (for CD-R)
1250
1251</entry>
1252</row>
1253</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1254</sect1>
1255
1256<!--
1257<sect1 id="test-mondo">
1258<title>Testing Mondo</title>
1259</sect1>
1260-->
1261</chapter>
1262
1263<chapter id="backup">
1264<title>Backup</title>
1265
1266<sect1 id="backup-recommandations">
1267<title>Recommandations</title>
1268<itemizedlist>
1269<listitem>
1270<para>Shut down all possible applications (this minimizes any
1271        compare differences following the backup). Especially shutdown
1272        properly any running database on your system, as the recovery
1273        may lead to corrupted data.</para>
1274</listitem>
1275<listitem>
1276<para>Type:</para>
1277</listitem>
1278</itemizedlist>
1279<para></para>
1280<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1281<row>
1282<entry>
1283
1284bash# mondoarchive
1285
1286</entry>
1287</row>
1288</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1289
1290<para>For most users, that should be enough. :-) Mondoarchive will
1291usually autodetect your hardware and configure it for you.</para>
1292<para>If you are a power user (or you like to control every detail
1293of how Mondo runs) then you may want to look at the command-line
1294switches. For example:-</para>
1295<para></para>
1296<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1297<row>
1298<entry>
1299
1300bash# mondoarchive -Ow9 -gF -I /home
1301
1302</entry>
1303</row>
1304</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1305
1306<para>cdrecord will tell you where your CD recorder lives, in SCSI
1307terms, which looks like '0,0,0'. The previous call to mondoarchive tells
1308Mondo to backup everything to a 4x CD-RW drive that has
1309a CD-RW disk in it. (Use -Oc instead of -Ow if you are using
1310CD-R.)</para>
1311<para>Please put the first CD-R(W) in the drive now. You will be
1312prompted to insert CD #2 but you will not be prompted to insert the
1313first disk. However, if you forget, do not worry: if Mondo fails to
1314write the first (or any) disk, it will offer to retry, abort or
1315fail.</para>
1316<para>Find the speed/compression
1317compromise that best suits your needs. Here maximum (-9) compression level is used.</para>
1318<para>If you are using cron then please consult the chapter that Conor Daly has dedicated to that <link linkend="backup-cron">topic</link>
1319</para>
1320</sect1>
1321
1322<sect1 id="backup-cmd">
1323<title>Backup Commands and Options</title>
1324
1325<para>Backup Command:</para>
1326<para></para>
1327<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1328<row>
1329<entry>
1330
1331mondoarchive &lt;-option1&gt; &lt;-option2&gt; ... &lt;-optionN&gt;
1332
1333</entry>
1334</row>
1335</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1336
1337<para>E.g.,</para>
1338<para></para>
1339<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1340<row>
1341<entry>
1342
1343bash# mondoarchive -E "/mnt/dos /mnt/cdrom" -9 -Oc 8
1344
1345</entry>
1346</row>
1347</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1348
1349<para>Would create backup CD to a CD-R disc at the highest
1350compression level, writing at speed 8 and ignoring the /mnt/dos and
1351/mnt/cdrom directories.</para>
1352<para>To see a detailed list of switches and their meaning, see the
1353<ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org/download/mondoarchive.1.html">HTML
1354man page</ulink> on the website or type 'man mondoarchive' at the
1355console.</para>
1356<sect2 id="backup-cmd-cdr">
1357<title>Standard Example With CD-R</title>
1358<para></para>
1359<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1360<row>
1361<entry>
1362
1363bash# mondoarchive -Oc 2 -g
1364
1365</entry>
1366</row>
1367</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1368
1369<para>Replace '2' in '-Oc 2' with the writer's speed. If
1370mondoarchive cannot find your CD-R then please add '-d 0,0,0' (or
1371whatever your CD writer's SCSI node is; usually, it is 0,0,0) to
1372the call.</para>
1373<para>Please insert the first disk in the writer while the PC is
1374chugging away. If Mondo needs additional CD-R(W) then it will ask
1375for them.</para>
1376</sect2>
1377<sect2 id="backup-cmd-cdrw">
1378<title>Standard Example With CD-RW</title>
1379<para></para>
1380<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1381<row>
1382<entry>
1383
1384bash# mondoarchive -Ow 2 -g
1385
1386</entry>
1387</row>
1388</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1389
1390<para>Replace '2' in '-Ow 2' with the writer's speed.</para>
1391</sect2>
1392<sect2 id="backup-cmd-tape">
1393        <title>Standard Example With Tape</title>
1394<para></para>
1395<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1396<row>
1397<entry>
1398
1399bash# mondoarchive -Ot -d /dev/st0 -g
1400
1401</entry>
1402</row>
1403</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1404
1405</sect2>
1406<sect2 id="backup-cmd-failsafe">
1407        <title>Standard Example With Failsafe kernel</title>
1408<para></para>
1409<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1410<row>
1411<entry>
1412
1413bash# mondoarchive -k FAILSAFE -Ow 2
1414
1415</entry>
1416</row>
1417</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1418
1419<para>If you have problems during the restore phase, due to your kernel
1420        (which may be the case on some distributions), you may want to explore the Failsafe
1421        approach, In order for this option to work you'll have to get
1422        the mindi-kernel tarball or package for your distribution.</para>
1423</sect2>
1424<sect2 id="backup-cmd-network">
1425        <title>Standard Example With Network Backup</title>
1426<para></para>
1427<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1428<row>
1429<entry>
1430
1431        bash# mount 192.168.1.3:/home/nfs -t nfs /mnt/nfs
1432</entry>
1433</row>
1434<row>
1435        <entry>
1436        bash# mondoarchive -OVn 192.168.1.3:/home/nfs -g -s 200m
1437</entry>
1438</row>
1439<row>
1440        <entry>
1441        bash# umount /mnt/nfs
1442
1443</entry>
1444</row>
1445</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1446
1447<para>The resultant ISO's can be burned to CD's if you want (which
1448isn't a good idea unless you're a Mondo expert because they'll try
1449to restore over a network by default, which is silly because the
1450archives are on the CD's). Or, you can boot from the Mindi floppies
1451(or mondorescue.iso) and hit ENTER a few times to restore.</para>
1452<para>Those ISO images can also be used for a PXE restore. For this
1453        to work, please refer to the file README.pxe provided with
1454        your mindi package.
1455</para>
1456</sect2>
1457</sect1>
1458</chapter>
1459
1460<chapter id="backup-cron">
1461<title>HOWTO run mondo interactively using cron</title>
1462
1463<sect1 id="backup-cron-overview">
1464<title>Overview</title>
1465
1466<para>
1467        Mondoarchive is designed to run interactively (at least where
1468 media changes are necessary). Cron does not allow user interaction
1469 with a job. This section addresses the problem by using screen as a
1470 wrapper for mondo.
1471</para>
1472<para>
1473        This section is Copyright 2003 Conor Daly.
1474</para>
1475</sect1>
1476<sect1 id="backup-cron-intro">
1477        <title>Introduction</title>
1478
1479<para>
1480Mondoarchive is designed to run interactively. That's not strictly
1481 true, if you run mondoarchive without the '-g' switch, it will just
1482 run. However, there is a problem where media changes are necessary.
1483 The user must change the media and tell mondoarchive that the change
1484 has been done. The problem lies in the fact that cron does not allow
1485 user interaction with a job. If you schedule a mondoarchive job via
1486 cron, you better be sure it needs only one media. in practical terms,
1487 this means using tapes or ISOs (if CD-R(W) is your backup medium).
1488 However, for tape users, there's always the possibility that the
1489 backup will overflow the tape while for CD-R(W) users, there is the
1490 added hassle of burning the ISOs in the morning. If your CD_R(W)
1491 backup routinely occupies more than one media, this is not for you
1492 (use the ISO option and burn the CDs in the morning). This HOWTO
1493 addresses the problem by using screen as a wrapper for mondo.
1494</para>
1495</sect1>
1496<sect1 id="backup-cron-who">
1497        <title>Who should read this?</title>
1498<sect2><title>Insurance</title>
1499<para>
1500Mondo users who wish to automate the backup and whose backups
1501 routinely occupy close to one media are the best audience. If you
1502 backup to tape, the occasion will arise when the backup will overflow
1503 your tape. In this instance, mondoarchive will ask for another tape.
1504 If you're using cron to start the backup, you won't be able to tell
1505 mondo that the new tape is mounted and the backup will fail. If you
1506 backup to CD-R(W), the same situation will arise but sooner.
1507 </para>
1508 </sect2>
1509 <sect2><title>Efficiency</title>
1510<para>
1511If your backup already occupies two media, this method will allow
1512 as much of the backup as possible to proceed during quiet periods.
1513 Time the backup to start wich enough time to complete the first media
1514 shortly before the operator arrives for work. The next media can
1515 be mounted and the backup completed asap and minimises the time for
1516 which users are inconvenienced by the backup (eg. database locked...).
1517 </para>
1518 </sect2>
1519 </sect1>
1520 <sect1 id="backup-cron-problem">
1521         <title>The Problem</title>
1522<sect2><title>Cron's environment</title>
1523<para>
1524When a user submits a job with cron, their environment is not
1525 preserved. This is reasonable since cron jobs are typically ongoing
1526 and may be adversely affected if the user's environment changes subsequent
1527 to the cron submission. Thus, a cron job should call a script that
1528 set's up the correct environment before starting the user's desired
1529 program. The 'at' command does this nicely.
1530 </para>
1531 </sect2>
1532 <sect2><title>Interactivity</title>
1533<para>
1534When a job is started with cron, it runs as a background process.
1535 No interaction with the program is possible (unless it is capable
1536 of interacting via a FIFO or some such) except termination via its
1537 pid. The only program that I know of that allows such interaction
1538 and serves as a wrapper for other prrocesses is 'screen'
1539 </para>
1540 </sect2>
1541 <sect2><title>Screen</title>
1542<para>
1543There's one little problem with screen though. It expects to
1544 attach to a terminal when it first starts. This won't happen under
1545 cron so screen will fail. Fortunately, screen comes with a "start
1546 detached" option.
1547 </para>
1548 </sect2>
1549 </sect1>
1550 <sect1 id="backup-cron-solution">
1551         <title>The Solution</title>
1552<sect2><title>Briefly</title>
1553<para>
1554<itemizedlist>
1555<listitem>
1556        <para>Use 'at' to run your usual mondoarchive command</para>
1557</listitem>
1558<listitem>
1559        <para>Grab the script generated by 'at' and make a copy of it</para>
1560        </listitem>
1561<listitem>
1562        <para>Edit that script to use 'screen -m -d &lt;your mondoarchive command&gt;'</para>
1563        </listitem>
1564<listitem>
1565        <para>Run that script from your crontab</para>
1566        </listitem>
1567<listitem>
1568        <para>Use 'screen -r' to attach to the mondo screen to change CDs</para>
1569        </listitem>
1570<listitem>
1571        <para>Use '&lt;CTRL&gt;-a d' to detach the screen again</para>
1572</listitem>
1573</itemizedlist>
1574</para>
1575</sect2>
1576<sect2><title>In Detail</title>
1577        <sect3><title>at</title>
1578<para>
1579Use the 'at' command to submit your usual mondoarchive command.
1580My mondoarchive command is:
1581</para>
1582<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1583<row>
1584<entry>
1585
1586        # mondoarchive -D -Ow 10 -S /home/mondo/ -T /home/mondo/ -g \
1587        -E "\"/home/cdaly/GIS/W2K /home/mondo/\"" -9
1588
1589</entry>
1590</row>
1591</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1592<para>
1593        To submit the mondoarchive command with 'at' do:
1594</para>
1595<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1596<row>
1597<entry>
1598
1599    # at now + 5 min
1600mondoarchive -D -Ow 10 -S /home/mondo/ -T /home/mondo/ -g \
1601-E "\"/home/cdaly/GIS/W2K /home/mondo/\"" -9
1602&lt;CTRL&gt;-d
1603</entry>
1604</row>
1605</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1606<para>
1607
1608This generates a script in /var/spool/at/ which sets up your
1609 environment and runs your command. Grab this script to become your
1610 cron job.
1611 </para>
1612 </sect3>
1613 <sect3><title>Grab the 'at' script</title>
1614<para>
1615        Make a copy of the script generated by the 'at' command to use
1616        as the basis for your cron job.
1617        </para>
1618<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1619<row>
1620<entry>
1621
1622grep mondo /var/spool/at/*
1623</entry>
1624</row>
1625<row>
1626        <entry>
1627cp /var/spool/at/&lt;file-from-grep&gt; /root/mondo-cronscript
1628</entry>
1629</row>
1630</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1631<para>
1632
1633        You'll need to edit this.
1634</para>
1635 </sect3>
1636<sect3><title>Edit mondo-cronscript</title>
1637<para>
1638To use screen, you'll need to edit the cronscript and add the
1639 screen command. My mondo-cronscript looks like:
1640</para>
1641<screen>
1642
1643#!/bin/sh
1644# atrun uid=0 gid=0
1645# mail    cdaly 0 umask 22
1646PWD=/root; export PWD
1647XAUTHORITY=/root/.xauthyOrD4f; export XAUTHORITY
1648HOSTNAME=bofh.irmet.ie; export HOSTNAME
1649PVM_RSH=/usr/bin/rsh; export PVM_RSH
1650QTDIR=/usr/lib/qt-2.3.1; export QTDIR
1651LESSOPEN=\|/usr/bin/lesspipe.sh\ %s; export LESSOPEN
1652XPVM_ROOT=/usr/share/pvm3/xpvm; export XPVM_ROOT
1653KDEDIR=/usr; export KDEDIR
1654USER=root; export USER
1655LS_COLORS=no=00:fi=00:di=01\;34:ln=01\;36:pi=40\;33:so=01\;35:bd=40\;33\;01:cd=40\;33\;01:or=01\;05\;37\;41:mi=01\;05\;37\;41:ex=01\;32:\*.cmd=01\;32:\*.exe=01\;32:\*.com=01\;32:\*.btm=01\;32:\*.bat=01\;32:\*.sh=01\;32:\*.csh=01\;32:\*.tar=01\;31:\*.tgz=01\;31:\*.arj=01\;31:\*.taz=01\;31:\*.lzh=01\;31:\*.zip=01\;31:\*.z=01\;31:\*.Z=01\;31:\*.gz=01\;31:\*.bz2=01\;31:\*.bz=01\;31:\*.tz=01\;31:\*.rpm=01\;31:\*.cpio=01\;31:\*.jpg=01\;35:\*.gif=01\;35:\*.bmp=01\;35:\*.xbm=01\;35:\*.xpm=01\;35:\*.png=01\;35:\*.tif=01\;35:; export LS_COLORS
1656MACHTYPE=i386-redhat-linux-gnu; export MACHTYPE
1657MAIL=/var/spool/mail/root; export MAIL
1658INPUTRC=/etc/inputrc; export INPUTRC
1659BASH_ENV=/root/.bashrc; export BASH_ENV
1660LANG=en_US; export LANG
1661LOGNAME=root; export LOGNAME
1662SHLVL=1; export SHLVL
1663II_SYSTEM=/usr/local/ingres; export II_SYSTEM
1664USERNAME=root; export USERNAME
1665HOSTTYPE=i386; export HOSTTYPE
1666OSTYPE=linux-gnu; export OSTYPE
1667HISTSIZE=1000; export HISTSIZE
1668LAMHELPFILE=/etc/lam/lam-helpfile; export LAMHELPFILE
1669PVM_ROOT=/usr/share/pvm3; export PVM_ROOT
1670HOME=/root; export HOME
1671SSH_ASKPASS=/usr/libexec/openssh/gnome-ssh-askpass;
1672export SSH_ASKPASS
1673PATH=/usr/local/ingres/ingres/bin:/usr/local/ingres/ingres/utility:/usr/kerberos/sbin:/usr/kerberos/bin:/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/bin/X11:/usr/X11R6/bin:/root/bin; export PATH
1674cd /root || {
1675echo 'Execution directory inaccessible' >&2     
1676exit 1
1677}
1678screen -m -d mondoarchive -D -Ow 10 -S /home/mondo/ \
1679-T /home/mondo/ -g -E "\"/home/cdaly/GIS/W2K /home/mondo/\"" -9
1680#done
1681
1682</screen>
1683<para>
1684        The crucial line is this one:
1685</para>
1686<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1687<row>
1688<entry>
1689        screen -m -d mondoarchive -D -Ow 10 -S /home/mondo/ -T /home/mondo/ -g -E "\"/home/cdaly/GIS/W2K /home/mondo/\"" -9
1690</entry>
1691</row>
1692</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1693<para>
1694This uses 'screen -m -d' to <quote>-m -d Start screen in "detached" mode. This creates a new session
1695 but doesn't attach to it. This is useful for system startup scripts.
1696 (From 'man screen')
1697</quote>   
1698</para>
1699<para>
1700    When screen starts, it will be in the background and "detached".
1701</para>
1702</sect3>
1703<sect3><title>Run the thing with cron</title>
1704<para>
1705        To get the whole thing running, do:
1706</para>
1707<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1708<row>
1709<entry>
1710        crontab -e
1711        </entry>
1712</row>
1713</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1714<para>
1715and add the following lines:
1716</para>
1717<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1718<row>
1719<entry>
1720&num; run mondoarchive at 23:59 weekdays
1721</entry>
1722</row>
1723<row>
1724        <entry>
172559 23 * * 1-5 /root/mondo-cronscript
1726</entry>
1727</row>
1728</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1729<para>
1730        Your mondoarchive job will run at 23:59 monday-friday.
1731</para>
1732<para>
1733DON'T FORGET TO CHANGE TAPES!
1734</para>
1735</sect3>
1736<sect3><title>Getting at it...</title>
1737<para>
1738Once your cron job is running regularly, you'll want to get to
1739 it to change tapes and check status etc.
1740</para>
1741<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1742<row>
1743<entry>
1744screen -r
1745</entry>
1746</row>
1747</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1748<para>
1749attaches to the running screen where you can change CDs etc
1750</para>
1751<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1752<row>
1753<entry>
1754&lt;CTRL&gt;-a d
1755</entry>
1756</row>
1757</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1758<para>
1759detaches the running screen again.
1760</para>
1761</sect3>
1762<sect3><title>Caveat</title>
1763<para>
1764The script generated by 'at' is unique to the user/machine combination.
1765 You MUST regenerate it on each machine where it will be used. Using
1766 the one above will NOT work for you. MAKE YOUR OWN!
1767</para>
1768</sect3>
1769</sect2>
1770</sect1>
1771</chapter>
1772
1773<chapter id="compare">
1774<title>Compare</title>
1775<para>Before you trust your backup CD, make sure your BIOS can boot
1776CD (and that it is configured to do so).</para>
1777<itemizedlist>
1778<listitem>
1779<para>Boot from the first CD.</para>
1780</listitem>
1781<listitem>
1782<para>Type:</para>
1783</listitem>
1784</itemizedlist>
1785<para></para>
1786<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1787<row>
1788<entry>
1789
1790LILO: compare
1791
1792</entry>
1793</row>
1794</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1795
1796<para>Follow the on-screen instructions. This will compare your
1797backup against your original file system.</para>
1798<para>FYI, no bad archives have been created since May 2000. Having
1799said that, I would still encourage you to run Compare before
1800trusting the backups.</para>
1801<para>To view the file differences, look at the file
1802'/tmp/changed.txt'. Normal differences include logs and other
1803dynamic system files that changed during the time of the backup
1804process. If only a few files differ - e.g. files in /var, files
1805ending in '&amp;#732;', logs, temporary files, /etc/mtab,
1806/etc/adjtimex - then you know the archives are good. Your logs will
1807change over time, too. Bear in mind that a difference between the
1808backup and the live copy does not&nbsp;indicate a flaw in Mondo. It
1809indicates that you or your filesystem changed the files, so the
1810backup is no longer 100% up to date. However, that is inevitable,
1811as your filesystem changes from moment to moment (which is why you
1812back it up regularly).</para>
1813
1814</chapter>
1815
1816<chapter id="restore">
1817<title>Restore</title>
1818
1819<sect1 id="restore-overview">
1820<title>Overview</title>
1821
1822<para>I hope you don't have to restore from scratch very often.
1823It's nerve-wracking until you realize that Mondo's restore engine
1824is very reliable.
1825</para>
1826<para>If you find that you cannot make your PC boot from the CD,
1827take heart: the first backup CD of each set contains floppy disk
1828images to give you the same functionality as the CD (minus the
1829archives, of course) on floppies. Remember, your Mondo CD is a
1830fully functional CD-based mini-distribution as well as a recovery
1831CD.</para>
1832<para>You can choose from the following modes:</para>
1833
1834<variablelist>
1835<varlistentry><term>Interactive</term>
1836<listitem><para>Restore step-by-step, or restore a subset of the
1837archives. This is the method you should mainly use for your
1838recovery needs.</para>
1839</listitem></varlistentry>
1840<varlistentry><term>Nuke</term>
1841<listitem><para>Wipe your drives and restore everything,
1842automatically and unattended. Warning: This does exactly what is
1843says, so be carefull using it.</para>
1844</listitem></varlistentry>
1845<varlistentry><term>Expert</term>
1846<listitem><para>Boot to a shell prompt. If you want to do anything
1847creative, you should boot into Expert Mode. It's called expert, I
1848think that says it all.</para>
1849</listitem>
1850</varlistentry>
1851</variablelist>
1852
1853<para>If the CD is not found during the initial restore CD boot
1854attempt, reboot the PC a second time prior to reporting failure.
1855Occasional timing errors and hardware/software/system conflicts do
1856occur.</para>
1857</sect1>
1858
1859<sect1 id="restore-tips">
1860<title>Tips and Tricks</title>
1861
1862<para>Ideally, restore your system to a spare hard drive to test
1863the integrity and reliability of your disks. To do that, either
1864edit your mountlist to make the devices point to your spare hard
1865drive, or swap your hard drive cables between boots.</para>
1866<para>At a bare minimum, compare your CD against your file system
1867before you decide whether to trust them.</para>
1868<para>To test Mondo's ability to handle your LILO or GRUB boot
1869loader and accompanying configuration file:</para>
1870<itemizedlist>
1871<listitem>
1872<para>Boot from the backup CD into Expert Mode</para>
1873</listitem>
1874<listitem>
1875<para>Type:</para>
1876</listitem>
1877</itemizedlist>
1878<para></para>
1879<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1880<row>
1881<entry>
1882
1883bash# mondorestore --mbr
1884
1885</entry>
1886</row>
1887</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1888
1889<itemizedlist>
1890<listitem>
1891<para>To fix any mess it made (not that it should) type:</para>
1892</listitem>
1893</itemizedlist>
1894<para></para>
1895<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1896<row>
1897<entry>
1898        bash# mount-me
1899</entry>
1900</row>
1901<row>
1902<entry>
1903        bash# chroot /mnt/RESTORING
1904        </entry>
1905</row>
1906<row>
1907<entry>
1908        </entry>
1909</row>
1910<row>
1911<entry>
1912bash# lilo OR grub-install '(hd0)'
1913        </entry>
1914</row>
1915<row>
1916<entry>
1917bash# exit
1918</entry>
1919</row>
1920<row>
1921<entry>
1922        bash# unmount-me
1923
1924</entry>
1925</row>
1926</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1927
1928<itemizedlist>
1929<listitem>
1930<para>If it did not work then please copy /tmp/mondo-restore.log to
1931a floppy (or to your hard disk, USB key, ...), gzip it and e-mail it to the
1932&ML;.</para>
1933</listitem>
1934</itemizedlist>
1935
1936<sect2>
1937    <title>Barebones (Nuke) Restore</title>
1938<para>Imagine that your hard drives happen to be wiped,
1939deliberately or accidentally. Or, imagine that you want to clone
1940your existing operating system. In either case, you want to run in
1941Nuke Mode.</para>
1942<para>If you want to wipe everything and restore your whole system
1943from CD, please:</para>
1944<itemizedlist>
1945<listitem>
1946<para>Use the -H option when invoking mondoarchive</para>
1947</listitem>
1948<listitem>
1949<para>Boot from the first Mondo CD</para>
1950</listitem>
1951<listitem>
1952<para>Press RESTORE&lt;enter&gt;</para>
1953</listitem>
1954<listitem>
1955<para>Insert the subsequent CD when asked</para>
1956</listitem>
1957<listitem>
1958<para>Watch the screen for errors</para>
1959</listitem>
1960</itemizedlist>
1961<para>That's it. The restoration process for tape or NFS users is
1962similarly easy: just boot, answer the on-screen prompts, and
1963wait.</para>
1964<para>Now, should something go wrong, you will be able to examine
1965/tmp/mondo-restore.log to see what happened. All is not lost. You
1966can fdisk and format the partitions yourself, using the tools that
1967come with the CD. You can then run mondorestore in Interactive Mode
1968and say 'no' when asked if you want Mondo to partition/format your
1969drives.</para>
1970<para>If you want to see exactly what Mondo is doing while it is
1971restoring, press &lt;Alt&gt;&lt;left cursor&gt; to view its
1972logfile, in a virtual console, scrolling past.</para>
1973</sect2>
1974<sect2>
1975<title>Interactive Restore</title>
1976<para>Interactive Mode is for people who have lost a subset of data
1977from their live file system, or perhaps who have lost some data
1978from their latest backup and want to restore a subset of data from
1979an earlier backup. If you want to restore only some files or if you
1980do not want to prep/format your drives, then you should boot into
1981Interactive Mode. The interactive mode will provide an 'Editing
1982mountlist screen' that allows you to setup a different disk
1983geometry.</para>
1984<para>To move up and down between partitions in the 'Editing
1985mountlist screen', use the Up and Down arrows. To move between the
1986main window and the buttons at the bottom, use the Left and Right
1987cursor keys. TAB shifts focus from one screen item to the other in
1988a haphazard fashion, owing to the complexities of the Newt
1989library.</para>
1990<para>If you want to restore selectively, just press &lt;enter&gt;
1991and follow the on-screen instructions. You will be asked to say
1992yes/no to a range of questions.</para>
1993<para>If you are planning to modify your partition table, you would
1994do well to read up on the partition layout and the use of fdisk, it
1995gives you some pointers on how to best lay out partitions.
1996You can find a good guide at
1997<ulink url="http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/mini/Partition/index.html">http://www.ibiblio.o
1998rg/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/mini/Partition/index.html</ulink></para>
1999<para>If you want to restore a subset of the backup then:</para>
2000<itemizedlist>
2001<listitem>
2002<para>Boot from the CD</para>
2003</listitem>
2004<listitem>
2005<para>Type:</para>
2006</listitem>
2007</itemizedlist>
2008<para></para>
2009<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2010<row>
2011<entry>
2012
2013bash# interactive
2014
2015</entry>
2016</row>
2017</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2018
2019<itemizedlist>
2020<listitem>
2021<para>Then, after booting, answer the questions as follows:</para>
2022</listitem>
2023</itemizedlist>
2024<para></para>
2025<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2026<row>
2027<entry>
2028
2029        Do you want to partition your devices? no
2030        </entry>
2031</row>
2032<row>
2033<entry>
2034Do you want to format them? no
2035        </entry>
2036</row>
2037<row>
2038<entry>
2039Do you want to restore everything? no
2040        </entry>
2041</row>
2042<row>
2043<entry>
2044Do you want to restore something? yes
2045        </entry>
2046</row>
2047<row>
2048<entry>
2049Which path do you want to restore? /mydata [e.g.]
2050        </entry>
2051</row>
2052<row>
2053<entry>
2054Do you want to run LILO to setup your boot sectors? Yes
2055
2056</entry>
2057</row>
2058</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2059
2060</sect2>
2061
2062<sect2>
2063<title>Expert Restore</title>
2064<para>If you are planning to modify your partition table, you would
2065do well to read up on the partition layout and the use of fdisk, it
2066gives you some could pointers on how to best lay out partitions.
2067You can find good a guide at
2068<ulink url="http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/mini/Partition/index.html">http://www.ibiblio.o
2069rg/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/mini/Partition/index.html</ulink></para>
2070<para>To restore manually, please:</para>
2071<itemizedlist>
2072<listitem>
2073<para>Boot from the first CD, then type:</para>
2074</listitem>
2075</itemizedlist>
2076<para></para>
2077<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2078<row>
2079<entry>
2080
2081bash# expert
2082
2083</entry>
2084
2085</row>
2086</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2087
2088<itemizedlist>
2089<listitem>
2090<para>Then do whatever you like. :) You may type the following, of
2091course:</para>
2092</listitem>
2093</itemizedlist>
2094<para></para>
2095<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2096<row>
2097<entry>
2098
2099bash# mondorestore
2100
2101</entry>
2102</row>
2103</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2104</sect2>
2105       
2106<sect2>
2107<title>Modified partitions - Restore to a different disk geometry</title>
2108<para>One of the nice things about Mondo is that it lets you wipe
2109your existing system and restore it in any layout you like (within
2110reason). You can move from non-RAID to RAID,install and utilize
2111additional drives, move from ext2 to ReiserFS, etc., all without
2112risking the loss of data.</para>
2113<para>If the user excluded a particular partition from backup and
2114specifically excluded it from the mountlist itself using -E then
2115Mondo will insert a small (32MB) partition at restore-time, in
2116order to avoid having to re-jig fstab, the partition table,
2117etc.</para>
2118<para>To do this:</para>
2119<itemizedlist>
2120<listitem>
2121<para>Boot into Expert Mode, then type:</para>
2122</listitem>
2123</itemizedlist>
2124<para></para>
2125<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2126<row>
2127<entry>
2128
2129bash# mondorestore
2130
2131</entry>
2132</row>
2133</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2134
2135<itemizedlist>
2136<listitem>
2137<para>(edit the mountlist using the on-screen editor)</para>
2138</listitem>
2139</itemizedlist>
2140<para>If you want to move from ext2 to ReiserFS, you can do it here
2141(so long as your kernel supports ReiserFS). Ditto for XFS, JFS or
2142ext3.</para>
2143<para>Mondorestore will try to modify your /etc/fstab to reflect
2144changes you have made to the mountlist. If you are not using LILO,
2145you can still create your own /mnt/RESTORING/etc/lilo.conf and run
2146lilo -r /mnt/RESTORING to configure your boot sectors and Master
2147Boot Record.</para>
2148<para>Mondo (technically, Mindi on behalf of Mondo) creates a file
2149called a mountlist. This can be found on the ramdisk at
2150/tmp/mountlist.txt; it looks something like this:</para>
2151<para></para>
2152<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2153<row>
2154<entry>
2155
2156        /dev/hda1   /mnt/windows    vfat        4096000
2157</entry>
2158</row>
2159<row>
2160<entry>
2161        /dev/hda5   /               reiserfs    6023000
2162</entry>
2163</row>
2164<row>
2165<entry>
2166        /dev/hda6   /tmp            xfs         955000
2167</entry>
2168</row>
2169<row>
2170<entry>
2171        /dev/hda7   /usr            ext3        4096000
2172
2173</entry>
2174</row>
2175</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2176
2177<para>It is fairly easy to understand the list. Each line refers to
2178a single device/partition. The line format is:</para>
2179<para></para>
2180<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2181<row>
2182<entry>
2183
2184&lt;device&gt; &lt;partition&gt; &lt;format&gt; &lt;Kilobytes&gt;
2185
2186</entry>
2187</row>
2188</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2189
2190<para>If you have added a hard drive and want to take advantage of
2191the additional space, you could amend the above mountlist to
2192read:</para>
2193<para></para>
2194<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2195<row>
2196<entry>
2197
2198        /dev/hda1   /mnt/windows    vfat        6096000
2199</entry>
2200</row>
2201<row>
2202<entry>
2203        /dev/hda5   /               reiserfs    9123000
2204</entry>
2205</row>
2206<row>
2207<entry>
2208        /dev/hda6   /tmp            xfs         955000
2209</entry>
2210</row>
2211<row>
2212<entry>
2213        /dev/hdb1   /usr            ext3        8192000
2214</entry>
2215</row>
2216<row>
2217<entry>
2218        /dev/hdb2   /home           xfs         8192000
2219
2220</entry>
2221</row>
2222</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2223
2224<para>This assumes that your old hard drive is /dev/hda and the new
2225hard drive is /dev/hdb.</para>
2226<para>Or, if you want to add RAID support, create a new
2227/etc/raidtab on the ramdisk (which is beyond the scope of this
2228HOWTO) and then write a mountlist like this:</para>
2229<para></para>
2230<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2231<row>
2232<entry>
2233
2234        /dev/hda1   /mnt/windows    vfat        6096000
2235</entry>
2236</row>
2237<row>
2238<entry>
2239        /dev/md0    /               reiserfs    9123000
2240</entry>
2241</row>
2242<row>
2243<entry>
2244        /dev/md1    /tmp            xfs         955000
2245</entry>
2246</row>
2247<row>
2248<entry>
2249        /dev/md2    /usr            ext3        8192000
2250</entry>
2251</row>
2252<row>
2253<entry>
2254        /dev/md3    /home           xfs         8192000
2255
2256</entry>
2257</row>
2258</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2259
2260<para>So long as your /etc/raidtab file is sane, Mondo can
2261automatically partition and format your disks for you, including
2262the RAID devices.</para>
2263<para>Once you have finished editing /tmp/mountlist.txt using
2264mondorestore's built-in editor then you may choose 'OK'. Please
2265note that this will not write anything to your hard disk. You will
2266only reformat or repartition your disks if you say 'Yes' when asked
2267if you want to do those things.</para>
2268</sect2>
2269
2270<sect2>
2271<title>Advanced</title>
2272<para>It is now possible to restore to a live filesystem using
2273Mondo. In other words, you do not have to boot your PC from your
2274CD/floppy in order to restore files. Mondo was originally designed
2275for disaster recovery - situations in which you cannot boot your
2276PC. If you can boot your PC, it is not really a disaster, is it? :)
2277Well, if you have wiped out your priceless collection of "MTV's
2278Bjork Unplugged" MP3's, perhaps it is. Anyway, just type this as
2279root</para>
2280<para></para>
2281<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2282<row>
2283<entry>
2284
2285bash# mondorestore
2286
2287</entry>
2288</row>
2289</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2290
2291<para></para>
2292<informaltable><tgroup cols="2"><tbody>
2293<row>
2294<entry>
2295<ulink url="images/rest1.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
2296<imagedata fileref="images/rest1-mini">
2297</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
2298</ulink>
2299</entry>
2300<entry>
2301Choose your type of backup media. The live restoration process is
2302very similar to what you'll experience if you type mondorestore
2303with no parameters after booting from a Mondo CD/floppy.
2304</entry>
2305</row>
2306<row>
2307<entry>
2308<ulink url="images/rest2.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
2309<imagedata fileref="images/rest2-mini">
2310</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
2311</ulink>
2312</entry>
2313<entry>
2314Hit 'OK' when you have inserted the tape/CD. If you generated a
2315tape backup, the tape itself should be enough. If you generated a
2316CD backup, the first CD should be enough. Otherwise, you may need
2317the boot floppy.
2318</entry>
2319</row>
2320<row>
2321<entry>
2322<ulink url="images/rest3.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
2323<imagedata fileref="images/rest3-mini">
2324</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
2325</ulink>
2326</entry>
2327<entry>
2328Flag the files and directories you wish to restore. Use the 'More'
2329and 'Less' buttons to open and close subdirectories.
2330</entry>
2331</row>
2332<row>
2333<entry>
2334<ulink url="images/rest4.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
2335<imagedata fileref="images/rest4-mini">
2336</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
2337</ulink>
2338</entry>
2339<entry>
2340Specify the location to restore the files to. In general, '/' is
2341appropriate. If you do not want to overwrite newer versions of the
2342files you are restoring then specify /tmp/BKP or similar as the
2343restore path.
2344</entry>
2345</row>
2346<row>
2347<entry>
2348<ulink url="images/rest5.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
2349<imagedata fileref="images/rest5-mini">
2350</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
2351</ulink>
2352</entry>
2353<entry>
2354Mondorestore will retrieve configuration information from the
2355media. (The sample screen is for tape users. CD users will see
2356something different.)
2357</entry>
2358</row>
2359<row>
2360<entry>
2361<ulink url="images/rest6.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
2362<imagedata fileref="images/rest6-mini">
2363</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
2364</ulink>
2365</entry>
2366<entry>
2367Data will be restored to the hard disk - first the regular files,
2368then any big (32MB or greater) files in the restore set.
2369</entry>
2370</row>
2371</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2372
2373<para>I hope this manual is proving to be useful to you.</para>
2374</sect2>
2375</sect1>
2376
2377</chapter>
2378
2379<chapter id="faq">
2380<title>FAQ</title>
2381
2382<sect1 id="faq-overview">
2383<title>Overview</title>
2384<para>Are the errors from Mindi or Mondo? Look at
2385/var/log/mondo-archive.log, /var/log/mindi.log or the
2386mondo.err.xxxxx.tgz log indicated by the screen message. Pipe
2387screen errors which relate to the creation of boot disk(s) and or
2388data disk(s) to a text file.</para>
2389<para>See the &WWW; for details. If you are going to e-mail
2390&ML; then
2391please attach that text file (zipped!) and give :</para>
2392<itemizedlist>
2393<listitem>
2394<para>Your kernel version</para>
2395</listitem>
2396<listitem>
2397<para>Your Linux distro's name and version</para>
2398</listitem>
2399<listitem>
2400<para>Whether your kernel supports initrd and loopfs; it should!</para>
2401</listitem>
2402<listitem>
2403<para>What sort of PC you are using, including hard disk configurations</para>
2404</listitem>
2405</itemizedlist>
2406<para>Mondo is freely available under the GPL and you are given it for no charge.
2407When you e-mail the &ML;, please bear that in mind.</para>
2408</sect1>
2409<sect1 id="faq-general">
2410<title>General Questions</title>
2411
2412<qandaset>
2413<qandaentry>
2414        <question><para>Q: What is "Mindi"?</para></question>
2415        <answer>
2416<para>A: Mindi, a.k.a. Mindi-Linux, makes a mini-distribution from
2417your kernel, modules, modules, tools and libraries. It can also
2418generate an El Torito 2.88/5.76MB boot disk image. Mondo uses Mindi to
2419create a mini-distro, then boots from it and runs on it.</para>
2420</answer>
2421</qandaentry>
2422<qandaentry>
2423        <question><para>Q: Why is it called "Mondo"?</para></question>
2424        <answer>
2425<para>A: The Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles described cool things as
2426'mondo'. Hugo Rabson wasn't sure what to call this project. 'Faust' was one
2427idea he had, partly as a dig at his former boss who practically owned
2428him because of his legal status at the time. In the end, He chose
2429something short and distinctive.</para>
2430</answer>
2431</qandaentry>
2432<qandaentry>
2433<question><para>Q: Mondo does not work on my system. It
2434                keels over and dies. What's wrong?</para></question>
2435<answer>
2436        <para>A: It works on Red Hat 7.x/8/9, RHEL 2.1/3/4, Mandrakelinux 8.x/9.x/10.x, Debian 3.0, most flavors
2437                of SuSE/SLES, some flavors of Slackware, etc.
2438The more distributions we support, the more moving targets we have to
2439hit. Please bear this in mind when e-mailing the list. :) If you
2440would like to help us by beta-testing Mondo (or Mindi) on your PC
2441then we would be very interested in working with you to work around
2442the eccentricities of your Linux distro. However, rest assured, 90%
2443of the bugs reported are actually symptoms of FooLinux X.Y's
2444unique way of doing things.</para>
2445<para>Please send a copy of <filename>/var/log/mondo-archive.log</filename> to the &ML;
2446along with a description of your distro, your kernel, etc.
2447Oh, and before sending it, please try to read it.</para>
2448</answer>
2449</qandaentry>
2450<qandaentry>
2451        <question><para>Q: What if the error is in Mindi?</para></question>
2452        <answer>
2453                <para>A: Please send a copy of <filename>/var/log/mindi.log</filename> to the &ML;
2454along with a description of your distro, your kernel, etc.
2455Oh, and before sending it, please read it asit's much easier to understand it.</para>
2456</answer>
2457</qandaentry>
2458<qandaentry>
2459        <question><para>Q: Can I trust Mondo?</para></question>
2460        <answer>
2461<para>A: Mondo has generated reliable archives since May 2000.
2462Lost data occured by using bad CD-R disks and not verifying their
2463contents. Some users have not tried booting from their CD until
2464crunch time. Remember to boot into Compare Mode to verify the
2465backup before you trust it. If Mondo did not work, you would not be
2466reading this. If it does not work for you, your kernel is usually
2467the culprit. Check <link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux Kernel
2468support</link> to see what your kernel should support. Please
2469e-mail the list if you need some help with this.</para>
2470</answer>
2471</qandaentry>
2472<qandaentry>
2473        <question><para>Q: How do I report a bug?</para></question>
2474        <answer>
2475                <para>A: E-mail the bug report (mondo.err.xxxxx.tgz) to the &ML;.
2476                        Ok you've read it already but it's really important if you want help.
2477If you don't send a logfile then there isn't a lot that we can do for you, so
2478PLEASE include a logfile at the very least.</para>
2479</answer>
2480</qandaentry>
2481<qandaentry>
2482<question><para>Q: I think Mondo should (...insert
2483suggestion here...) and I have rewritten it accordingly. Would you
2484like to see my patch?</para></question>
2485<answer>
2486<para>A: Absolutely! :-) The best way for you to make Mondo do what
2487you want is to modify it and then send the patch. That way, we
2488can all benefit.</para>
2489</answer>
2490</qandaentry>
2491<qandaentry>
2492<question><para>Q: I think Mondo should (...insert
2493suggestion here...); will you incorporate this feature for me,
2494please?</para></question>
2495<answer>
2496<para>A: please enter the suggestion in our feature system at &WWW;
2497</para>
2498</answer>
2499</qandaentry>
2500<qandaentry>
2501<question><para>Q: Mondo says, "XXX is missing," and
2502                then terminates. What's wrong?</para></question>
2503<answer>
2504<para>A: A good Linux distribution should contain XXX but the
2505designers, in their infinite wisdom, decided not to include that
2506particular tool. Check <!--<link linkend="linuxpackages">-->Related
2507        Linux Packages<!--</link>--> and install the missing package. If that
2508fails, contact the vendor/distributor/manufacturer/designer of your
2509distro.</para>
2510</answer>
2511</qandaentry>
2512<qandaentry>
2513<question><para>Q: Can Mondo handle multi-CD backups and
2514                restores?</para></question>
2515<answer>
2516<para>A: Yes, up to twenty CD per set. This 20-CD limit results
2517from laziness on mondorescue's part. I'll be removed in the future. However, if
2518your system occupies more than 20 CD, may it's time for another type of media ?
2519</para>
2520</answer>
2521</qandaentry>
2522<qandaentry>
2523<question><para>Q: Can Mondo handle Linux/Windows
2524                dual-boot systems?</para></question>
2525<answer>
2526<para>A: Yes. If your system currently boots into Linux or Windows
2527via LILO, you can backup and restore both OSes at the same time
2528using Mondo. If you are using NTFS then add the switch, '-x
2529&lt;device&gt;'.</para>
2530</answer>
2531</qandaentry>
2532<qandaentry>
2533<question><para>Q: Can Mondo backup Windows-only
2534                systems?</para></question>
2535<answer>
2536<para>A: Not at the moment.
2537</para>
2538</answer>
2539</qandaentry>
2540<qandaentry>
2541        <question><para>Q: Does Mondo support LVM?</para></question>
2542        <answer>
2543<para>A: Mondo supports LVM v1 and v2. Mondo backs up and restores your
2544existing setup but it does not make it easy for you to change your
2545LVM configuration, at the moment. You have to edit <filename>/tmp/i-want-my-lvm</filename> at boot-time
2546to do that.</para>
2547</answer>
2548</qandaentry>
2549<qandaentry>
2550<question><para>Q: What if I don't use LILO? What if I
2551                use GRUB?</para></question>
2552<answer>
2553<para>A: GRUB is supported by Mondo.</para>
2554</answer>
2555</qandaentry>
2556<qandaentry>
2557<question><para>Q: I get the error, 'Cannot find
2558                /tmp/dev.0' or 'Cannot mount device 0x0701'; what do I do?</para></question>
2559<answer>
2560        <para>A: Please free up <filename>/dev/loop0</filename> using 'losetup /dev/loop0 -d' to
2561unmount that loop device. If your OS will not let you do that,
2562contact your local support group or Linux vendor.</para>
2563</answer>
2564</qandaentry>
2565<qandaentry>
2566<question><para>Q: Can I create a Mondo CD and then use
2567                it to create an archive of any OS on any PC?</para></question>
2568<answer>
2569<para>A: Not yet. You can use Mondo to backup Linux or
2570Linux/Windows dual boot. One day, Mondo will let you backup
2571partitions it can't read or write, by treating each partition as
2572one long file to be backed up. This file will be chopped,
2573compressed and archived like any other big file.</para>
2574</answer>
2575</qandaentry>
2576<qandaentry>
2577<question><para>Q: Why do you insist on putting floppy
2578disk images on Mondo CD? They waste space and I never use them. The
2579CD works just fine, so why keep the floppy disk images?</para>
2580</question>
2581<answer>
2582<para>A: Because. It helped us in the past. If you
2583really, truly want them gone then please submit a patch to make
2584them optional.</para>
2585</answer>
2586</qandaentry>
2587<qandaentry>
2588<question><para>Q: Why doesn't the Mondo project have a
2589cool-looking animal logo?</para></question>
2590<answer>
2591<para>A: Excellent question! Please submit graphics of candidate
2592        animal logos!</para>
2593        </answer>
2594</qandaentry>
2595<qandaentry>
2596<question><para>Q: Is there a Mondo user 'Code of
2597                Conduct?</para></question>
2598<answer>
2599<para>A: Yes. Read the HOWTO. Submit patches. Recommend realistic
2600improvements. Be courteous to other users on the discussion list.
2601Do not whine.</para>
2602</answer>
2603</qandaentry>
2604</qandaset>
2605</sect1>
2606
2607<sect1 id="faq-booting">
2608<title>Booting and Kernel related Questions</title>
2609<qandaset>
2610<qandaentry>
2611<question><para>Q: When I try to boot from the Mondo CD,
2612it says, "VFS: Unable to mount root fs." I am using an old Debian
2613distro. What do I do?</para></question>
2614<answer>
2615<para>A: Ask Debian's designers why they, unlike every other distro
2616I can find, have included cramfs and other 'goodies' with their
2617kernel. In the meantime, please use '-k FAILSAFE' in your command
2618line when calling Mondo.</para>
2619<para>A: From Sarge onwards, all stock Debian 2.6 kernels should work fine. If
2620you are still using stock Debian 2.4 kernels, FAILSAFE is the way to go.
2621Of course, if you have compiled your own kernel and experience problems,
2622FAILSAFE is the way to go as well, but this is not really
2623Debian-specific.</para>
2624</answer>
2625</qandaentry>
2626<qandaentry>
2627<question><para>Q: When I try to boot from the Mondo CD,
2628it says, "Cannot mount root fs - kernel panic," or something
2629similar. What do I do?</para></question>
2630<answer>
2631<para>A: Recompile your kernel (or use '-k FAILSAFE'). Take a look
2632at <link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux Kernel support</link> to
2633see what you're kernel must support.</para>
2634</answer>
2635</qandaentry>
2636<qandaentry>
2637<question><para>Q: When I try to boot from the Mondo CD,
2638                it says, "UPGRADE YOUR RAM". What does that mean?</para></question>
2639<answer>
2640<para>A: Recompile your kernel and add Virtual memory file system
2641support. Take a look at <link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux
2642Kernel support</link> to see what you're kernel must support. (Of
2643course, if your PC has less than 64MB of RAM, you could always...
2644what's the phrase? I know, upgrade your RAM!)</para>
2645</answer>
2646</qandaentry>
2647<qandaentry>
2648<question><para>Q: When I try to boot from the Mondo CD,
2649it says something about not finding my CD-ROM drive and then it
2650blames the kernel. What does that mean?</para></question>
2651<answer>
2652        <para>A: Your kernel must support initrd, loopfs, IDE|SCSI|USB CD-ROM's, and
2653ramdisks. Take a look at <link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux
2654Kernel support</link> to see what you're kernel must support. If
2655your kernel does not support these things, Mondo will not boot from
2656your CD. However, when running Mindi, you may choose to use _its_
2657kernel instead of your own. In addition, you may boot from floppy
2658disk images instead the CD: copy the disk images from the CD
2659/images directory to floppy disks, using 'dd'. Take a look at
2660<link linkend="copybootdatadisk">Copy boot data
2661disks</link> on how to make those.</para>
2662</answer>
2663</qandaentry>
2664<qandaentry>
2665<question><para>Q: The Mondo CD/floppy takes ages to
2666                boot. How can I speed it up?</para></question>
2667<answer>
2668<para>A: Edit mindi (it's a shell script, btw) and change
2669LILO_OPTIONS="" to LILO_OPTIONS="-c". This enables map compaction
2670in lilo and speeds up booting, for more info see the lilo man
2671page.</para>
2672</answer>
2673</qandaentry>
2674<qandaentry>
2675<question><para>Q: I made a Mondo CD using the failsafe
2676kernel (i.e. I said 'no' when Mondo asked if I wanted to use my own
2677kernel). It still doesn't boot. Help!</para></question>
2678<answer>
2679<para>A: OK, now that is a bug. :-) I included a kernel with Mondo
2680(technically, with Mindi, which Mondo uses) to make sure that users
2681could use Mondo despite flaws in their own kernels. If you are
2682using Mondo/Mindi's kernel but still cannot boot from your Mondo CD
2683then please e-mail the &ML;.</para>
2684</answer>
2685</qandaentry>
2686<qandaentry>
2687<question><para>Q: What if my PC won't boot from a
2688                CD?</para></question>
2689<answer>
2690<para>A: Copy the image files from the CD /images directory, using
2691the dd command. Take a look at
2692<link linkend="copybootdatadisk">Copy boot data
2693disks</link> on how to make those. Then boot from the first
2694floppy; follow it up with the data disks; finally, type 'mount
2695/mnt/cdrom' and then utilize the restore script as usual, e.g.
2696mondorestore.</para>
2697<para>A: You may also want to boot using the network with PXE.
2698        Look at the README.pxe file of mindi to know more details on how.</para>
2699</answer>
2700</qandaentry>
2701<qandaentry>
2702<question><para>Q: But why won't Mondo boot from my CD?
2703It says my kernel is flawed/outdated/ whatever, and when I wrote to
2704the ML, they told me the same thing... but I still don't get it. I
2705mean, my kernel works for everything else. Why not Mondo?</para></question>
2706<answer>
2707<para>A: Because Mondo makes a boot disk using your kernel. I bet
2708your other software doesn't do that. Also, not all kernels are
2709suitable for boot disks. I'm sorry but that's Life. Upgrade your
2710kernel and/or recompile it. Take a look at
2711<link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux Kernel support</link> to see
2712what you're kernel must support.</para>
2713</answer>
2714</qandaentry>
2715<qandaentry>
2716<question><para>Q: Why do I only need a boot disk if I'm
2717                using a tape drive? Where are the data disks?</para></question>
2718<answer>
2719<para>A: On the tape. :-) The first 32MB of the tape will be set
2720aside for a large tarball containing the data disks, a list of all
2721files backed up, and other sundries. If Mondo and Mindi do their
2722respective jobs then you won't need additional floppies, just the
2723boot floppy and the tape(s).</para>
2724<para>For the moment mondorescue doesn't support OBDR for tapes.
2725        Feel free to produce patches for it :-)</para>
2726</answer>
2727</qandaentry>
2728<qandaentry>
2729<question><para>Q: Why does it say, "Process accounting
2730                FAILED" when I reboot?</para></question>
2731<answer>
2732<para>A: You were using Process Accounting. Red Hat (or whichever
2733distro you are using) does not provide a startup/shutdown script
2734yet. So, when you try to backup the process log, it just grows and
2735grows as Mondo tries to back it up. Mondo doesn't back it up
2736anymore and that's why. The unfortunate side-effect is... well,
2737what you see on your screen. Type 'touch /var/log/pacct' and then
2738'paccton' to fix the error message.</para>
2739</answer>
2740</qandaentry>
2741<qandaentry>
2742<question><para>Q: Why does it say,
2743&amp;#8220;request_module[block-major-1]: Root fs not mounted VFS:
2744Cannot open root device "100" or 01:00 Please append a correct
2745"root=" boot option kernel panic: VFS: Unable to mount root fs on
274601:00&amp;#8221; when i boot from the CD?</para></question>
2747<answer>
2748<para>A: Recompile your kernel and add initrd support. Take a look
2749at <link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux Kernel support</link>to
2750see what you're kernel must support.</para>
2751</answer>
2752</qandaentry>
2753<qandaentry>
2754<question>
2755<para><anchor id="COPYBOOTDATADISK"/>Q: How do i copy boot+data
2756        disk images to physical floppy disks ?</para>
2757</question>
2758<answer>
2759<para>A: The images are in /root/images/mindi (even if they are
2760created by Mondo) and also in the 'images' directory on the first
2761CD of your backup set, if you have backed up to CD. You can copy
2762the images to disk as follows:-</para>
2763<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2764<row>
2765<entry>
2766        Put an empty Boot floppy
2767</entry>
2768</row>
2769<row>
2770<entry>
2771        bash# fdformat /dev/fd0u1722
2772</entry>
2773</row>
2774<row>
2775<entry>
2776        bash# dd if=/root/images/mindi/mindi-boot.1722.img of=/dev/fd0u1722
2777</entry>
2778</row>
2779<row>
2780<entry>
2781        Put an empty Data floppy
2782</entry>
2783</row>
2784<row>
2785<entry>
2786        bash# fdformat /dev/fd0
2787</entry>
2788</row>
2789<row>
2790<entry>
2791        bash# dd if=/root/images/mindi/mindi-data-N.img of=/dev/fd0
2792</entry>
2793</row>
2794<row>
2795<entry>
2796        Replace N with 1, 2, etc.
2797
2798</entry>
2799</row>
2800</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2801</answer>
2802</qandaentry>
2803
2804<qandaentry>
2805<question><para id="TAPENICE">Q: My tape drive
2806doesn't play nicely with Mondo at boot-time. What do I do?</para></question>
2807<answer><para>A: Play with 'mt'. Use its setblksize and
2808defblksize switches to reconfigure your tape drive if necessary.
2809Some tape drives just are painful. If yours is one of
2810them then God help you. Mondo can handle any tape drive whose drive
2811and firmware can handle fopen(), fwrite(), fread() and fclose().
2812Mondo uses standard C libraries to talk to your tape streamer. If
2813your tape streamer can't handle that then you had better call a
2814priest. Either that or ask for a refund.
2815</para>
2816</answer>
2817</qandaentry>
2818</qandaset>
2819</sect1>
2820
2821<sect1 id="faq-install">
2822<title>Installation related Questions</title>
2823<qandaset>
2824<qandaentry>
2825<question><para>Q: Why do I get, "newt.h not found," or
2826"popt.h not found," several times when I try to install
2827Mondo?</para></question>
2828<answer>
2829<para>A: You have not installed libnewt and/or libnewt-devel.
2830Please do so. Check <ulink url="linuxpackages.html">Related Linux
2831Packages</ulink> to see what Mondo requires and where you can get
2832tarballs and RPM's. Make sure you are using the right version of
2833newt/libnewt. Read the error messages carefully.</para>
2834</answer>
2835</qandaentry>
2836<qandaentry>
2837<question><para>Q: Newt won't compile when I try. What's
2838                the problem?</para></question>
2839<answer>
2840<para>A: You are probably missing popt.h, which newt needs to
2841compile, it can be found in the 'popt' package. Check your
2842distribution and see if they have popt, if not check
2843<ulink url="linuxpackages.html">Related Linux Packages</ulink> to
2844see where you can get it.</para>
2845</answer>
2846</qandaentry>
2847<qandaentry>
2848<question><para>Q: I've just used up 6 CD-R, only to
2849                find that Mondo won't boot!</para></question>
2850<answer>
2851<para>A: You should have used CD-RW. ;) In the HOWTO, it gives
2852instructions on how to create a test CD (one, not six).</para>
2853</answer>
2854</qandaentry>
2855<qandaentry>
2856<question>
2857<para id="PACKREQ">Q: Lots of packages,
2858required by Mondo, are missing from my system. What do I do?</para>
2859</question>
2860<answer>
2861<para>
2862A: Install them. :) If you are using RPM or deb
2863then you'll be told which packages you need. Mondo offers a lot of
2864those packages on its
2865<ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org/download/download.html">Download</ulink>
2866web page.</para>
2867</answer>
2868</qandaentry>
2869</qandaset>
2870</sect1>
2871
2872<sect1 id="faq-hardware">
2873<title>Hardware related Questions</title>
2874<qandaset>
2875<qandaentry>
2876        <question><para>Q: Can Mondo handle CD-RW?</para></question>
2877        <answer>
2878<para>A: Yes. Use '-Ow &lt;speed&gt; &lt;device&gt;' to make it
2879work.</para>
2880</answer>
2881</qandaentry>
2882<qandaentry>
2883<question><para>Q: Does Mondo support tape
2884                drives?</para></question>
2885<answer>
2886<para>A: Yes. See above.</para>
2887</answer>
2888</qandaentry>
2889<qandaentry>
2890<question><para>Q: Does Mondo support my tape
2891                drive?</para></question>
2892<answer>
2893<para>A: If your tape drive and its firmware and the kernel-level
2894driver support fopen(), fread(), fwrite() and fclose() - standard C
2895library calls - then yes, Mondo should support it. If not, well,
2896you need a refund. :) Mondo plays nicely with any sane, sensible
2897drives. That's most of them, by the way. :) If your drive doesn't
2898play nicely with Mondo then you may try tinkering with setblksize
2899and defblksize using 'mt', or tweaking Mondo's block size by
2900recompiling it with make INTTAPE=4096 or INTTAPE=8192 or something.
2901Other than that, you need a priest or a refund.</para>
2902</answer>
2903</qandaentry>
2904<qandaentry>
2905<question><para>Q: How do I copy the floppy images from
2906                the CD to floppy disks?</para></question>
2907<answer>
2908<para>A: Mount the CD-ROM, e.g. at /mnt/cdrom. Insert a blank
2909floppy. Type:</para>
2910<para></para>
2911<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2912<row>
2913<entry>
2914
2915        bash# cd /mnt/cdrom/images
2916</entry>
2917</row>
2918<row>
2919<entry>
2920        bash# dd if=mindi-boot.1722.img of=/dev/fd0u1722
2921
2922</entry>
2923</row>
2924</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2925
2926<para>Insert another blank floppy and type:</para>
2927<para></para>
2928<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2929<row>
2930<entry>
2931
2932bash# dd if=mindi-data-1.img of=/dev/fd0u1722
2933
2934</entry>
2935</row>
2936</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2937
2938<para>Do the above for each 'mindi-data' disk image.</para>
2939</answer>
2940</qandaentry>
2941<qandaentry>
2942<question><para>Q: Sometimes, my laptop won't mount
2943                Mondo CD properly, or something. Umm...</para></question>
2944<answer>
2945<para>A: Please insert the CD, close the CD-ROM tray, wait a few
2946seconds and then press Enter to acknowledge insertion of the next
2947CD. Your laptop is on crack and is sucking a little too hard on the
2948pipe.</para>
2949</answer>
2950</qandaentry>
2951<qandaentry>
2952        <question><para>Q: Does Mondo support Hardware RAID?</para></question>
2953        <answer>
2954<para>A: Yes. You may backup and restore RAID systems. You may also
2955backup a non-RAID system and restore as RAID (or vice versa) by
2956using the mountlist editor to edit your RAID and non-RAID
2957partitions and their settings. Mondo will do the partitioning and
2958formatting for you.</para>
2959<para>Tested Raid controllers includes all those showind only classical devices
2960        such as /dev/sdx, and SmartArray cciss controllers.</para>
2961</answer>
2962</qandaentry>
2963<qandaentry>
2964<question><para>Q: Where is my CD burner, in SCSI terms?</para></question>
2965<answer>
2966<para>A: Type:</para>
2967<para></para>
2968<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2969<row>
2970<entry>
2971
2972bash# cdrecord -scanbus
2973
2974</entry>
2975</row>
2976</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2977
2978<para>Find your CD burner's device# (e.g. '0,0,0'). Call Mondo with
2979the switch '-Oc &lt;speed&gt;' -d '&lt;device&gt;'. Or, if you feel
2980lucky, just use '-Oc 2'; Mondo will (a) assume you want to write at
29814x to a CD-R and (b) will do its best to find your CD burner.</para>
2982</answer>
2983</qandaentry>
2984<qandaentry>
2985        <question><para>Q: Can Mondo handle SCSI devices?</para></question>
2986        <answer>
2987<para>A: Mondo should be able to handle almost any hardware. So
2988long as your kernel and modules support it, Mindi will support it
2989and therefore so will Mondo.</para>
2990</answer>
2991</qandaentry>
2992<qandaentry>
2993        <question><para>Q: Why doesn't cdrecord -scanbus work ?</para></question>
2994        <answer>
2995                <para>A: If you have a 2.4.x kernel (typical example are fedora legacy kernels for redhat 7.X/8/9) and an IDE CDRW device, and the drive is not
2996listed when you run
2997
2998<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2999<row>
3000<entry>
3001bash# cdrecord -scanbus
3002</entry>
3003</row>
3004</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
3005
3006try adding the following kernel option to your boot script to enable
3007SCSI emulation: hdx=ide-scsi, where "hdx" should be replaced with the
3008appropriate drive letter of the CDRW device, e.g., "hdc".
3009(Answer provided by Christopher Moriarity cdm7_at_cdc.gov)
3010</para>
3011</answer>
3012</qandaentry>
3013</qandaset>
3014</sect1>
3015
3016<sect1 id="faq-backup">
3017<title>Backup related Questions</title>
3018
3019<qandaset>
3020<qandaentry>
3021<question><para id="MMKM">Q: Mondo says, 'Cannot
3022                run mindi --makemountlist' and aborts. What do I do?</para></question>
3023<answer>
3024        <para>
3025                A: Look at <filename>/var/log/mindi.log</filename> and see what it
3026says. Also, try typing 'mindi --makemountlist /tmp/mountlist.txt'
3027to see what Mindi says. Send the log to the &ML; if you get stuck.
3028</para>
3029</answer>
3030</qandaentry>
3031<qandaentry>
3032<question><para>Q: Can Mondo burn CD as they are
3033                created?</para></question>
3034<answer>
3035<para>A: Yes. Use the '-Oc &lt;speed&gt;' switch. Use a negative
3036number for a dummy burn.</para>
3037</answer>
3038</qandaentry>
3039<qandaentry>
3040<question><para>Q: Mondo failed to burn my CD. It said
3041something like, "Error CDB A1 01 02 53 ..." and so on. What does
3042that mean?</para></question>
3043<answer>
3044<para>A: Cdrecord reported some serious errors while trying to burn
3045your CD. Check your CD burner, your CD-R and your kernel.</para>
3046</answer>
3047</qandaentry>
3048<qandaentry>
3049<question><para>Q: May I backup my system with one
3050                partition layout and restore with another?</para></question>
3051<answer>
3052<para>A: Yes. Boot in Interactive Mode and edit the mountlist using
3053the snazzy new mountlist editor. Mondo can now edit your RAID
3054partitions for you. Just open /dev/md0 (or whatever) and select
3055"RAID.." to start. Or, to add a RAID device:</para>
3056<itemizedlist>
3057<listitem>
3058<para>Add two or more partitions, of type and mountpoint
3059'raid'</para>
3060</listitem>
3061<listitem>
3062<para>Add device '/dev/md0' and click OK</para>
3063</listitem>
3064<listitem>
3065<para>Follow the prompts and your own common-sense :)</para>
3066</listitem>
3067</itemizedlist>
3068</answer>
3069</qandaentry>
3070<qandaentry>
3071<question><para>Q: Why does Mondo need so much free disk
3072                space?</para></question>
3073<answer>
3074        <para>A: Because it need space to create the archive files with afio, then
3075                again space to create the ISO images that you'll be able to burn.
3076</para>
3077</answer>
3078</qandaentry>
3079<qandaentry>
3080<question><para>Q: I am trying to do something clever,
3081e.g. write my ISO's to an NFS mount, and I get some weird error
3082messages. What do I do?</para></question>
3083<answer>
3084<para>A: Well, (a) use '-T /tmp' or '-T /home' or something in your
3085        call to Mondo. Oh, and (b) check the <filename>/etc/exports</filename> file on your NFS server
3086        and verify the exported filesystem is writable for the client, and relaunch exportfs -a.
3087</para>
3088</answer>
3089</qandaentry>
3090<qandaentry>
3091<question><para>Q: Can Mondo backup to data files on
3092                another partition, e.g. an NFS mount?</para></question>
3093<answer>
3094<para>A: Yes. Just backup as usual but add '-d /mnt/nfs' or
3095wherever your partition is mounted; don't use '-Oc' or '-Ot' at
3096all; just '-Oi -d /root'. Then, after booting from the floppies
3097which Mondo generates, you need to type 'ISO' at the
3098console.</para>
3099</answer>
3100</qandaentry>
3101<qandaentry>
3102<question><para>Q: Can Mondo backup _to_ an NFS
3103                partition, i.e. backup over a network? How about restoring?</para></question>
3104<answer>
3105<para>A: Yes. Use '-On &lt;mount&gt; &lt;directory&gt;'. Example:
3106</para>
3107<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
3108<row>
3109<entry>
3110
3111bash# mondoarchive -On 192.168.1.3:/home/nfs
3112
3113</entry>
3114</row>
3115</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
3116
3117</answer>
3118</qandaentry>
3119<qandaentry>
3120<question><para>Q: Does Mondo handle System or Hidden
3121                attributes when archiving Dos/Win files?</para></question>
3122<answer>
3123<para>A: No. It probably never will, either. Sorry.</para>
3124</answer>
3125</qandaentry>
3126</qandaset>
3127</sect1>
3128
3129<sect1 id="faq-compare">
3130<title>Compare related Questions</title>
3131
3132<qandaset>
3133<qandaentry>
3134<question><para>Q: When I compare my archives to my file
3135system, Mondo tells me there are differences or errors. Are the
3136archives bad?</para></question>
3137<answer>
3138        <para>A: Look at <filename>/tmp/changed.files</filename>; if the files are logfiles,
3139temp files or files which you think you may have changed recently
3140then the archives are simply out of date, albeit only by a few
3141minutes. Not a problem. However, if lots of files in /usr have
3142changed or if you get lots of errors then perhaps your CD, your
3143tapes or even your hardware could be to blame. Check your CD writer
3144or tape streamer.</para>
3145<para>Also, don't forget to review <filename>/var/log/mondo-archive.log</filename> for
3146more information.</para>
3147</answer>
3148</qandaentry>
3149</qandaset>
3150</sect1>
3151
3152<sect1 id="faq-restore">
3153<title>Restore related Questions</title>
3154<qandaset>
3155<qandaentry>
3156<question><para>Q: Can Mondo help me
3157                move/resize/re-allocate my partitions?</para></question>
3158<answer>
3159<para>A: Yes. Just backup your system in Interactive Mode using
3160Mondo. Edit the mountlist when prompted.</para>
3161</answer>
3162</qandaentry>
3163<qandaentry>
3164<question><para>Q: My zip drive is a SCSI drive. When I
3165restore, Mondo craps out, saying it can't mount the drive (because
3166there is no disk in it). What do I do?</para></question>
3167<answer>
3168<para>A: Restore in Interactive Mode. Delete the SCSI drive from
3169the mountlist before you restore. Then Mondo won't try to partition
3170or format it. Next time you backup, use -E /dev/sdd (or whatever
3171your zip drive is). The /dev entry will be excluded from the
3172mountlist but not from the filelist. So, when you restore, you
3173won't accidentally reformat your zip disk. However, after
3174restoring, you will find that /dev/sdd (the _file_) will still be
3175present in your /dev directory. Cool, eh?</para>
3176</answer>
3177</qandaentry>
3178<qandaentry>
3179<question><para>Q: I received a message like, 'Fileset
3180                NNN failed' during restore. What does it mean.</para></question>
3181<answer>
3182<para>A: It usually means either you had a very large (&gt;2GB)
3183file which was not archived owing to a flaw in your distro or your
3184filesystem has changed in relation to the backup.</para>
3185</answer>
3186</qandaentry>
3187<qandaentry>
3188<question><para>Q: Why does my ext3 partition have less
3189                space free than when I backed it up?</para></question>
3190<answer>
3191<para>A: Mondo creates a 10MB journal file area. Your journal was
3192probably smaller than that, hence the difference.</para>
3193</answer>
3194</qandaentry>
3195<qandaentry>
3196<question><para id="SEGF">Q: When I restore after
3197booting from the CD/floppies, I sometimes get errors like, "Running
3198out of memory" or "Segmentation fault". What is going on?</para></question>
3199<answer><para>A: It sounds as if you are running out of disk
3200space, probably ram disk space. Type 'df -m' to see which
3201partitions are running low on space. Please send as much
3202information as you can to the &ML;. This problem is
3203believed to have been fixed in 1.63 and 1.71.</para>
3204</answer>
3205</qandaentry>
3206<qandaentry>
3207<question>
3208<para id="LVM"/>Q: I can't nuke-restore my LVM or RAID or
3209LVM-on-RAID setup. I have to do it manually. What now?</para></question>
3210<answer>
3211<para>A: You said it yourself. You have to do it manually. :) Sorry
3212but that's about it. At least you have all the tools to do it. I
3213assume you know how. If you don't, look at i-want-my-lvm (a script
3214on the ramdisk) if you're using LVM. It should give you a few
3215clues. RAID is harder but in general Mondo's RAID support is good.
3216After you've prepped and formatted your drives, run mondorestore
3217again but say 'no' when asked if you want Mondo to prep or format
3218your drives.</para>
3219</answer>
3220</qandaentry>
3221</qandaset>
3222</sect1>
3223</chapter>
3224
3225&gfdl;
3226
3227</book>
Note: See TracBrowser for help on using the repository browser.