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1<!DOCTYPE BOOK PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook V4.1//EN" [
2<!ENTITY curdate "DDD">
3<!ENTITY curver "VVV-rRRR">
4
5<!ENTITY WWWB "http://www.mondorescue.org/">
6<!ENTITY WWW '<ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org">MondoRescue</ulink>'>
7<!ENTITY ML '<ulink url="http://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/mondo-devel">mondorescue mailing list</ulink>'>
8<!ENTITY gfdl SYSTEM "fdl.sgml">
9]>
10
11<book>
12
13<bookinfo>
14<title>MondoRescue HOWTO</title>
15<subtitle>
16Utilisation and Configuration of Mondo and Mindi under Linux (Version &curver;)
17</subtitle>
18<graphic fileref="images/protected-by-mondo" align="center">
19
20<pubdate>
21in its latest version the
22&curdate;
23</pubdate>
24
25<abstract>
26<para>
27This document describes the use of mondo and mindi tools to realize disaster recovery backup of your systems. It provides information on installation, backup and restore modes, hardware and software requirements, and answers to some frequently asked questions.
28The goals are to offer a general view of the functions and their best usages.
29Mondo Rescue is a Disaster Recovery Solution which allows you
30to effortlessly backup and interactively restore Linux, Windows and
31other supported filesystem partitions to/from CD/DVD-+R/RW media, tape,
32NFS, ... and Mindi Linux provides the bootable emergency restore
33CD/floppy set which Mondo uses at boot-time.
34</para>
35</abstract>
36
37<author>
38<firstname>Bruno</firstname>
39<surname>Cornec</surname>
40<affiliation>
41<orgname>MondoRescue Project</orgname>
42<address><email>bcornec@users.berlios.de</email></address>
43</affiliation>
44</author>
45<!--
46Hugo Rabson
47Mikael Hultgren
48Stan Benoit
49Randy Delfs
50Cafeole
51Bryan J. Smith
52-->
53
54<copyright>
55<year>2000-2006</year>
56<holder role="mailto:bcornec@users.berlios.de">Bruno Cornec</holder>
57</copyright>
58
59<legalnotice>
60<title>License</title>
61<para>
62</para>
63<para>
64This HOWTO is a free documentation. you may copy, redistribute and/or modify it under the terms of the
65<Link LinkEnd="gfdl">
66GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1
67</link>.</para>
68<para>
69or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invarian
70t Sections, Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts. This document is distributed
71hoping it will be useful, but <emphasis>without any guaranty</emphasis>; you're
72completely responsible of its use, and coulnd't complain in case it doesn't work
73, or even if it breaks the hardware. All the software included in it, if not alr
74eady copyrighted is released under the GPL.
75</para>
76</legalnotice>
77
78<revhistory>
79<revision>
80    <revnumber>2.06</revnumber>
81    <date>2006-01-16</date>
82    <authorinitials>Bruno Cornec</authorinitials>
83    <revdescription>
84    <para>
85    First SGML version publically available, remade from the HTML docs of the project.
86    </para>
87    </revdescription>
88</revision>
89</revhistory>
90</bookinfo>
91
92<toc></toc>
93<lot></lot>
94
95
96<chapter id="intro">
97<title>About this Guide</title>
98
99<sect1 id="intro-purpose">
100<title>Purpose / Scope of this Guide</title>
101
102<para>
103This HOWTO serves to help people get started with using
104mondo/mindi as way to backup/restore their system. This is a work
105constantly evolving. It was started by Hugo Rabson and has
106since been worked upon by a number of people. See the
107'<ulink url="&WWWB;about.html#devteam">About</ulink>' web
108page for a list of members of the development team.</para>
109
110<para>There are many ways to contribute to the Linux movement
111without actually writing code. One of the most important is writing
112documentation, allowing each person to share their knowledge with
113thousands of others around the world. This HOWTO is designed to
114help you get familiar with how Mondo/Mindi works.</para>
115
116<para>
117Opinions expressed here are those of the authors.
118Informations are provided in the aim to be useful to the readers.
119However, there can't be, through this document, any warranty of any kind
120on the way it works on your systems, nor the author could be responsible for any problem caused by the use of these informations.
121However, software editors don't garantee you a lot either (re-read the contracts).
122</para>
123</sect1>
124
125<sect1 id="intro-newversion"><title>New versions of this document</title>
126
127<para>The newest version of this document can always be found on
128MondoRescue's homepage &WWW;.</para>
129<para>
130If you make a translation of this document into another language, please let meknow so that I can include a reference to it here.
131</para>
132</sect1>
133
134<sect1><title>Suggestions / Feedback</title>
135<para>
136I rely on you, the reader, to make this HOWTO useful. THis HOWTO is probably incomplete even if it tries to be accurate to the best of our knowledge.
137If you have any suggestions, corrections, recommandations or congratulations :-) don't hesitate to send them to me
138<email>bcornec@users.berlios.de</email>,
139and I will try to incorporate them in a next revision or to the &ML;;
140e-mail the list at
141<ulink url="mailto:mondo-devel@lists.sourceforge.net">mondo-devel@lists.sourceforge.net</ulink>;
142tell us what is wrong and how it should be fixed.
143Include the section title and recommended changes. Whenever possible, include
144the exact, spell-checked, grammar-checked text that you think would
145improve the document.
146</para>
147<para>See Mondo's
148        <ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org/feedback/feedback.html">Feedback</ulink> page for
149more information.
150</para>
151<para>
152Please note that we do our best to help everyone but it is
153difficult for us to help you if you do not attach a log file to
154your e-mail. Let me say that again - attach your log file to your
155e-mail! Thank you. Without it we can't offer
156any tangible help because you aren't either. That's what the log
157file is for. It is located at <filename>/var/log/mondo-archive.log</filename>; and <filename>/var/log/miindi.log</filename> or at <filename>/var/log/mondo-restore.log</filename>
158</para>
159<para>
160This document was originaly written by native english speakers, but is maintained by a non-native english speaker so help me correct mistaques instead of rumbling that I've done one :-)
161</para>
162<para>
163I am also willing to answer general questions on MondoRescue, the best I can.
164Before doing so, please read all of the information in this HOWTO, and then send me detailed information about the problem, especially including the logs generated by the tools, or traces obtained (Did I say that already :-].
165</para>
166<para>
167If you publish this document on a CD-ROM or in hardcopy form, a complimentary copy would be appreciated; mail me for my postal address. Also consider making a donation to the Linux Documentation Project to help support free documentation for Linux. Contact the Linux HOWTO coordinator,
168Guylhem AZNAR <email>guylhem@rrremovethis.oeil.qc.ca</email>.
169</para>
170</sect1>
171
172<sect1 id=intro-thanks><title>Aknowledgements</title>
173
174<para>Thanks goes to these people for helping and adding to this
175HOWTO.</para>
176
177<para>Document maintainer:</para>
178<itemizedlist mark="bullet" spacing="Compact">
179<listitem>
180<para>Bruno Cornec</para>
181</listitem>
182</itemizedlist>
183<para>Original Design Assistance by:</para>
184<itemizedlist>
185<listitem>
186<para>Xion Network.com</para>
187</listitem>
188</itemizedlist>
189<para>Original Document Assistance by:</para>
190<itemizedlist>
191<listitem>
192<para>Cafeole</para>
193</listitem>
194<listitem>
195<para>Troff</para>
196</listitem>
197<listitem>
198<para>Randy Delfs</para>
199</listitem>
200<listitem>
201<para>Mikael Hultgren</para>
202</listitem>
203</itemizedlist>
204<para>Original LinuxDoc and LaTeX Reformat by:</para>
205<itemizedlist>
206<listitem>
207<para>Bryan J. Smith</para>
208</listitem>
209</itemizedlist>
210<para>Original DocBook Reformat by:</para>
211<itemizedlist>
212<listitem>
213<para>Mikael Hultgren</para>
214</listitem>
215</itemizedlist>
216<para>Original author; 1.6x material:</para>
217<itemizedlist>
218<listitem>
219<para>Hugo Rabson</para>
220</listitem>
221</itemizedlist>
222
223</sect1>
224</chapter>
225
226<chapter id="quickstart"><title>QuickStart</title>
227<itemizedlist mark="bullet" spacing="Compact">
228<listitem>
229<para>We recommend that you read this complete
230HOWTO. However, if you are too busy or impatient, then
231please use this QuickStart guide to stay out of trouble.</para>
232</listitem>
233<listitem>
234<para>Install the tarball, RPM, or DEB mindi and mondo
235packages. (see <link linkend="installation">Installation</link>
236for more details)</para>
237</listitem>
238<listitem>
239<para>Execute as root (type 'su -' to become root if you are not
240logged in as root)</para>
241<para></para>
242
243<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
244<row>
245<entry>
246
247bash# mondoarchive
248
249</entry>
250</row>
251</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
252
253</listitem>
254</itemizedlist>
255<para></para>
256
257<informaltable><tgroup cols="2"><tbody>
258<row>
259<entry>
260<ulink url="images/mamain.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
261<imagedata fileref="images/mamain-mini">
262</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
263</ulink>
264</entry>
265<entry>
266Choose from the list of supported backup media types. The media you
267will use most often are CD/DVD-+R, CD/DVD-+RW, tape, NFS and hard disk. If
268you want to backup/restore over a network, choose 'NFS'. If you
269want to backup/restore to/from a local partition or if you simply
270want to store the ISO images in a local directory until you have
271time or facilities to burn them to CD's, choose 'hard disk'. If you
272choose 'CD/DVD-+R[W]' or 'tape' then in general your hardware will be
273detected and configured for you.
274</entry>
275</row>
276<row>
277<entry>
278<ulink url="images/maburnproof.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
279<imagedata fileref="images/maburnproof-mini">
280</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
281</ulink>
282</entry>
283<entry>
284        If you are backing up to CD/DVD-+R[W] then Mondo will ask you if your CD
285burner has BurnProof technology, is inside a laptop, or is
286otherwise eccentric. If you are backing up to a tape streamer then
287you will not see this message.
288</entry>
289</row>
290<row>
291<entry>
292<ulink url="images/macompression.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
293<imagedata fileref="images/macompression-mini">
294</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
295</ulink>
296</entry>
297<entry>
298How much compression do you want? None, if your tape streamer has
299built-in hardware compression. Maximum, if your CPU is blazingly
300fast. Average should do just fine for most situations.
301</entry>
302</row>
303<row>
304<entry>
305<ulink url="images/mainclude.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
306<imagedata fileref="images/mainclude-mini">
307</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
308</ulink>
309</entry>
310<entry>
311If you want to backup the whole computer (excluding /sys and /proc,
312naturally) then leave this as / which is the default. Otherwise,
313specify subsets, (e.g. /usr/local /home ) being sure to put a space
314in between each path.
315</entry>
316</row>
317<row>
318<entry>
319<ulink url="images/maexclude.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
320<imagedata fileref="images/maexclude-mini">
321</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
322</ulink>
323</entry>
324<entry>
325If you are backing up your whole computer then you might want to
326exclude certain directories, e.g. /shared/MP3. Please specify them
327in the 'exclude directories' dialog box. Please put a space in
328between each path, e.g. /shared/private /scratch /nfs /windows
329</entry>
330</row>
331<row>
332<entry>
333<ulink url="images/makernel.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
334<imagedata fileref="images/makernel-mini">
335</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
336</ulink>
337</entry>
338<entry>
339Is your kernel sane? Red Hat, Mandrake, SuSE, Debian and Slackware users
340should in general say 'yes' because these vendors are good at
341producing reliable kernels. If you are using Gentoo or LFS
342then your kernel might be non-standard, in which case say 'no' to
343use Mondo's failsafe kernel (provided separately).
344</entry>
345</row>
346<row>
347<entry>
348<ulink url="images/maverifyq.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
349<imagedata fileref="images/maverifyq-mini">
350</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
351</ulink>
352</entry>
353<entry>
354If you want to verify the archives after writing them to media, say
355'yes' here. If you have absolute faith in your hardware and your
356Linux distribution, say 'no'... and a little prayer.
357</entry>
358</row>
359<row>
360<entry>
361<ulink url="images/maproceedq.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
362<imagedata fileref="images/maproceedq-mini">
363</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
364</ulink>
365</entry>
366<entry>
367If you are sure you want to go ahead, say 'yes' and find something
368else to do while Mondo backs up your computer. If you say 'no' then
369you will be unceremoniously dumped at the shell prompt. :-)
370</entry>
371</row>
372<row>
373<entry>
374<ulink url="images/1.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
375<imagedata fileref="images/1-mini">
376</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
377</ulink>
378</entry>
379<entry>
380The backup process will now commence. There are some pre-backup
381tasks to be carried out first but the backup is essentially
382underway. To simplify the backup process, you were asked a series
383of questions. Next time, if you like, you could call mondoarchive
384with various command-line switches to control its behavior, instead
385of answering a series of questions. See the man page for details.
386</entry>
387</row>
388<row>
389<entry>
390<ulink url="images/3.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
391<imagedata fileref="images/3-mini">
392</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
393</ulink>
394</entry>
395<entry>
396Mondo will make a catalog of all files to be backed up. This may
397take up to five minutes. The list of files will be divided into
398sets, approximately 4 MB (before compression) of files per set.
399This typically takes one minute.
400</entry>
401</row>
402<row>
403<entry>
404<ulink url="images/4.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
405<imagedata fileref="images/1-mini">
406</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
407</ulink>
408</entry>
409<entry>
410Mondo calls Mindi. Mindi generates bootable floppy disk images and
411auxiliary data disk images which are based on your existing Linux
412distribution and filesystem. That way, you can be sure Mondo's
413tools will be compatible with your existing filesystems and
414binaries: Mondo's tools are your tools. Mindi takes up to five
415minutes to run.
416</entry>
417</row>
418<row>
419<entry>
420<ulink url="images/5tape.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
421<imagedata fileref="images/5tape-mini">
422</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
423</ulink>
424</entry>
425<entry>
426Finally, Mondo begins backing up your computer. This process may
427take a few minutes or a few hours, depending on how much data you
428are archiving, how fast your CPU is, how much RAM you have, and so
429on. It will backup your regular files and then your large files
430(files larger than approximately 32MB). If you have opted to verify
431your backups, Mondo will do that too.
432</entry>
433</row>
434<row>
435<entry>
436<ulink url="images/10cd.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
437<imagedata fileref="images/10cd-mini">
438</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
439</ulink>
440</entry>
441<entry>
442Do you want to create a boot floppy at the end? Yes, if you're a
443tape or NFS user. No, if you are using CD/DVD-R[W]'s and your computer
444supports bootable CD's. Tape users only need one floppy but other
445users may need more. Mondo will advise accordingly.
446</entry>
447</row>
448</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
449
450<itemizedlist>
451<listitem>
452<para>Try to boot from the first CD of the backup (or the first
453floppy, if you made floppies). Choose 'Compare Mode' by typing
454compare at the boot screen.</para>
455</listitem>
456<listitem>
457<para>If you can boot, fine. If not, make a Mindi "Test" CD to
458checkout the compatibility of your system. (see
459<link linkend="test-mindi">Testing Mindi</link> for more
460details). Remove the CD/floppy; boot your computer as usual;
461execute as root</para>
462<para></para>
463<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
464<row>
465<entry>
466
467        bash# mindi
468        bash# cd /root/images/mindi
469
470</entry>
471</row>
472</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
473
474<para>(for CD-R)</para>
475<para></para>
476<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
477<row>
478<entry>
479
480bash# cdrecord dev=0,0,0 speed=4 -eject -v mindi.iso
481
482</entry>
483</row>
484</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
485
486<para>(for CD-RW)</para>
487<para></para>
488<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
489<row>
490<entry>
491
492bash# cdrecord dev=0,0,0 speed=4 blank=fast -eject -v mindi.iso
493
494</entry>
495</row>
496</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
497
498<para>Reboot your system with the created Mindi CD, with the BIOS
499set to boot from CD. If the result is a command line in 'Expert'
500mode, your system checks out. Remove the CD and reboot your
501system.</para>
502</listitem>
503<listitem>
504<para>If you still cannot boot from Mindi's CD then please e-mail
505the &ML; for help.
506</para>
507</listitem>
508</itemizedlist>
509<para>When making a backup on a live system, there will always be
510processes running that will write out data on the system after you
511have made the backup and before you have made the compare, this
512will result in difference showing up when comparing your backup.
513For a full explanation and what can be done to avoid this, please
514read this section.</para>
515<itemizedlist>
516
517        <listitem>
518<para>This QuickStart covers the ideal case. Upon receiving any
519system feedback/errors, read each related HOWTO section.</para>
520<para>Example 2-1. A test backup of your /home directory to CD-Rs
521using the command line</para>
522<para></para>
523<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
524<row>
525<entry>
526
527bash# mondoarchive -OVc 4 -I /home -gF
528
529</entry>
530</row>
531</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
532
533<para>The 'c' means you must be writing to CD-Rs, not CD-RWs (the
534latter would require 'w' instead of 'c'). The '4' is the speed of
535your CD writer. The string after -I is the path to be backed up.
536The '-gF' means you are going to see the pretty yellow-on-blue
537screen instead of the boring white-on-black screen. :) It also
538means Mondo will not offer to create physical boot floppies for
539you. It is assumed that you are able to boot from the CD which
540Mondo has generated.</para>
541<para>Example 2-2. A backup of your whole filesystem to NFS using
542the command line</para>
543<para></para>
544<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
545<row>
546<entry>
547
548        bash# mkdir -p /mnt/nfs
549        bash# mount 192.168.1.28:/home/nfs /mnt/nfs
550        bash# mondoarchive -OVn 192.168.1.28:/home/nfs -gF[...]
551        bash# umount /mnt/nfs
552        bash# cdrecord dev=0,0,0 speed=4 -eject -v /root/images/mindi/mindi.iso
553
554</entry>
555</row>
556</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
557
558<para>Note that you have to mount the NFS partition, backup to it,
559unmount it, and create a boot CD to allow you to restore from
560scratch if necessary. To reassure yourself that you will be able to
561restore from the NFS share even if your PC is wiped, please boot
562from the Mindi CD and type 'compare'. The on-screen instructions
563from that point on should be sufficient.</para>
564<para>Example 2-3. A backup of your whole
565filesystem to tape using the command line</para>
566<para></para>
567<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
568<row>
569<entry>
570
571bash# mondoarchive -OVt -d /dev/st0 -9 -L -g
572
573</entry>
574</row>
575</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
576
577<para>In this case, we assume Syslinux is incompatible with your
578boot media. For some reason, some BIOSes just don't like Syslinux.
579If you find this to be the case for your computer, please use '-L'
580to force Mondo to use LILO instead of Syslinux as the boot loader
581for its CD/floppies. (NB: This has nothing to do with which boot
582loader your hard drive uses.) Also, it is a good habit to specify
583your tape streamer with '-d &lt;device&gt;'. You don't usually need
584to but it's good to be on the safe side. Some computers call your
585tape streamer /dev/osst0, some call it /dev/ftape, ...</para>
586</listitem>
587</itemizedlist>
588
589</chapter>
590
591<chapter id="overview"><title>Overview</title>
592
593<sect1 id="overview-mondorescue">
594<title>Mondo Rescue</title>
595<para>Mondo Rescue backs up your file system to CD, tape, NFS
596(archives stored remotely) or ISO's (archives stored locally).
597Mondo uses afio as the backup engine; afio is a well-respected
598replacement for tar. In the event of catastrophic data loss, you
599may restore some or all of your system, even if your hard drives
600are now blank. Mondo Rescue can do a lot of other cool
601things:</para>
602<itemizedlist>
603<listitem>
604<para>You can use Mondo to clone an installation of Linux. Just
605backup the crucial stuff and exclude /home, /var/log, etc.</para>
606</listitem>
607<listitem>
608<para>You can backup a non-RAID file system and restore it as RAID
609including the root partition (if your kernel supports that).</para>
610</listitem>
611<listitem>
612<para>You can backup a system running on one format and restore as
613another format.</para>
614</listitem>
615<listitem>
616<para>You can restructure your partitions, e.g. shrink/enlarge,
617reassign devices, add hard drives, etc, before you partition and
618format your drives. Mondo will restore your data and amend
619/etc/lilo.conf and /etc/fstab accordingly.</para>
620</listitem>
621<listitem>
622<para>You can backup Linux/Windows systems, including the boot
623sectors. Mondo will make everything right at restore-time.
624(However, do run "Scandisk" when you first boot into Windows, just
625in case.)</para>
626</listitem>
627<listitem>
628<para>You can use your Mondo backup CD to verify the integrity of
629your computer.</para>
630</listitem>
631</itemizedlist>
632<para>Mondo's principal virtue is that it protects you from the
633problems that can arise when you reinstall completely from scratch.
634If you want to wipe and restore your system every year just as a
635matter of 'good practice', Mondo is not for you. However, if you
636want to get up and running again in a hurry after someone breaks
637into your computer and wipes it (or if you accidentally wipe it
638yourself) then Mondo is definitely for you. It will permit you to
639roll back to a known-good installation in a very short period of
640time, sometimes as little as twenty minutes. Even if you backup
641large amounts of data to tape daily and do not want to add yet
642another backup regime, please consider backing up the core
643filesystem (i.e. everything but the directories containing your
644huge database and your prizewinning novel) every month or so, just
645in case. You will be glad you did.</para>
646<para>What is Mondo not?</para>
647<para>Mondo is not an everyday backup program. It is not designed
648to replace tar, afio, kbackup, etc. Mondo is designed to make it
649possible to recover from scratch if necessary. Tar and afio offer a
650quick, convenient way to backup small sets of files, sometimes to
651removable media.</para>
652</sect1>
653
654<sect1 id="overview-mindi">
655<title>Mindi</title>
656<para>
657Mindi Linux creates a set of boot/root floppy disk images
658that will let you perform basic system maintenance on your Linux
659distro. The principal virtues of Mindi's boot disks are the fact
660that they contain your kernel, modules, tools and libraries. You
661can ask for additional binaries (or other files) to be included on
662the kit. The libraries will be added for you.
663</para>
664<para>Whichever modules were loaded at backup-time, they are
665reloaded at boot-time. So, in theory, you will boot into almost the
666same environment as you were in when you backed up. If you want to
667add files to your Mindi boot disks, edit '&lt;INSTALLPATH OF
668MINDI&gt;/mindi/deplist.txt' and add the files to that list. The
669added files and dependencies, will be spread across the data disks
670at run-time.
671</para>
672<para>Mindi makes sure that Mondo has all the tools it needs at
673boot-time. Mondo uses fdisk, mkfs, cat, less, more, afio, gzip,
674bzip2, your keyboard configuration, your glibc libraries, your
675other libraries, your kernel, your modules, ... a lot! Mindi takes
676care of all that, so that Mondo can get on with the job of backing
677up or restoring your data.
678</para>
679<para>Mindi is also handy for making boot CDs/disks which stand on
680their own. You do not need Mondo. Indeed, if you like, you could
681use another backup/restore program with Mindi. Just add it to
682Mindi's dependency list (type 'locate deplist.txt' to find it).
683Mindi will include your software on its boot CD/disks the next time
684you run mindi.
685</para>
686</sect1>
687
688
689<sect1 id="overview-linuxbackup">
690<title>Linux Backup</title>
691<para>Mondo Rescue and Mindi Linux are used primarily as Linux
692backup and cloning tools. The fall in prices of CD-RW drives and
693writable discs will allow current users to keep good backups and
694future users to leverage the cloning capability.</para>
695<para>Tape drives are more likely to suit your needs if you run a
696larger installation (or have lots of MP3's). Warning! OnStream
697drives do not play well with Mondo. I do not know why. It is, in my
698opinion, something which OnStream should look into. Mondo uses
699fopen(), fread(), fwrite() and fclose() to interact with tape
700drives. That works for most drives but some drives just don't like
701that.</para>
702<para>Mondo Rescue has tested thousands of times on various computers.
703It worked for them.
704Thousands of users testify to Mondo's stability and its ease of
705use. However, please test it on your own system before you rely on
706it. In fact, do not rely on any software until you have tested it
707to see if it performs as expected.</para>
708<para>To establish that Mondo will behave well in an emergency,
709please be prepared. Run a test backup as follows:-</para>
710<itemizedlist>
711<listitem>
712<para>Run mondoarchive without any command-line options.</para>
713</listitem>
714<listitem>
715    <para>Backup a subset of files - e.g. /usr/local - to CD or
716            tape. Say 'yes' when asked if you want to verify them.</para>
717</listitem>
718<listitem>
719    <para>If you are not backing up to CD, please create boot
720    floppies when prompted.</para>
721</listitem>
722</itemizedlist>
723<para>Next, restore archives to your live filesystem.</para>
724<itemizedlist>
725<listitem>
726<para>When mondoarchive terminates, run mondorestore without any
727command-line options.</para>
728</listitem>
729<listitem><para>Insert the CD or the first boot floppy when prompted.
730                Press &lt;Enter&gt;. Wait a moment.</para></listitem>
731<listitem><para>Select a subset of files to restore, e.g. /usr/local/man
732                and /usr/local/bin. Hit OK.</para></listitem>
733<listitem><para>Restore files to /tmp or /root/RESTORED or something
734                similar.</para></listitem>
735<listitem><para>When mondorestore terminates, compare the restored files
736                to the originals using cmp or diff.</para></listitem>
737</itemizedlist>
738<para>Finally, simulate an emergency restore.</para>
739<itemizedlist>
740<listitem>
741<para>Boot from CD/floppies.</para>
742</listitem>
743<listitem><para>Select 'Interactive Mode' at boot-time. (Type
744                'interactive' and hit &lt;Enter&gt;.)</para></listitem>
745<listitem><para>Hit OK when shown the mountlist. Say 'yes' when asked if
746                you accept the mountlist.</para></listitem>
747<listitem><para>Select files to restore, e.g. /usr/local/man and
748                /usr/local/bin. Hit OK.</para></listitem>
749<listitem><para>Restore files to /tmp or /root/RESTORED or something
750                similar.</para></listitem>
751<listitem><para>When mondorestore terminates, please reboot and compare
752                the restored files to the originals.</para></listitem>
753</itemizedlist>
754<para>FYI, the subroutines to repartition and reformat your drives
755are very stable. If you are a RAID or LVM user, you
756might&nbsp;encounter some difficulties when wiping and restoring
757from scratch because of the sheer range of filesystem layouts and
758the impossibility of testing Mondo on every single one. If you have
759trouble, just drop to the command-line and partition/format
760manually. Then, call mondorestore, select Interactive Mode, and say
761'no' when asked if you want Mondo to partition or format your
762drives for you.</para>
763<para>You see, even if you have trouble, you still have two hands
764and most of the tools you need - lvchange, pvcreate, fdisk, mkraid,
765etc. - to do it manually. After you have prepped and formatted your
766drives manually (if you have to), just run mondorestore again and
767say 'no' when asked if you want to prep or format your drives. What
768could be easier?</para>
769</sect1>
770
771<sect1 id="overview-winbackup">
772<title>Windows Backup</title>
773<para>Backing up windows partitions.</para>
774<sect2 id="overview-winbackup-win95"><title>Windows ME/95/98</title>
775<para>Verify that the partition is listed in /etc/fstab and is
776mounted (e.g. /dev/hda1). Mondo will take care of everything else.
777The files will be archived just like all other files in the live
778file system. At restore-time, Mondo will take care of the boot
779sector of /dev/hda1 prior to the restore.</para>
780<para>Note: if Windows ME/95/98 is not located on /dev/hda1 or
781/dev/sda1, then Mondo will not take care of the boot sector of
782/dev/hda1. The user will have to boot from a DOS floppy and run SYS
783C: to correct the Windows boot sector.</para>
784</sect2>
785<sect2 id="overview-winbackup-winnt"><title>Windows NT4/2K/XP</title>
786<para>Windows NT4/2K/XP typically use the NTFS file system, not
787VFAT.. The user should use '-x /dev/hda1' (or whichever device the
788Windows partition resides). Mondo will treat the partition as a
789biggiefile. Mondo will also add an entry to the mountlist to
790reflect the size and type of the partition. The user may not edit
791that partition's size at restore-time (for obvious reasons).</para>
792<para>Please bear in mind that Mondo was written for Linux users.
793If Mondo does not backup or restore your Windows system well, you
794might want to consider reporting it to the &ML;
795</para>
796</sect2>
797</sect1>
798
799<sect1 id="overview-history">
800<title>Mondo Rescue and Mindi Linux
801History</title>
802<para>Mondo Rescue was created in December 1999 by Hugo Rabson as a utility to
803clone Linux/Windows installations. Norton Ghost would not do the
804job, and his boss wanted to jump on the Linux bandwagon. So, he wrote
805a few scripts and shoehorned them into the latest Linux-Mandrake
806CD. Since that time, Mondo grew into a disaster recovery suite for
807Linux and Windows. Mondo forced him to learn about the kernel, its
808initrd initial ramdisk, modules, library dependencies, disk
809partitioning, and the myriad differences between the Top 10 Linux
810distributions.</para>
811<para>The first formal release was made on February 18th, 2000.
812Mondo is currently one of the top five Linux backup/restore
813programs. Mondo has been compared favorably to ArcServe, Arkeia and
814BRU. Although Mondo lacks the more advanced, enterprise-level
815features of ArcServe and Arkeia, for workstations and small- to
816medium-size servers it is ideal because it is small, fast,
817efficient, stable, comes with source code, and is being actively
818developed and supported.</para>
819<para>
820        Since November 2005, Hugo Rabson has tranfered the maintenance
821        of the Mondo Rescue suite to Andree Leidenfrost and Bruno Cornec,
822        both previous developpers and packagers of the tool since nearly
823        the begining.
824</para>
825</sect1>
826
827<sect1 id="overview-sysreq">
828<title>System Requirements</title>
829<sect2 id="overview-sysrq-hwreq">
830<title>Hardware Requirements</title>
831
832<para>Your computer must have:</para>
833<itemizedlist>
834<listitem>
835        <para>Intel(R)-compatible CPU (ia32, x86_64/amd64 or ia64)</para>
836</listitem>
837<listitem>
838<para>64MB of RAM (128MB recommended)</para>
839</listitem>
840<listitem>
841<para>800MB of hard disk space free</para>
842</listitem>
843<listitem>
844<para>CD writer, tape streamer, NFS share or some way to backup the
845backups :)</para>
846</listitem>
847</itemizedlist>
848<para>It is recommended that your computer have very good airflow.
849The backup with Mondo Rescue and Mindi Linux will utilize your CPU,
850CD drive and fixed disk(s) like very few other applications. With a
851few hours of system backup activity, computers without sufficient
852airflow may show symptoms such as not burning full CD discs. The
853solution is a $20 or less additional fan at your local electronics
854discount store.</para>
855</sect2>
856
857<sect2 id="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">
858<title>Kernel Requirements</title>
859
860<para>Your kernel must have:</para>
861<itemizedlist>
862<listitem>
863<para>stable loopfs support, which means it really needs to be
8642.2.19 or 2.4.7 (or later)</para>
865</listitem>
866<listitem>
867<para>CD-ROM device support</para>
868</listitem>
869<listitem>
870<para>ISO9660 file system support</para>
871</listitem>
872<listitem>
873<para>initrd ramdisk support (built-in)</para>
874</listitem>
875<listitem>
876<para>Virtual memory file system support (built-in)</para>
877</listitem>
878<listitem>
879<para>floppy disk support (built in)</para>
880</listitem>
881<listitem>
882<para>ext2 file system support (built-in)</para>
883</listitem>
884<listitem>
885<para>Support for the backup media (Tape, CD-RW, NFS, Hard
886disk)</para>
887</listitem>
888<listitem>
889<para>If the backup media is CD-RW then you need SCSI emulation
890also</para>
891<para>vfat support in the active kernel - mindi needs this when creating
892syslinux boot floppies</para>
893</listitem>
894</itemizedlist>
895<para>Please note that the stock kernels of Red Hat/RHEL/Fedora,
896    Mandrake/Mandriva, SuSE/SLES/OpenSuSE, Debian and Slackware
897    all meet Mondo's requirements. If your kernel does not meet Mondo's
898    requirements then there is something wrong with it. Mondo's demands
899    are not unreasonable.</para>
900<para>Mondo (specifically Mindi) does not require any specific
901module. It does require that your kernel support the initrd
902initial ramdisk facility. Typically this is supported by the Linux
903kernel. Modules used are needed to support the CD, floppy disks,
904hard disks, etc. If the support is modular, then the modules will
905be incorporated in a boot disk by Mindi. If the support is built-in
906(static), then it will be available at boot-time by default.</para>
907</sect2>
908<sect2 id="overview-sysrq-swreq">
909<title>Software Requirements</title>
910<para>See Mondo's <ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org/download.html">Download
911page</ulink> for details.</para>
912<para>Mondo requires afio, bzip2, cdrtools/cdrecord/growisofs, ncurses, newt,
913isolinux/syslinux, lzo (optional), lzop (optional), mkisofs, slang,
914and a few other packages.</para>
915<para>Good Linux distributions provide all these packages. If yours
916does not then please go to the aforementioned Download page or surf
917the Net, preferably the website of the distribution you are
918using.</para>
919<para>Mondo's expectations are not unreasonable, either of your
920Linux distribution or of your kernel. However, if your distribution
921fails to meet its expectations and you cannot find out how to
922resolve them, please feel free to e-mail the &ML;
923</para>
924</sect2>
925</sect1>
926</chapter>
927
928<chapter id="installation">
929<title>Installation</title>
930
931<sect1 id="installation-mindi">
932<title>Mindi Installation</title>
933<para>If you are installing from a tarball then copy it to wherever
934you have enough space, for example /tmp and type:</para>
935<para></para>
936<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
937<row>
938<entry>
939
940        bash# cd /tmp
941        bash# tar -zxvf mindi-1.x.tgz
942        bash# cd mindi-1.x
943        bash# ./install.sh
944
945</entry>
946</row>
947</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
948
949<para>This installs mindi additional files into /usr/local/lib/mindi and
950the program into /usr/local/sbin</para>
951<para>Or, if you are installing from an RPM/deb then copy it to
952wherever you have enough space, for example /tmp and type:</para>
953<para></para>
954<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
955<row>
956<entry>
957
958bash# rpm -Uvh /tmp/mindi-1.x-x.i386.rpm
959
960or
961
962bash# dpkg -i /tmp/mindi-1.x-x.deb
963
964</entry>
965</row>
966</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
967
968<para>This installs mindi additional files into /usr/lib/mindi and
969the program into /usr/sbin.
970</para>
971</sect1>
972
973<sect1 id="installation-mondo">
974<title>Mondo Installation</title>
975<para>If you are installing from a tarball then copy it to wherever
976you have enough space, for example /tmp and type:</para>
977<para></para>
978<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
979<row>
980<entry>
981
982        bash# cd /tmp
983        bash# tar -zxvf mondo-2.xx.tgz
984        bash# cd mondo-2.xx
985        bash# make &amp;&amp; make install
986
987</entry>
988</row>
989</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
990
991<para>This installs mondo into /usr/local/lib/mondo and installs
992the programs into /usr/local/sbin</para>
993<para>Or, if you are installing from an RPM/deb then copy it to copy it
994to wherever you have enough space, for example /tmp and
995type:</para>
996<para></para>
997<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
998<row>
999<entry>
1000
1001bash# rpm -Uvh /tmp/mondo-2.x-x.i386.rpm
1002
1003or
1004
1005bash# dpkg -i /tmp/mondo-2.x-x.deb
1006
1007</entry>
1008</row>
1009</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1010
1011<para>This installs mondo into /usr/lib/mondo and installs
1012the programs into /usr/sbin</para>
1013</sect1>
1014</chapter>
1015
1016<chapter id="test">
1017<title>Tests</title>
1018
1019<sect1 id="test-mindi">
1020<title>Testing Mindi</title>
1021
1022<para>Mindi is a vital part of the backup procedure. If you have
1023used Mondo before or if you are in a hurry, skip steps 6.2 and 6.3;
1024go straight to QuickStart.</para>
1025<para>However, if you have time or if you have been having trouble
1026getting Mondo to work, I would recommend trying out Mindi directly
1027(rather than via Mondo) to see if it can produce a bootable CD on
1028your system.</para>
1029<para>Make sure you are root while doing this, otherwise mindi will
1030fail, now do this.</para>
1031<para>If you have any problems, please:-</para>
1032<itemizedlist>
1033<listitem>
1034<para>less /var/log/mindi.log</para>
1035</listitem>
1036<listitem><para>feel free to edit mindi (it's a shell script, btw) to try
1037                to fix the problem yourself</para></listitem>
1038<listitem><para>contact the &ML; if you get stuck.</para></listitem>
1039</itemizedlist>
1040<para>Type:-</para>
1041<para></para>
1042<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1043<row>
1044<entry>
1045
1046bash# mindi
1047
1048</entry>
1049</row>
1050</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1051
1052<para>Example screen output, selecting to use your own kernel, to
1053create boot disks, and to create a bootable CD image:</para>
1054<para></para>
1055<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1056<row>
1057<entry>
1058
1059# mindi
1060Mindi Linux mini-distro generator v1.06-r343
1061
1062Latest Mindi is available from http://mondorescue.berlios.de
1063
1064BusyBox sources are available from http://www.busybox.net
1065
1066------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1067Do you want to use your own kernel to build the boot disk (y/n) ?y
1068Would you like to use LILO (instead of syslinux)
1069for your boot CD/floppies (y/n) ?n
1070Analyzing dependency requirements                               Done.
1071Making complete dependency list                                 Done.
1072Analyzing your keyboard's configuration.
1073
1074Adding the following keyboard mapping tables: us-latin1         Done.
1075Assembling dependency files...................................................................                                                  Done.
1076The files have been subdivided into 5 directories.                              Your mountlist will look like this:-
1077    Finding all volume groups
1078  No volume groups found
1079  No volume groups found
1080  No volume groups found
1081  No volume groups found
1082        DEVICE          MOUNTPOINT      FORMAT          SIZE (MB)
1083        /dev/hda1       /               ext3                399
1084        /dev/hda9       /home           ext3              48478
1085        /dev/hda6       /usr            ext3               4999
1086        /dev/hda7       /var            ext3               1000
1087        /dev/hda5       swap            swap                349
1088        /dev/hda8       swap            swap               2003
1089    Finding all volume groups
1090  No volume groups found
1091  No volume groups found
1092  No volume groups found
1093  No volume groups found
1094Tarring and zipping the groups..................                Done.
1095Creating data disk #1...#2...#3...#4...#5...                    Done.
1096Making 1722KB boot disk...........................1440+0 enregistrements lus.
10971440+0 enregistrements écrits.
1098mke2fs 1.38 (30-Jun-2005)
1099cp: écriture de `vmlinuz': Aucun espace disponible sur le périphérique
1100Failed to copy /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.12-15mdk-i686-up-4GB to ramdisk
1101
1102Warning - failed to create 1.44MB boot/root floppies
1103
1104Warning - failed to create 1.72MB boot image. Please reduce your kernel's size
1105
1106if you want to make a 1.72MB floppy disk.
1107
1108Making 2880KB boot disk...........................mkfs.vfat 2.10 (22 Sep 2003)
1109... 2880 KB boot disks were created OK                          Done.
1110In the directory '/root/images/mindi' you will find the images:-
1111   mindi-data-1.img    mindi-data-2.img    mindi-data-3.img    mindi-data-4.img    mindi-data-5.img mindi-root.1440.img
1112Would you like to create boot+data floppy disks now (y/n) ?n
1113Shall I make a bootable CD image? (y/n) y
1114NB: Mindi's bootable CD always uses isolinux.
1115
1116For a bootable CD w/LILO, please use Mondo.
1117
1118Finished.
1119
1120Boot and data disk images were created.
1121
1122#
1123       
1124</entry>
1125</row>
1126</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1127
1128<para>If your kernel is too large (more than about 900KB) then you
1129cannot make boot floppies, although you can still make a bootable
1130CD image. The easiest way to test Mindi in either case is to say
1131'n' to its first question and 'y' to its second, then use the
1132separate application cdrecord to make a bootable CD-R or
1133CD-RW.</para>
1134<para>Use the cdrecord application to write the CD image:</para>
1135<para></para>
1136<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1137<row>
1138<entry>
1139
1140        bash# cd /root/images/mindi
1141        bash# cdrecord -scanbus
1142
1143</entry>
1144</row>
1145</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1146
1147<para>The output of the above call to cdrecord will tell you your
1148CD writer's node. It is usually '0,0,0'. Choose one of the
1149following calls to write the CD, depending on whether the disk in
1150the drive is a CD-R or a CD-RW. Please replace 'x,x,x' with your
1151writer's node. For further information, type 'man cdrecord" from a
1152Linux command line.</para>
1153<para>If writing to a CD-RW Drive/Disc:</para>
1154<para></para>
1155<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1156<row>
1157<entry>
1158
1159bash# cdrecord -v blank=fast dev=x,x,x speed=4 mindi.iso (for CD-RW)
1160
1161</entry>
1162</row>
1163</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1164
1165<para>If writing to a CD-R Drive/Disc:</para>
1166<para></para>
1167<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1168<row>
1169<entry>
1170
1171bash# cdrecord -v dev=x,x,x speed=4 mindi.iso (for CD-R)
1172
1173</entry>
1174</row>
1175</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1176</sect1>
1177
1178<!--
1179<sect1 id="test-mondo">
1180<title>Testing Mondo</title>
1181</sect1>
1182-->
1183</chapter>
1184
1185<chapter id="backup">
1186<title>Backup</title>
1187
1188<sect1 id="backup-recommandations">
1189<title>Recommandations</title>
1190<itemizedlist>
1191<listitem>
1192<para>Shut down all possible applications (this minimizes any
1193        compare differences following the backup). Especially shutdown
1194        properly any running database on your system, as the recovery
1195        may lead to corrupted data.</para>
1196</listitem>
1197<listitem>
1198<para>Type:</para>
1199</listitem>
1200</itemizedlist>
1201<para></para>
1202<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1203<row>
1204<entry>
1205
1206bash# mondoarchive
1207
1208</entry>
1209</row>
1210</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1211
1212<para>For most users, that should be enough. :-) Mondoarchive will
1213usually autodetect your hardware and configure it for you.</para>
1214<para>If you are a power user (or you like to control every detail
1215of how Mondo runs) then you may want to look at the command-line
1216switches. For example:-</para>
1217<para></para>
1218<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1219<row>
1220<entry>
1221
1222bash# mondoarchive -Ow9 -gF -I /home
1223
1224</entry>
1225</row>
1226</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1227
1228<para>cdrecord will tell you where your CD recorder lives, in SCSI
1229terms, which looks like '0,0,0'. The previous call to mondoarchive tells
1230Mondo to backup everything to a 4x CD-RW drive that has
1231a CD-RW disk in it. (Use -Oc instead of -Ow if you are using
1232CD-R.)</para>
1233<para>Please put the first CD-R(W) in the drive now. You will be
1234prompted to insert CD #2 but you will not be prompted to insert the
1235first disk. However, if you forget, do not worry: if Mondo fails to
1236write the first (or any) disk, it will offer to retry, abort or
1237fail.</para>
1238<para>Find the speed/compression
1239compromise that best suits your needs. Here maximum (-9) compression level is used.</para>
1240<para>If you are using cron then please use -F to make sure that
1241Mondo does not prompt you to create bootable floppy disks. Cron
1242does not handle user interaction well because it pipes stdin and
1243stdout specially. Please consult cron's manual for more
1244information. Jesse Keating has written a script for cron/Mondo
1245users. It is available on the
1246<ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org/docs/docs.html">Documentation</ulink>
1247page.</para>
1248</sect1>
1249
1250<sect1 id="backup-cmd">
1251<title>Backup Commands and Options</title>
1252
1253<para>Backup Command:</para>
1254<para></para>
1255<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1256<row>
1257<entry>
1258
1259mondoarchive &lt;-option1&gt; &lt;-option2&gt; ... &lt;-optionN&gt;
1260
1261</entry>
1262</row>
1263</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1264
1265<para>E.g.,</para>
1266<para></para>
1267<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1268<row>
1269<entry>
1270
1271bash# mondoarchive -E "/mnt/dos /mnt/cdrom" -9 -Oc 8
1272
1273</entry>
1274</row>
1275</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1276
1277<para>Would create backup CD to a CD-R disc at the highest
1278compression level, writing at speed 8 and ignoring the /mnt/dos and
1279/mnt/cdrom directories.</para>
1280<para>To see a detailed list of switches and their meaning, see the
1281<ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org/download/mondoarchive.1.html">HTML
1282man page</ulink> on the website or type 'man mondoarchive' at the
1283console.</para>
1284<sect2 id="backup-cmd-cdr">
1285<title>Standard Example With CD-R</title>
1286<para></para>
1287<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1288<row>
1289<entry>
1290
1291bash# mondoarchive -Oc 2 -g
1292
1293</entry>
1294</row>
1295</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1296
1297<para>Replace '2' in '-Oc 2' with the writer's speed. If
1298mondoarchive cannot find your CD-R then please add '-d 0,0,0' (or
1299whatever your CD writer's SCSI node is; usually, it is 0,0,0) to
1300the call.</para>
1301<para>Please insert the first disk in the writer while the PC is
1302chugging away. If Mondo needs additional CD-R(W) then it will ask
1303for them.</para>
1304</sect2>
1305<sect2 id="backup-cmd-cdrw">
1306<title>Standard Example With CD-RW</title>
1307<para></para>
1308<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1309<row>
1310<entry>
1311
1312bash# mondoarchive -Ow 2 -g
1313
1314</entry>
1315</row>
1316</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1317
1318<para>Replace '2' in '-Ow 2' with the writer's speed.</para>
1319</sect2>
1320<sect2 id="backup-cmd-tape">
1321        <title>Standard Example With Tape</title>
1322<para></para>
1323<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1324<row>
1325<entry>
1326
1327bash# mondoarchive -Ot -d /dev/st0 -g
1328
1329</entry>
1330</row>
1331</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1332
1333</sect2>
1334<sect2 id="backup-cmd-failsafe">
1335        <title>Standard Example With Failsafe kernel</title>
1336<para></para>
1337<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1338<row>
1339<entry>
1340
1341bash# mondoarchive -k FAILSAFE -Ow 2
1342
1343</entry>
1344</row>
1345</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1346
1347<para>If you have problems during the restore phase, due to your kernel
1348        (which may be the case on some distributions), you may want to explore the Failsafe
1349        approach, In order for this option to work you'll have to get
1350        the mindi-kernel tarball or package for your distribution.</para>
1351</sect2>
1352<sect2 id="backup-cmd-network">
1353        <title>Standard Example With Network Backup</title>
1354<para></para>
1355<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1356<row>
1357<entry>
1358
1359        bash# mount 192.168.1.3:/home/nfs -t nfs /mnt/nfs
1360        bash# mondoarchive -OVn 192.168.1.3:/home/nfs -g -s 200m
1361        bash# umount /mnt/nfs
1362
1363</entry>
1364</row>
1365</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1366
1367<para>The resultant ISO's can be burned to CD's if you want (which
1368isn't a good idea unless you're a Mondo expert because they'll try
1369to restore over a network by default, which is silly because the
1370archives are on the CD's). Or, you can boot from the Mindi floppies
1371(or mondorescue.iso) and hit ENTER a few times to restore.</para>
1372<para>Those ISO images can also be used for a PXE restore. For this
1373        to work, please refer to the file README.pxe provided with
1374        your mindi package.
1375</para>
1376</sect2>
1377</sect1>
1378</chapter>
1379
1380<chapter id="compare">
1381<title>Compare</title>
1382<para>Before you trust your backup CD, make sure your BIOS can boot
1383CD (and that it is configured to do so).</para>
1384<itemizedlist>
1385<listitem>
1386<para>Boot from the first CD.</para>
1387</listitem>
1388<listitem>
1389<para>Type:</para>
1390</listitem>
1391</itemizedlist>
1392<para></para>
1393<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1394<row>
1395<entry>
1396
1397LILO: compare
1398
1399</entry>
1400</row>
1401</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1402
1403<para>Follow the on-screen instructions. This will compare your
1404backup against your original file system.</para>
1405<para>FYI, no bad archives have been created since May 2000. Having
1406said that, I would still encourage you to run Compare before
1407trusting the backups.</para>
1408<para>To view the file differences, look at the file
1409'/tmp/changed.txt'. Normal differences include logs and other
1410dynamic system files that changed during the time of the backup
1411process. If only a few files differ - e.g. files in /var, files
1412ending in '&amp;#732;', logs, temporary files, /etc/mtab,
1413/etc/adjtimex - then you know the archives are good. Your logs will
1414change over time, too. Bear in mind that a difference between the
1415backup and the live copy does not&nbsp;indicate a flaw in Mondo. It
1416indicates that you or your filesystem changed the files, so the
1417backup is no longer 100% up to date. However, that is inevitable,
1418as your filesystem changes from moment to moment (which is why you
1419back it up regularly).</para>
1420
1421</chapter>
1422
1423<chapter id="restore">
1424<title>Restore</title>
1425
1426<sect1 id="restore-overview">
1427<title>Overview</title>
1428
1429<para>I hope you don't have to restore from scratch very often.
1430It's nerve-wracking until you realize that Mondo's restore engine
1431is very reliable.
1432</para>
1433<para>If you find that you cannot make your PC boot from the CD,
1434take heart: the first backup CD of each set contains floppy disk
1435images to give you the same functionality as the CD (minus the
1436archives, of course) on floppies. Remember, your Mondo CD is a
1437fully functional CD-based mini-distribution as well as a recovery
1438CD.</para>
1439<para>You can choose from the following modes:</para>
1440
1441<variablelist>
1442<varlistentry><term>Interactive</term>
1443<listitem><para>Restore step-by-step, or restore a subset of the
1444archives. This is the method you should mainly use for your
1445recovery needs.</para>
1446</listitem></varlistentry>
1447<varlistentry><term>Nuke</term>
1448<listitem><para>Wipe your drives and restore everything,
1449automatically and unattended. Warning: This does exactly what is
1450says, so be carefull using it.</para>
1451</listitem></varlistentry>
1452<varlistentry><term>Expert</term>
1453<listitem><para>Boot to a shell prompt. If you want to do anything
1454creative, you should boot into Expert Mode. It's called expert, I
1455think that says it all.</para>
1456</listitem>
1457</varlistentry>
1458</variablelist>
1459
1460<para>If the CD is not found during the initial restore CD boot
1461attempt, reboot the PC a second time prior to reporting failure.
1462Occasional timing errors and hardware/software/system conflicts do
1463occur.</para>
1464</sect1>
1465
1466<sect1 id="restore-tips">
1467<title>Tips and Tricks</title>
1468
1469<para>Ideally, restore your system to a spare hard drive to test
1470the integrity and reliability of your disks. To do that, either
1471edit your mountlist to make the devices point to your spare hard
1472drive, or swap your hard drive cables between boots.</para>
1473<para>At a bare minimum, compare your CD against your file system
1474before you decide whether to trust them.</para>
1475<para>To test Mondo's ability to handle your LILO or GRUB boot
1476loader and accompanying configuration file:</para>
1477<itemizedlist>
1478<listitem>
1479<para>Boot from the backup CD into Expert Mode</para>
1480</listitem>
1481<listitem>
1482<para>Type:</para>
1483</listitem>
1484</itemizedlist>
1485<para></para>
1486<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1487<row>
1488<entry>
1489
1490bash# mondorestore --mbr
1491
1492</entry>
1493</row>
1494</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1495
1496<itemizedlist>
1497<listitem>
1498<para>To fix any mess it made (not that it should) type:</para>
1499</listitem>
1500</itemizedlist>
1501<para></para>
1502<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1503<row>
1504<entry>
1505
1506        bash# mount-me
1507        bash# chroot /mnt/RESTORING
1508        bash# lilo OR grub-install '(hd0)'
1509        bash# exit
1510        bash# unmount-me
1511
1512</entry>
1513</row>
1514</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1515
1516<itemizedlist>
1517<listitem>
1518<para>If it did not work then please copy /tmp/mondo-restore.log to
1519a floppy (or to your hard disk, USB key, ...), gzip it and e-mail it to the
1520&ML;.</para>
1521</listitem>
1522</itemizedlist>
1523
1524<sect2>
1525    <title>Barebones (Nuke) Restore</title>
1526<para>Imagine that your hard drives happen to be wiped,
1527deliberately or accidentally. Or, imagine that you want to clone
1528your existing operating system. In either case, you want to run in
1529Nuke Mode.</para>
1530<para>If you want to wipe everything and restore your whole system
1531from CD, please:</para>
1532<itemizedlist>
1533<listitem>
1534<para>Use the -H option when invoking mondoarchive</para>
1535</listitem>
1536<listitem>
1537<para>Boot from the first Mondo CD</para>
1538</listitem>
1539<listitem>
1540<para>Press RESTORE&lt;enter&gt;</para>
1541</listitem>
1542<listitem>
1543<para>Insert the subsequent CD when asked</para>
1544</listitem>
1545<listitem>
1546<para>Watch the screen for errors</para>
1547</listitem>
1548</itemizedlist>
1549<para>That's it. The restoration process for tape or NFS users is
1550similarly easy: just boot, answer the on-screen prompts, and
1551wait.</para>
1552<para>Now, should something go wrong, you will be able to examine
1553/tmp/mondo-restore.log to see what happened. All is not lost. You
1554can fdisk and format the partitions yourself, using the tools that
1555come with the CD. You can then run mondorestore in Interactive Mode
1556and say 'no' when asked if you want Mondo to partition/format your
1557drives.</para>
1558<para>If you want to see exactly what Mondo is doing while it is
1559restoring, press &lt;Alt&gt;&lt;left cursor&gt; to view its
1560logfile, in a virtual console, scrolling past.</para>
1561</sect2>
1562<sect2>
1563<title>Interactive Restore</title>
1564<para>Interactive Mode is for people who have lost a subset of data
1565from their live file system, or perhaps who have lost some data
1566from their latest backup and want to restore a subset of data from
1567an earlier backup. If you want to restore only some files or if you
1568do not want to prep/format your drives, then you should boot into
1569Interactive Mode. The interactive mode will provide an 'Editing
1570mountlist screen' that allows you to setup a different disk
1571geometry.</para>
1572<para>To move up and down between partitions in the 'Editing
1573mountlist screen', use the Up and Down arrows. To move between the
1574main window and the buttons at the bottom, use the Left and Right
1575cursor keys. TAB shifts focus from one screen item to the other in
1576a haphazard fashion, owing to the complexities of the Newt
1577library.</para>
1578<para>If you want to restore selectively, just press &lt;enter&gt;
1579and follow the on-screen instructions. You will be asked to say
1580yes/no to a range of questions.</para>
1581<para>If you are planning to modify your partition table, you would
1582do well to read up on the partition layout and the use of fdisk, it
1583gives you some pointers on how to best lay out partitions.
1584You can find a good guide at
1585<ulink url="http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/mini/Partition/index.html">http://www.ibiblio.o
1586rg/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/mini/Partition/index.html</ulink></para>
1587<para>If you want to restore a subset of the backup then:</para>
1588<itemizedlist>
1589<listitem>
1590<para>Boot from the CD</para>
1591</listitem>
1592<listitem>
1593<para>Type:</para>
1594</listitem>
1595</itemizedlist>
1596<para></para>
1597<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1598<row>
1599<entry>
1600
1601bash# interactive
1602
1603</entry>
1604</row>
1605</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1606
1607<itemizedlist>
1608<listitem>
1609<para>Then, after booting, answer the questions as follows:</para>
1610</listitem>
1611</itemizedlist>
1612<para></para>
1613<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1614<row>
1615<entry>
1616
1617        Do you want to partition your devices? no
1618        Do you want to format them? no
1619        Do you want to restore everything? no
1620        Do you want to restore something? yes
1621        Which path do you want to restore? /mydata [e.g.]
1622        Do you want to run LILO to setup your boot sectors? Yes
1623
1624</entry>
1625</row>
1626</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1627
1628</sect2>
1629
1630<sect2>
1631<title>Expert Restore</title>
1632<para>If you are planning to modify your partition table, you would
1633do well to read up on the partition layout and the use of fdisk, it
1634gives you some could pointers on how to best lay out partitions.
1635You can find good a guide at
1636<ulink url="http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/mini/Partition/index.html">http://www.ibiblio.o
1637rg/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/mini/Partition/index.html</ulink></para>
1638<para>To restore manually, please:</para>
1639<itemizedlist>
1640<listitem>
1641<para>Boot from the first CD, then type:</para>
1642</listitem>
1643</itemizedlist>
1644<para></para>
1645<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1646<row>
1647<entry>
1648
1649bash# expert
1650
1651</entry>
1652
1653</row>
1654</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1655
1656<itemizedlist>
1657<listitem>
1658<para>Then do whatever you like. :) You may type the following, of
1659course:</para>
1660</listitem>
1661</itemizedlist>
1662<para></para>
1663<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1664<row>
1665<entry>
1666
1667bash# mondorestore
1668
1669</entry>
1670</row>
1671</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1672</sect2>
1673       
1674<sect2>
1675<title>Modified partitions - Restore to a different disk geometry</title>
1676<para>One of the nice things about Mondo is that it lets you wipe
1677your existing system and restore it in any layout you like (within
1678reason). You can move from non-RAID to RAID,install and utilize
1679additional drives, move from ext2 to ReiserFS, etc., all without
1680risking the loss of data.</para>
1681<para>If the user excluded a particular partition from backup and
1682specifically excluded it from the mountlist itself using -E then
1683Mondo will insert a small (32MB) partition at restore-time, in
1684order to avoid having to re-jig fstab, the partition table,
1685etc.</para>
1686<para>To do this:</para>
1687<itemizedlist>
1688<listitem>
1689<para>Boot into Expert Mode, then type:</para>
1690</listitem>
1691</itemizedlist>
1692<para></para>
1693<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1694<row>
1695<entry>
1696
1697bash# mondorestore
1698
1699</entry>
1700</row>
1701</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1702
1703<itemizedlist>
1704<listitem>
1705<para>(edit the mountlist using the on-screen editor)</para>
1706</listitem>
1707</itemizedlist>
1708<para>If you want to move from ext2 to ReiserFS, you can do it here
1709(so long as your kernel supports ReiserFS). Ditto for XFS, JFS or
1710ext3.</para>
1711<para>Mondorestore will try to modify your /etc/fstab to reflect
1712changes you have made to the mountlist. If you are not using LILO,
1713you can still create your own /mnt/RESTORING/etc/lilo.conf and run
1714lilo -r /mnt/RESTORING to configure your boot sectors and Master
1715Boot Record.</para>
1716<para>Mondo (technically, Mindi on behalf of Mondo) creates a file
1717called a mountlist. This can be found on the ramdisk at
1718/tmp/mountlist.txt; it looks something like this:</para>
1719<para></para>
1720<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1721<row>
1722<entry>
1723
1724        /dev/hda1   /mnt/windows    vfat        4096000
1725        /dev/hda5   /               reiserfs    6023000
1726        /dev/hda6   /tmp            xfs         955000
1727        /dev/hda7   /usr            ext3        4096000
1728
1729</entry>
1730</row>
1731</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1732
1733<para>It is fairly easy to understand the list. Each line refers to
1734a single device/partition. The line format is:</para>
1735<para></para>
1736<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1737<row>
1738<entry>
1739
1740&lt;device&gt; &lt;partition&gt; &lt;format&gt; &lt;Kilobytes&gt;
1741
1742</entry>
1743</row>
1744</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1745
1746<para>If you have added a hard drive and want to take advantage of
1747the additional space, you could amend the above mountlist to
1748read:</para>
1749<para></para>
1750<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1751<row>
1752<entry>
1753
1754        /dev/hda1   /mnt/windows    vfat        6096000
1755        /dev/hda5   /               reiserfs    9123000
1756        /dev/hda6   /tmp            xfs         955000
1757        /dev/hdb1   /usr            ext3        8192000
1758        /dev/hdb2   /home           xfs         8192000
1759
1760</entry>
1761</row>
1762</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1763
1764<para>This assumes that your old hard drive is /dev/hda and the new
1765hard drive is /dev/hdb.</para>
1766<para>Or, if you want to add RAID support, create a new
1767/etc/raidtab on the ramdisk (which is beyond the scope of this
1768HOWTO) and then write a mountlist like this:</para>
1769<para></para>
1770<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1771<row>
1772<entry>
1773
1774        /dev/hda1   /mnt/windows    vfat        6096000
1775        /dev/md0    /               reiserfs    9123000
1776        /dev/md1    /tmp            xfs         955000
1777        /dev/md2    /usr            ext3        8192000
1778        /dev/md3    /home           xfs         8192000
1779
1780</entry>
1781</row>
1782</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1783
1784<para>So long as your /etc/raidtab file is sane, Mondo can
1785automatically partition and format your disks for you, including
1786the RAID devices.</para>
1787<para>Once you have finished editing /tmp/mountlist.txt using
1788mondorestore's built-in editor then you may choose 'OK'. Please
1789note that this will not write anything to your hard disk. You will
1790only reformat or repartition your disks if you say 'Yes' when asked
1791if you want to do those things.</para>
1792</sect2>
1793
1794<sect2>
1795<title>Advanced</title>
1796<para>It is now possible to restore to a live filesystem using
1797Mondo. In other words, you do not have to boot your PC from your
1798CD/floppy in order to restore files. Mondo was originally designed
1799for disaster recovery - situations in which you cannot boot your
1800PC. If you can boot your PC, it is not really a disaster, is it? :)
1801Well, if you have wiped out your priceless collection of "MTV's
1802Bjork Unplugged" MP3's, perhaps it is. Anyway, just type this as
1803root</para>
1804<para></para>
1805<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1806<row>
1807<entry>
1808
1809bash# mondorestore
1810
1811</entry>
1812</row>
1813</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1814
1815<para></para>
1816<informaltable><tgroup cols="2"><tbody>
1817<row>
1818<entry>
1819<ulink url="images/rest1.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
1820<imagedata fileref="images/rest1-mini">
1821</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
1822</ulink>
1823</entry>
1824<entry>
1825Choose your type of backup media. The live restoration process is
1826very similar to what you'll experience if you type mondorestore
1827with no parameters after booting from a Mondo CD/floppy.
1828</entry>
1829</row>
1830<row>
1831<entry>
1832<ulink url="images/rest2.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
1833<imagedata fileref="images/rest2-mini">
1834</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
1835</ulink>
1836</entry>
1837<entry>
1838Hit 'OK' when you have inserted the tape/CD. If you generated a
1839tape backup, the tape itself should be enough. If you generated a
1840CD backup, the first CD should be enough. Otherwise, you may need
1841the boot floppy.
1842</entry>
1843</row>
1844<row>
1845<entry>
1846<ulink url="images/rest3.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
1847<imagedata fileref="images/rest3-mini">
1848</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
1849</ulink>
1850</entry>
1851<entry>
1852Flag the files and directories you wish to restore. Use the 'More'
1853and 'Less' buttons to open and close subdirectories.
1854</entry>
1855</row>
1856<row>
1857<entry>
1858<ulink url="images/rest4.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
1859<imagedata fileref="images/rest4-mini">
1860</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
1861</ulink>
1862</entry>
1863<entry>
1864Specify the location to restore the files to. In general, '/' is
1865appropriate. If you do not want to overwrite newer versions of the
1866files you are restoring then specify /tmp/BKP or similar as the
1867restore path.
1868</entry>
1869</row>
1870<row>
1871<entry>
1872<ulink url="images/rest5.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
1873<imagedata fileref="images/rest5-mini">
1874</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
1875</ulink>
1876</entry>
1877<entry>
1878Mondorestore will retrieve configuration information from the
1879media. (The sample screen is for tape users. CD users will see
1880something different.)
1881</entry>
1882</row>
1883<row>
1884<entry>
1885<ulink url="images/rest6.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
1886<imagedata fileref="images/rest6-mini">
1887</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
1888</ulink>
1889</entry>
1890<entry>
1891Data will be restored to the hard disk - first the regular files,
1892then any big (32MB or greater) files in the restore set.
1893</entry>
1894</row>
1895</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1896
1897<para>I hope this manual is proving to be useful to you.</para>
1898</sect2>
1899</sect1>
1900
1901</chapter>
1902
1903<chapter id="faq">
1904<title>FAQ</title>
1905
1906<sect1 id="faq-overview">
1907<title>Overview</title>
1908<para>Are the errors from Mindi or Mondo? Look at
1909/var/log/mondo-archive.log, /var/log/mindi.log or the
1910mondo.err.xxxxx.tgz log indicated by the screen message. Pipe
1911screen errors which relate to the creation of boot disk(s) and or
1912data disk(s) to a text file.</para>
1913<para>See the &WWW; for details. If you are going to e-mail
1914&ML; then
1915please attach that text file (zipped!) and give :</para>
1916<itemizedlist>
1917<listitem>
1918<para>Your kernel version</para>
1919</listitem>
1920<listitem>
1921<para>Your Linux distro's name and version</para>
1922</listitem>
1923<listitem>
1924<para>Whether your kernel supports initrd and loopfs; it should!</para>
1925</listitem>
1926<listitem>
1927<para>What sort of PC you are using, including hard disk configurations</para>
1928</listitem>
1929</itemizedlist>
1930<para>Mondo is freely available under the GPL and you are given it for no charge.
1931When you e-mail the &ML;, please bear that in mind.</para>
1932</sect1>
1933<sect1 id="faq-general">
1934<title>General Questions</title>
1935
1936<qandaset>
1937<qandaentry>
1938        <question><para>Q: What is "Mindi"?</para></question>
1939        <answer>
1940<para>A: Mindi, a.k.a. Mindi-Linux, makes a mini-distribution from
1941your kernel, modules, modules, tools and libraries. It can also
1942generate an El Torito 2.88/5.76MB boot disk image. Mondo uses Mindi to
1943create a mini-distro, then boots from it and runs on it.</para>
1944</answer>
1945</qandaentry>
1946<qandaentry>
1947        <question><para>Q: Why is it called "Mondo"?</para></question>
1948        <answer>
1949<para>A: The Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles described cool things as
1950'mondo'. Hugo Rabson wasn't sure what to call this project. 'Faust' was one
1951idea he had, partly as a dig at his former boss who practically owned
1952him because of his legal status at the time. In the end, He chose
1953something short and distinctive.</para>
1954</answer>
1955</qandaentry>
1956<qandaentry>
1957<question><para>Q: Mondo does not work on my system. It
1958                keels over and dies. What's wrong?</para></question>
1959<answer>
1960        <para>A: It works on Red Hat 7.x/8/9, RHEL 2.1/3/4, Mandrakelinux 8.x/9.x/10.x, Debian 3.0, most flavors
1961                of SuSE/SLES, some flavors of Slackware, etc.
1962The more distributions we support, the more moving targets we have to
1963hit. Please bear this in mind when e-mailing the list. :) If you
1964would like to help us by beta-testing Mondo (or Mindi) on your PC
1965then we would be very interested in working with you to work around
1966the eccentricities of your Linux distro. However, rest assured, 90%
1967of the bugs reported are actually symptoms of FooLinux X.Y's
1968unique way of doing things.</para>
1969<para>Please send a copy of <filename>/var/log/mondo-archive.log</filename> to the &ML;
1970along with a description of your distro, your kernel, etc.
1971Oh, and before sending it, please try to read it.</para>
1972</answer>
1973</qandaentry>
1974<qandaentry>
1975        <question><para>Q: What if the error is in Mindi?</para></question>
1976        <answer>
1977                <para>A: Please send a copy of <filename>/var/log/mindi.log</filename> to the &ML;
1978along with a description of your distro, your kernel, etc.
1979Oh, and before sending it, please read it asit's much easier to understand it.</para>
1980</answer>
1981</qandaentry>
1982<qandaentry>
1983        <question><para>Q: Can I trust Mondo?</para></question>
1984        <answer>
1985<para>A: Mondo has generated reliable archives since May 2000.
1986Lost data occured by using bad CD-R disks and not verifying their
1987contents. Some users have not tried booting from their CD until
1988crunch time. Remember to boot into Compare Mode to verify the
1989backup before you trust it. If Mondo did not work, you would not be
1990reading this. If it does not work for you, your kernel is usually
1991the culprit. Check <link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux Kernel
1992support</link> to see what your kernel should support. Please
1993e-mail the list if you need some help with this.</para>
1994</answer>
1995</qandaentry>
1996<qandaentry>
1997        <question><para>Q: How do I report a bug?</para></question>
1998        <answer>
1999                <para>A: E-mail the bug report (mondo.err.xxxxx.tgz) to the &ML;.
2000                        Ok you've read it already but it's really important if you want help.
2001If you don't send a logfile then there isn't a lot that we can do for you, so
2002PLEASE include a logfile at the very least.</para>
2003</answer>
2004</qandaentry>
2005<qandaentry>
2006<question><para>Q: I think Mondo should (...insert
2007suggestion here...) and I have rewritten it accordingly. Would you
2008like to see my patch?</para></question>
2009<answer>
2010<para>A: Absolutely! :-) The best way for you to make Mondo do what
2011you want is to modify it and then send the patch. That way, we
2012can all benefit.</para>
2013</answer>
2014</qandaentry>
2015<qandaentry>
2016<question><para>Q: I think Mondo should (...insert
2017suggestion here...); will you incorporate this feature for me,
2018please?</para></question>
2019<answer>
2020<para>A: please enter the suggestion in our feature system at &WWW;
2021</para>
2022</answer>
2023</qandaentry>
2024<qandaentry>
2025<question><para>Q: Mondo says, "XXX is missing," and
2026                then terminates. What's wrong?</para></question>
2027<answer>
2028<para>A: A good Linux distribution should contain XXX but the
2029designers, in their infinite wisdom, decided not to include that
2030particular tool. Check <!--<link linkend="linuxpackages">-->Related
2031        Linux Packages<!--</link>--> and install the missing package. If that
2032fails, contact the vendor/distributor/manufacturer/designer of your
2033distro.</para>
2034</answer>
2035</qandaentry>
2036<qandaentry>
2037<question><para>Q: Can Mondo handle multi-CD backups and
2038                restores?</para></question>
2039<answer>
2040<para>A: Yes, up to twenty CD per set. This 20-CD limit results
2041from laziness on mondorescue's part. I'll be removed in the future. However, if
2042your system occupies more than 20 CD, may it's time for another type of media ?
2043</para>
2044</answer>
2045</qandaentry>
2046<qandaentry>
2047<question><para>Q: Can Mondo handle Linux/Windows
2048                dual-boot systems?</para></question>
2049<answer>
2050<para>A: Yes. If your system currently boots into Linux or Windows
2051via LILO, you can backup and restore both OSes at the same time
2052using Mondo. If you are using NTFS then add the switch, '-x
2053&lt;device&gt;'.</para>
2054</answer>
2055</qandaentry>
2056<qandaentry>
2057<question><para>Q: Can Mondo backup Windows-only
2058                systems?</para></question>
2059<answer>
2060<para>A: Not at the moment.
2061</para>
2062</answer>
2063</qandaentry>
2064<qandaentry>
2065        <question><para>Q: Does Mondo support LVM?</para></question>
2066        <answer>
2067<para>A: Mondo supports LVM v1 and v2. Mondo backs up and restores your
2068existing setup but it does not make it easy for you to change your
2069LVM configuration, at the moment. You have to edit <filename>/tmp/i-want-my-lvm</filename> at boot-time
2070to do that.</para>
2071</answer>
2072</qandaentry>
2073<qandaentry>
2074<question><para>Q: What if I don't use LILO? What if I
2075                use GRUB?</para></question>
2076<answer>
2077<para>A: GRUB is supported by Mondo.</para>
2078</answer>
2079</qandaentry>
2080<qandaentry>
2081<question><para>Q: I get the error, 'Cannot find
2082                /tmp/dev.0' or 'Cannot mount device 0x0701'; what do I do?</para></question>
2083<answer>
2084        <para>A: Please free up <filename>/dev/loop0</filename> using 'losetup /dev/loop0 -d' to
2085unmount that loop device. If your OS will not let you do that,
2086contact your local support group or Linux vendor.</para>
2087</answer>
2088</qandaentry>
2089<qandaentry>
2090<question><para>Q: Can I create a Mondo CD and then use
2091                it to create an archive of any OS on any PC?</para></question>
2092<answer>
2093<para>A: Not yet. You can use Mondo to backup Linux or
2094Linux/Windows dual boot. One day, Mondo will let you backup
2095partitions it can't read or write, by treating each partition as
2096one long file to be backed up. This file will be chopped,
2097compressed and archived like any other big file.</para>
2098</answer>
2099</qandaentry>
2100<qandaentry>
2101<question><para>Q: Why do you insist on putting floppy
2102disk images on Mondo CD? They waste space and I never use them. The
2103CD works just fine, so why keep the floppy disk images?</para>
2104</question>
2105<answer>
2106<para>A: Because. It helped us in the past. If you
2107really, truly want them gone then please submit a patch to make
2108them optional.</para>
2109</answer>
2110</qandaentry>
2111<qandaentry>
2112<question><para>Q: Why doesn't the Mondo project have a
2113cool-looking animal logo?</para></question>
2114<answer>
2115<para>A: Excellent question! Please submit graphics of candidate
2116        animal logos!</para>
2117        </answer>
2118</qandaentry>
2119<qandaentry>
2120<question><para>Q: Is there a Mondo user 'Code of
2121                Conduct?</para></question>
2122<answer>
2123<para>A: Yes. Read the HOWTO. Submit patches. Recommend realistic
2124improvements. Be courteous to other users on the discussion list.
2125Do not whine.</para>
2126</answer>
2127</qandaentry>
2128</qandaset>
2129</sect1>
2130
2131<sect1 id="faq-booting">
2132<title>Booting and Kernel related Questions</title>
2133<qandaset>
2134<qandaentry>
2135<question><para>Q: When I try to boot from the Mondo CD,
2136it says, "VFS: Unable to mount root fs." I am using an old Debian
2137distro. What do I do?</para></question>
2138<answer>
2139<para>A: Ask Debian's designers why they, unlike every other distro
2140I can find, have included cramfs and other 'goodies' with their
2141kernel. In the meantime, please use '-k FAILSAFE' in your command
2142line when calling Mondo.</para>
2143<para>A: From Sarge onwards, all stock Debian 2.6 kernels should work fine. If
2144you are still using stock Debian 2.4 kernels, FAILSAFE is the way to go.
2145Of course, if you have compiled your own kernel and experience problems,
2146FAILSAFE is the way to go as well, but this is not really
2147Debian-specific.</para>
2148</answer>
2149</qandaentry>
2150<qandaentry>
2151<question><para>Q: When I try to boot from the Mondo CD,
2152it says, "Cannot mount root fs - kernel panic," or something
2153similar. What do I do?</para></question>
2154<answer>
2155<para>A: Recompile your kernel (or use '-k FAILSAFE'). Take a look
2156at <link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux Kernel support</link> to
2157see what you're kernel must support.</para>
2158</answer>
2159</qandaentry>
2160<qandaentry>
2161<question><para>Q: When I try to boot from the Mondo CD,
2162                it says, "UPGRADE YOUR RAM". What does that mean?</para></question>
2163<answer>
2164<para>A: Recompile your kernel and add Virtual memory file system
2165support. Take a look at <link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux
2166Kernel support</link> to see what you're kernel must support. (Of
2167course, if your PC has less than 64MB of RAM, you could always...
2168what's the phrase? I know, upgrade your RAM!)</para>
2169</answer>
2170</qandaentry>
2171<qandaentry>
2172<question><para>Q: When I try to boot from the Mondo CD,
2173it says something about not finding my CD-ROM drive and then it
2174blames the kernel. What does that mean?</para></question>
2175<answer>
2176        <para>A: Your kernel must support initrd, loopfs, IDE|SCSI|USB CD-ROM's, and
2177ramdisks. Take a look at <link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux
2178Kernel support</link> to see what you're kernel must support. If
2179your kernel does not support these things, Mondo will not boot from
2180your CD. However, when running Mindi, you may choose to use _its_
2181kernel instead of your own. In addition, you may boot from floppy
2182disk images instead the CD: copy the disk images from the CD
2183/images directory to floppy disks, using 'dd'. Take a look at
2184<link linkend="copybootdatadisk">Copy boot data
2185disks</link> on how to make those.</para>
2186</answer>
2187</qandaentry>
2188<qandaentry>
2189<question><para>Q: The Mondo CD/floppy takes ages to
2190                boot. How can I speed it up?</para></question>
2191<answer>
2192<para>A: Edit mindi (it's a shell script, btw) and change
2193LILO_OPTIONS="" to LILO_OPTIONS="-c". This enables map compaction
2194in lilo and speeds up booting, for more info see the lilo man
2195page.</para>
2196</answer>
2197</qandaentry>
2198<qandaentry>
2199<question><para>Q: I made a Mondo CD using the failsafe
2200kernel (i.e. I said 'no' when Mondo asked if I wanted to use my own
2201kernel). It still doesn't boot. Help!</para></question>
2202<answer>
2203<para>A: OK, now that is a bug. :-) I included a kernel with Mondo
2204(technically, with Mindi, which Mondo uses) to make sure that users
2205could use Mondo despite flaws in their own kernels. If you are
2206using Mondo/Mindi's kernel but still cannot boot from your Mondo CD
2207then please e-mail the &ML;.</para>
2208</answer>
2209</qandaentry>
2210<qandaentry>
2211<question><para>Q: What if my PC won't boot from a
2212                CD?</para></question>
2213<answer>
2214<para>A: Copy the image files from the CD /images directory, using
2215the dd command. Take a look at
2216<link linkend="copybootdatadisk">Copy boot data
2217disks</link> on how to make those. Then boot from the first
2218floppy; follow it up with the data disks; finally, type 'mount
2219/mnt/cdrom' and then utilize the restore script as usual, e.g.
2220mondorestore.</para>
2221<para>A: You may also want to boot using the network with PXE.
2222        Look at the README.pxe file of mindi to know more details on how.</para>
2223</answer>
2224</qandaentry>
2225<qandaentry>
2226<question><para>Q: But why won't Mondo boot from my CD?
2227It says my kernel is flawed/outdated/ whatever, and when I wrote to
2228the ML, they told me the same thing... but I still don't get it. I
2229mean, my kernel works for everything else. Why not Mondo?</para></question>
2230<answer>
2231<para>A: Because Mondo makes a boot disk using your kernel. I bet
2232your other software doesn't do that. Also, not all kernels are
2233suitable for boot disks. I'm sorry but that's Life. Upgrade your
2234kernel and/or recompile it. Take a look at
2235<link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux Kernel support</link> to see
2236what you're kernel must support.</para>
2237</answer>
2238</qandaentry>
2239<qandaentry>
2240<question><para>Q: Why do I only need a boot disk if I'm
2241                using a tape drive? Where are the data disks?</para></question>
2242<answer>
2243<para>A: On the tape. :-) The first 32MB of the tape will be set
2244aside for a large tarball containing the data disks, a list of all
2245files backed up, and other sundries. If Mondo and Mindi do their
2246respective jobs then you won't need additional floppies, just the
2247boot floppy and the tape(s).</para>
2248<para>For the moment mondorescue doesn't support OBDR for tapes.
2249        Feel free to produce patches for it :-)</para>
2250</answer>
2251</qandaentry>
2252<qandaentry>
2253<question><para>Q: Why does it say, "Process accounting
2254                FAILED" when I reboot?</para></question>
2255<answer>
2256<para>A: You were using Process Accounting. Red Hat (or whichever
2257distro you are using) does not provide a startup/shutdown script
2258yet. So, when you try to backup the process log, it just grows and
2259grows as Mondo tries to back it up. Mondo doesn't back it up
2260anymore and that's why. The unfortunate side-effect is... well,
2261what you see on your screen. Type 'touch /var/log/pacct' and then
2262'paccton' to fix the error message.</para>
2263</answer>
2264</qandaentry>
2265<qandaentry>
2266<question><para>Q: Why does it say,
2267&amp;#8220;request_module[block-major-1]: Root fs not mounted VFS:
2268Cannot open root device "100" or 01:00 Please append a correct
2269"root=" boot option kernel panic: VFS: Unable to mount root fs on
227001:00&amp;#8221; when i boot from the CD?</para></question>
2271<answer>
2272<para>A: Recompile your kernel and add initrd support. Take a look
2273at <link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux Kernel support</link>to
2274see what you're kernel must support.</para>
2275</answer>
2276</qandaentry>
2277<qandaentry>
2278<question>
2279<para><anchor id="COPYBOOTDATADISK"/>Q: How do i copy boot+data
2280        disk images to physical floppy disks ?</para>
2281</question>
2282<answer>
2283<para>A: The images are in /root/images/mindi (even if they are
2284created by Mondo) and also in the 'images' directory on the first
2285CD of your backup set, if you have backed up to CD. You can copy
2286the images to disk as follows:-</para>
2287<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2288<row>
2289<entry>
2290        Put an empty Boot floppy
2291        bash# fdformat /dev/fd0u1722
2292        bash# dd if=/root/images/mindi/mindi-boot.1722.img of=/dev/fd0u1722
2293        Put an empty Data floppy
2294        bash# fdformat /dev/fd0
2295        bash# dd if=/root/images/mindi/mindi-data-N.img of=/dev/fd0
2296        Replace N with 1, 2, etc.
2297
2298</entry>
2299</row>
2300</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2301</answer>
2302</qandaentry>
2303
2304<qandaentry>
2305<question><para id="TAPENICE">Q: My tape drive
2306doesn't play nicely with Mondo at boot-time. What do I do?</para></question>
2307<answer><para>A: Play with 'mt'. Use its setblksize and
2308defblksize switches to reconfigure your tape drive if necessary.
2309Some tape drives just are painful. If yours is one of
2310them then God help you. Mondo can handle any tape drive whose drive
2311and firmware can handle fopen(), fwrite(), fread() and fclose().
2312Mondo uses standard C libraries to talk to your tape streamer. If
2313your tape streamer can't handle that then you had better call a
2314priest. Either that or ask for a refund.
2315</para>
2316</answer>
2317</qandaentry>
2318</qandaset>
2319</sect1>
2320
2321<sect1 id="faq-install">
2322<title>Installation related Questions</title>
2323<qandaset>
2324<qandaentry>
2325<question><para>Q: Why do I get, "newt.h not found," or
2326"popt.h not found," several times when I try to install
2327Mondo?</para></question>
2328<answer>
2329<para>A: You have not installed libnewt and/or libnewt-devel.
2330Please do so. Check <ulink url="linuxpackages.html">Related Linux
2331Packages</ulink> to see what Mondo requires and where you can get
2332tarballs and RPM's. Make sure you are using the right version of
2333newt/libnewt. Read the error messages carefully.</para>
2334</answer>
2335</qandaentry>
2336<qandaentry>
2337<question><para>Q: Newt won't compile when I try. What's
2338                the problem?</para></question>
2339<answer>
2340<para>A: You are probably missing popt.h, which newt needs to
2341compile, it can be found in the 'popt' package. Check your
2342distribution and see if they have popt, if not check
2343<ulink url="linuxpackages.html">Related Linux Packages</ulink> to
2344see where you can get it.</para>
2345</answer>
2346</qandaentry>
2347<qandaentry>
2348<question><para>Q: I've just used up 6 CD-R, only to
2349                find that Mondo won't boot!</para></question>
2350<answer>
2351<para>A: You should have used CD-RW. ;) In the HOWTO, it gives
2352instructions on how to create a test CD (one, not six).</para>
2353</answer>
2354</qandaentry>
2355<qandaentry>
2356<question>
2357<para id="PACKREQ">Q: Lots of packages,
2358required by Mondo, are missing from my system. What do I do?</para>
2359</question>
2360<answer>
2361<para>
2362A: Install them. :) If you are using RPM or deb
2363then you'll be told which packages you need. Mondo offers a lot of
2364those packages on its
2365<ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org/download/download.html">Download</ulink>
2366web page.</para>
2367</answer>
2368</qandaentry>
2369</qandaset>
2370</sect1>
2371
2372<sect1 id="faq-hardware">
2373<title>Hardware related Questions</title>
2374<qandaset>
2375<qandaentry>
2376        <question><para>Q: Can Mondo handle CD-RW?</para></question>
2377        <answer>
2378<para>A: Yes. Use '-Ow &lt;speed&gt; &lt;device&gt;' to make it
2379work.</para>
2380</answer>
2381</qandaentry>
2382<qandaentry>
2383<question><para>Q: Does Mondo support tape
2384                drives?</para></question>
2385<answer>
2386<para>A: Yes. See above.</para>
2387</answer>
2388</qandaentry>
2389<qandaentry>
2390<question><para>Q: Does Mondo support my tape
2391                drive?</para></question>
2392<answer>
2393<para>A: If your tape drive and its firmware and the kernel-level
2394driver support fopen(), fread(), fwrite() and fclose() - standard C
2395library calls - then yes, Mondo should support it. If not, well,
2396you need a refund. :) Mondo plays nicely with any sane, sensible
2397drives. That's most of them, by the way. :) If your drive doesn't
2398play nicely with Mondo then you may try tinkering with setblksize
2399and defblksize using 'mt', or tweaking Mondo's block size by
2400recompiling it with make INTTAPE=4096 or INTTAPE=8192 or something.
2401Other than that, you need a priest or a refund.</para>
2402</answer>
2403</qandaentry>
2404<qandaentry>
2405<question><para>Q: How do I copy the floppy images from
2406                the CD to floppy disks?</para></question>
2407<answer>
2408<para>A: Mount the CD-ROM, e.g. at /mnt/cdrom. Insert a blank
2409floppy. Type:</para>
2410<para></para>
2411<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2412<row>
2413<entry>
2414
2415        bash# cd /mnt/cdrom/images
2416        bash# dd if=mindi-boot.1722.img of=/dev/fd0u1722
2417
2418</entry>
2419</row>
2420</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2421
2422<para>Insert another blank floppy and type:</para>
2423<para></para>
2424<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2425<row>
2426<entry>
2427
2428bash# dd if=mindi-data-1.img of=/dev/fd0u1722
2429
2430</entry>
2431</row>
2432</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2433
2434<para>Do the above for each 'mindi-data' disk image.</para>
2435</answer>
2436</qandaentry>
2437<qandaentry>
2438<question><para>Q: Sometimes, my laptop won't mount
2439                Mondo CD properly, or something. Umm...</para></question>
2440<answer>
2441<para>A: Please insert the CD, close the CD-ROM tray, wait a few
2442seconds and then press Enter to acknowledge insertion of the next
2443CD. Your laptop is on crack and is sucking a little too hard on the
2444pipe.</para>
2445</answer>
2446</qandaentry>
2447<qandaentry>
2448        <question><para>Q: Does Mondo support Hardware RAID?</para></question>
2449        <answer>
2450<para>A: Yes. You may backup and restore RAID systems. You may also
2451backup a non-RAID system and restore as RAID (or vice versa) by
2452using the mountlist editor to edit your RAID and non-RAID
2453partitions and their settings. Mondo will do the partitioning and
2454formatting for you.</para>
2455<para>Tested Raid controllers includes all those showind only classical devices
2456        such as /dev/sdx, and SmartArray cciss controllers.</para>
2457</answer>
2458</qandaentry>
2459<qandaentry>
2460<question><para>Q: Where is my CD burner, in SCSI terms?</para></question>
2461<answer>
2462<para>A: Type:</para>
2463<para></para>
2464<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2465<row>
2466<entry>
2467
2468bash# cdrecord -scanbus
2469
2470</entry>
2471</row>
2472</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2473
2474<para>Find your CD burner's device# (e.g. '0,0,0'). Call Mondo with
2475the switch '-Oc &lt;speed&gt;' -d '&lt;device&gt;'. Or, if you feel
2476lucky, just use '-Oc 2'; Mondo will (a) assume you want to write at
24774x to a CD-R and (b) will do its best to find your CD burner.</para>
2478</answer>
2479</qandaentry>
2480<qandaentry>
2481        <question><para>Q: Can Mondo handle SCSI devices?</para></question>
2482        <answer>
2483<para>A: Mondo should be able to handle almost any hardware. So
2484long as your kernel and modules support it, Mindi will support it
2485and therefore so will Mondo.</para>
2486</answer>
2487</qandaentry>
2488<qandaentry>
2489        <question><para>Q: Why doesn't cdrecord -scanbus work ?</para></question>
2490        <answer>
2491                <para>A: If you have a 2.4.x kernel (typical example are fedora legacy kernels for redhat 7.X/8/9) and an IDE CDRW device, and the drive is not
2492listed when you run
2493
2494<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2495<row>
2496<entry>
2497bash# cdrecord -scanbus
2498</entry>
2499</row>
2500</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2501
2502try adding the following kernel option to your boot script to enable
2503SCSI emulation: hdx=ide-scsi, where "hdx" should be replaced with the
2504appropriate drive letter of the CDRW device, e.g., "hdc".
2505(Answer provided by Christopher Moriarity cdm7_at_cdc.gov)
2506</para>
2507</answer>
2508</qandaentry>
2509</qandaset>
2510</sect1>
2511
2512<sect1 id="faq-backup">
2513<title>Backup related Questions</title>
2514
2515<qandaset>
2516<qandaentry>
2517<question><para id="MMKM">Q: Mondo says, 'Cannot
2518                run mindi --makemountlist' and aborts. What do I do?</para></question>
2519<answer>
2520        <para>
2521                A: Look at <filename>/var/log/mindi.log</filename> and see what it
2522says. Also, try typing 'mindi --makemountlist /tmp/mountlist.txt'
2523to see what Mindi says. Send the log to the &ML; if you get stuck.
2524</para>
2525</answer>
2526</qandaentry>
2527<qandaentry>
2528<question><para>Q: Can Mondo burn CD as they are
2529                created?</para></question>
2530<answer>
2531<para>A: Yes. Use the '-Oc &lt;speed&gt;' switch. Use a negative
2532number for a dummy burn.</para>
2533</answer>
2534</qandaentry>
2535<qandaentry>
2536<question><para>Q: Mondo failed to burn my CD. It said
2537something like, "Error CDB A1 01 02 53 ..." and so on. What does
2538that mean?</para></question>
2539<answer>
2540<para>A: Cdrecord reported some serious errors while trying to burn
2541your CD. Check your CD burner, your CD-R and your kernel.</para>
2542</answer>
2543</qandaentry>
2544<qandaentry>
2545<question><para>Q: May I backup my system with one
2546                partition layout and restore with another?</para></question>
2547<answer>
2548<para>A: Yes. Boot in Interactive Mode and edit the mountlist using
2549the snazzy new mountlist editor. Mondo can now edit your RAID
2550partitions for you. Just open /dev/md0 (or whatever) and select
2551"RAID.." to start. Or, to add a RAID device:</para>
2552<itemizedlist>
2553<listitem>
2554<para>Add two or more partitions, of type and mountpoint
2555'raid'</para>
2556</listitem>
2557<listitem>
2558<para>Add device '/dev/md0' and click OK</para>
2559</listitem>
2560<listitem>
2561<para>Follow the prompts and your own common-sense :)</para>
2562</listitem>
2563</itemizedlist>
2564</answer>
2565</qandaentry>
2566<qandaentry>
2567<question><para>Q: Why does Mondo need so much free disk
2568                space?</para></question>
2569<answer>
2570        <para>A: Because it need space to create the archive files with afio, then
2571                again space to create the ISO images that you'll be able to burn.
2572</para>
2573</answer>
2574</qandaentry>
2575<qandaentry>
2576<question><para>Q: I am trying to do something clever,
2577e.g. write my ISO's to an NFS mount, and I get some weird error
2578messages. What do I do?</para></question>
2579<answer>
2580<para>A: Well, (a) use '-T /tmp' or '-T /home' or something in your
2581        call to Mondo. Oh, and (b) check the <filename>/etc/exports</filename> file on your NFS server
2582        and verify the exported filesystem is writable for the client, and relaunch exportfs -a.
2583</para>
2584</answer>
2585</qandaentry>
2586<qandaentry>
2587<question><para>Q: Can Mondo backup to data files on
2588                another partition, e.g. an NFS mount?</para></question>
2589<answer>
2590<para>A: Yes. Just backup as usual but add '-d /mnt/nfs' or
2591wherever your partition is mounted; don't use '-Oc' or '-Ot' at
2592all; just '-Oi -d /root'. Then, after booting from the floppies
2593which Mondo generates, you need to type 'ISO' at the
2594console.</para>
2595</answer>
2596</qandaentry>
2597<qandaentry>
2598<question><para>Q: Can Mondo backup _to_ an NFS
2599                partition, i.e. backup over a network? How about restoring?</para></question>
2600<answer>
2601<para>A: Yes. Use '-On &lt;mount&gt; &lt;directory&gt;'. Example:
2602</para>
2603<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2604<row>
2605<entry>
2606
2607bash# mondoarchive -On 192.168.1.3:/home/nfs
2608
2609</entry>
2610</row>
2611</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2612
2613</answer>
2614</qandaentry>
2615<qandaentry>
2616<question><para>Q: Does Mondo handle System or Hidden
2617                attributes when archiving Dos/Win files?</para></question>
2618<answer>
2619<para>A: No. It probably never will, either. Sorry.</para>
2620</answer>
2621</qandaentry>
2622</qandaset>
2623</sect1>
2624
2625<sect1 id="faq-compare">
2626<title>Compare related Questions</title>
2627
2628<qandaset>
2629<qandaentry>
2630<question><para>Q: When I compare my archives to my file
2631system, Mondo tells me there are differences or errors. Are the
2632archives bad?</para></question>
2633<answer>
2634        <para>A: Look at <filename>/tmp/changed.files</filename>; if the files are logfiles,
2635temp files or files which you think you may have changed recently
2636then the archives are simply out of date, albeit only by a few
2637minutes. Not a problem. However, if lots of files in /usr have
2638changed or if you get lots of errors then perhaps your CD, your
2639tapes or even your hardware could be to blame. Check your CD writer
2640or tape streamer.</para>
2641<para>Also, don't forget to review <filename>/var/log/mondo-archive.log</filename> for
2642more information.</para>
2643</answer>
2644</qandaentry>
2645</qandaset>
2646</sect1>
2647
2648<sect1 id="faq-restore">
2649<title>Restore related Questions</title>
2650<qandaset>
2651<qandaentry>
2652<question><para>Q: Can Mondo help me
2653                move/resize/re-allocate my partitions?</para></question>
2654<answer>
2655<para>A: Yes. Just backup your system in Interactive Mode using
2656Mondo. Edit the mountlist when prompted.</para>
2657</answer>
2658</qandaentry>
2659<qandaentry>
2660<question><para>Q: My zip drive is a SCSI drive. When I
2661restore, Mondo craps out, saying it can't mount the drive (because
2662there is no disk in it). What do I do?</para></question>
2663<answer>
2664<para>A: Restore in Interactive Mode. Delete the SCSI drive from
2665the mountlist before you restore. Then Mondo won't try to partition
2666or format it. Next time you backup, use -E /dev/sdd (or whatever
2667your zip drive is). The /dev entry will be excluded from the
2668mountlist but not from the filelist. So, when you restore, you
2669won't accidentally reformat your zip disk. However, after
2670restoring, you will find that /dev/sdd (the _file_) will still be
2671present in your /dev directory. Cool, eh?</para>
2672</answer>
2673</qandaentry>
2674<qandaentry>
2675<question><para>Q: I received a message like, 'Fileset
2676                NNN failed' during restore. What does it mean.</para></question>
2677<answer>
2678<para>A: It usually means either you had a very large (&gt;2GB)
2679file which was not archived owing to a flaw in your distro or your
2680filesystem has changed in relation to the backup.</para>
2681</answer>
2682</qandaentry>
2683<qandaentry>
2684<question><para>Q: Why does my ext3 partition have less
2685                space free than when I backed it up?</para></question>
2686<answer>
2687<para>A: Mondo creates a 10MB journal file area. Your journal was
2688probably smaller than that, hence the difference.</para>
2689</answer>
2690</qandaentry>
2691<qandaentry>
2692<question><para id="SEGF">Q: When I restore after
2693booting from the CD/floppies, I sometimes get errors like, "Running
2694out of memory" or "Segmentation fault". What is going on?</para></question>
2695<answer><para>A: It sounds as if you are running out of disk
2696space, probably ram disk space. Type 'df -m' to see which
2697partitions are running low on space. Please send as much
2698information as you can to the &ML;. This problem is
2699believed to have been fixed in 1.63 and 1.71.</para>
2700</answer>
2701</qandaentry>
2702<qandaentry>
2703<question>
2704<para id="LVM"/>Q: I can't nuke-restore my LVM or RAID or
2705LVM-on-RAID setup. I have to do it manually. What now?</para></question>
2706<answer>
2707<para>A: You said it yourself. You have to do it manually. :) Sorry
2708but that's about it. At least you have all the tools to do it. I
2709assume you know how. If you don't, look at i-want-my-lvm (a script
2710on the ramdisk) if you're using LVM. It should give you a few
2711clues. RAID is harder but in general Mondo's RAID support is good.
2712After you've prepped and formatted your drives, run mondorestore
2713again but say 'no' when asked if you want Mondo to prep or format
2714your drives.</para>
2715</answer>
2716</qandaentry>
2717</qandaset>
2718</sect1>
2719</chapter>
2720
2721&gfdl;
2722
2723</book>
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