source: branches/3.2/mondo-doc/mondoarchive.8 @ 3248

Last change on this file since 3248 was 3248, checked in by bruno, 6 years ago
  • Moves the creation of the symlinks for directories on /bin, /sbin in TurnTgzIntoRdz? after mounting the FS so that it's done at the right place now.
  • Apply again a patch on mindi to detect correctly kernel version 3 and upper which had disappeared :-(
  • Property svn:keywords set to Id
File size: 17.7 KB
Line 
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21.TH mondoarchive 8 "PBDATE" "Mondo Rescue PBVER-rPBREV"
22
23.SH NAME
24mondoarchive \- a backup / disaster\-recovery tool.
25
26.SH SYNOPSIS
27.B mondoarchive \-O
28[
29.I options
30] : backup your PC
31.br
32.B mondoarchive \-V
33[
34.I options
35] : verify your backup
36
37.SH DESCRIPTION
38.PP
39.I mondoarchive
40backs up a subset of your files, your entire filesystem, or even images of
41non-Linux filesystems to CD's, tape, ISO images or an NFS mount. In the event of
42catastrophic data loss, you will be able to restore everything, taking a PC from
43bare metal to its original state if necessary.
44
45.PP
46With
47.BR \-O ,
48it backs up your filesystem to CD, tape, ISO images or NFS share. Boot media
49or a special boot CD will be created to allow you to restore from bare metal if
50necessary.
51
52.PP
53With
54.BR \-V ,
55it verifies the backup against the live filesystem. This option may be used in
56combination with
57.BR \-O
58to verify a backup after its creation, or on its own to see how much the live
59filesystem has changed since the backup was made.
60
61.PP
62Call mondoarchive
63.BR without
64.BR flags
65to make it auto-detect as many settings as possible, ask you politely for the
66rest, and then backup and verify your OS or a subset thereof.
67
68.PP
69To restore data, either run
70.I mondorestore
71from the command line or boot from the emergency media generated during
72the backup process. The latter will come in handy if a gremlin wipes your hard
73disk.
74
75.SH BACKUP MEDIA
76.TP 13
77You must specify one of the following:-
78
79.TP
80.BI "\-c " speed
81Use CD-R drive as backup device and its (write-once) disks as backup media.
82
83.TP
84.BI "\-w " speed
85Use CD-RW drive as backup device and its (write/rewrite) disks as backup media.
86Mondo will wipe media before writing to them.
87
88.TP
89.BI "\-r "
90Use DVD drive as backup device and its disks as backup media. Growisofs decides
91on the best speed for your drive. Note that calling mondoarchive
92.B using sudo when writing to DVDs will fail
93because growisofs does not support this \- see the growisofs manpage for
94details.
95
96.TP
97.BI "\-C " speed
98Use CD-R drive as a streaming device, almost like a tape streamer. Use
99write-once disks as backup media.
100.B Experimental.
101
102.TP
103.BI "\-p " prefix
104Use
105.B prefix
106to generate the name of your ISO images.
107By default, mondoarchive names images mondorescue-1.iso, mondorescue-2.iso, ...
108Using
109.B \-p machine
110will name your images machine-1.iso, machine-2.iso, ...
111
112.TP
113.BI "\-i "
114Use ISO files (CD images) as backup media. This is good for backing up your
115system to a spare hard drive. The
116.B \-n
117switch is a wiser choice if you plan to restore from a remote filesystem.
118
119.TP
120.BI "\-n " mount
121Use files residing on a remote share as backup media.
122.I mount
123is the remote mount-point, e.g. 'nfs://192.168.1.3:/home/nfs'
124for my file server. If not mounted, mondoarchive will do it for you. So nice ;-)
125If your NFS server only accept write from a backup user, you may specify it with the syntax:
126.B nfs://user@machine:/mount/path
127and mondoarchive will try to do its best to support it.
128Other protocols are available such as sshfs for fuse SSH based filesystem
129mount, with the same syntax e.g. 'sshfs://user@192.168.1.3:/home/nfs' and
130smbfs (aka cifs) for SaMBa or Windows based filesystem mount.
131
132.TP
133.BI "\-t "
134Use tape streamer as backup device and its tapes as backup media.
135
136.TP
137.BI "\-U "
138Use a generic USB device as backup device. Use this if you want to write
139your backup to a USB key or USB disk, which will be make bootable.
140The USB device should be attached to the system in order for this to work and
141its device name passed to the
142.BR \-d
143option. Do not use the partition name, but the raw device name (/dev/sda e.g.)
144.B WARNING: All the data on the related device will be removed.
145
146.TP
147.BI "\-u "
148Use a generic streaming device as backup device. Use this if you want to write
149your backup to a device that is not directly support by mondoarchive. This will
150send the data directly to a raw device.
151.B For experienced users only.
152
153.SH MAJOR OPTIONS
154.TP 13
155.BI "\-D "
156Make a differential backup: examine the filesystem and find which files have
157changed since the last full backup was carried out. Backup only those files.
158
159.TP
160.BI "\-E " "\*(lqdir|...\*(rq"
161Exclude dir(s) from backup. The dirs should be separated with a pipe and surrounded by quotes.
162This is the prefered and recommended option when doing partial archiving.
163Note that mondo automatically excludes removable media (/mnt/floppy,
164/mnt/cdrom, /proc, /sys, /run, /tmp). For example, if you are backing up to an NFS mount but you
165do not want to include the contents of the mount in a backup, exclude your
166local mount-point with this switch. It will also work with partitions, e.g.
167/dev/sdd4 if you have a peculiar SCSI zip drive which insists on showing up in
168the mountlist. NB: If you exclude /dev/sdd4 then the /dev entry itself will
169still be backed up, even though the mountlist entry will be suppressed.
170N.B.: If you specify a directory with a final / its content will be
171archived so it won't do what you expect.
172You may also specify full disk device to this option as with \-E
173\*(lq/dev/sda|/dev/cciss/c0d0\*(rq
174N.B.: If for example you have a disk /dev/mapper/vgsan-lvdir mounted on a /mnt mountpoint
175excluding the /dev/mapper/vgsan-lvdir device prevents mondorestore to touch the LVM structure
176of this device at restore time (no pv|vg|lvcreate will occur).
177However, if you exclude the mount point /mnt, the LVM structure will be re-created at restore time.
178ALL DATA WILL THEN BE LOST ON THIS DEVICE.  Use what is required for your configuration.
179
180.TP
181.BI "\-I " "\*(lqdir|...\*(rq"
182Include dirs(s) in backup. The dirs should be separated with a pipe and surrounded by quotes.
183This option is mainly used to perform tests
184in order to reduce the time taken by the archiving operation.
185The default backup dir is \*(lq/\*(rq but you may specify alternatives,
186e.g. \-I \*(lq/home|/etc\*(rq to override that.
187You may also specify full disk device to this option as with \-I
188\*(lq/dev/sda|/dev/cciss/c0d0\*(rq
189N.B.: When using the
190.BR \-I
191option with the
192.BR \-E
193option, the \-E content should be subdirectories of those mentioned in
194the \-I only, as \-I takes precedence.
195
196.TP
197.BI "\-J " "file"
198Specify an explicit list of files and directories to include in a plain text file, one item
199(file or directory) per line. Beware that directories placed in that file are not managed recursively contrary to what is done with the \-I option.
200
201.TP
202.BI "\-N"
203Exclude all mounted network filesystems. This currently means NFS, SMB, Coda, MVFS, AFS
204OCFS and Netware. In other words, only backup the local hard disk(s).
205
206.TP
207.BI "\-d " "dev|dir"
208Specify the backup device (CD/tape/USB) or directory (NFS/ISO). For CD-R[W] drives,
209this is the SCSI node where the drive may be found, e.g. '0,1,0'. For tape
210users, this is the tape streamers /dev entry, e.g. '/dev/st0'. For USB users,
211this is the device name of your key or external disk. For ISO users,
212this is the directory where the ISO images are stored. For NFS users, this is
213the subdirectory under the NFS mount where the backups are stored. The default
214for ISO and NFS is '/var/cache/mondo'.
215
216.TP
217.BI "\-g "
218GUI mode. Without this switch, the screen output of mondoarchive is suitable
219for processing by an 'expect' wrapper, enabling the user to backup nightly via
220a cron job. However, if you want to run this program with an attractive but
221non-cron-friendly interface then use '\-g'.
222
223.TP
224.BI "\-k " "path"
225Path of user's kernel. Generally your native kernel should be found and work
226appropriately. Otherwise, you may use this option to point to another one.
227
228.TP
229.BI "\-m "
230Manual (not self-retracting) CD trays are often found on laptops. If you are
231a laptop user, your CD burner has BurnProof technology or you experience
232problems with mondo then please call mondoarchive with this switch.
233
234.TP
235.BI "\-o "
236Use OBDR (One Button Disaster Recovery) type of tapes.
237By default, tapes are not bootable. With this flag, tape will be made bootable
238following the OBDR format.
239
240.TP
241.BI "\-s " "size"
242How much can each of your backup media hold? You may use 'm' and 'g' on the end
243of the number, e.g. '700m' for an extra-large CD-R. You no longer need to
244specify the size of your cartridges if you are backing up to tape.
245
246.TP
247.BI "\-x " "'dev ...'"
248Specify non-Linux partitions which you want to backup, e.g. NTFS or BeOS.
249
250
251.SH MINOR OPTIONS
252.TP 13
253.BI "\-[0-9] "
254Specify the compression level. Default is 3. No compression is 0.
255
256.TP
257.BI "\-A " "command"
258This command will be called after each CD/NFS/ISO file is written. It is useful
259if you want to do something with an ISO after creating it, e.g. write it to a
260CD burner using a non-standard command.
261.B \-A
262understands two tokens \- _ISO_ and _CD#_ - which will be translated into the
263ISO's filename and its index number (1, 2, ...) respectively. So, you could use
264.I \-A 'foobackup _ISO_; rm \-f _ISO_'
265to feed each ISO to some magical new backup tool.
266
267.TP
268.BI "-B " "command"
269This command will be called before each CD/NFS/ISO file is written. See
270.B \-A
271for more information.
272
273.TP
274.BI "\-F "
275Do not retry when a command failed but just exits. This is useful for an
276automated mode launched from cron where you want to avoid filling your logs
277due to an answer which is impossible to give.
278
279.TP
280.BI "\-G "
281Use gzip, the standard and quicker Linux compression engine, instead of bzip2.
282
283.TP
284.BI "\-H "
285When you boot from the tape/CD, your hard drive will be wiped and the archives
286will be restored. Your decision to boot from the tape/CD will be taken as
287consent. No further permission will be sought.
288.B Use with caution.
289
290.TP
291.BI "\-L "
292Use lzo, a fast compression engine, instead of bzip2. You may find lzo on
293Mondo's website or via FreshMeat. WARNING! Some versions of LZO are unstable.
294
295.TP
296.BI "\-M " "max-size"
297Gives the maximum size of a biggie file (by default 64 MB). The value should
298be given in kB. Example use \-M 128000 to have biggie being more than 128 MB.
299
300.TP
301.BI "\-Y "
302Use lzma, the new quicker and optimized Linux compression engine, instead of bzip2.
303
304.TP
305.BI "\-R "
306Star is an alternative to afio. Can be useful for distributions considering
307that afio is not free enough due to its age and old licenses (wrongly in our
308opinion). Star can be used to have a better support of sparse file compared to
309afio. Also star supports natively POSIX ACLs, whereas afio requires a special
310additional handlling.
311
312.TP
313.BI "\-P " "tarball"
314Post-nuke tarball. If you boot into Nuke Mode and everything is restored
315successfully then the
316.I post-nuke
317script will be sought and executed if found. This is useful for post-restore
318customization. It is assumed that the tarball (.tar.gz format) will contain not
319just the
320.I post-nuke
321script (or binary, or whatever it is) but also any files it requires.
322
323.TP
324.BI "\-S " "path"
325Specify the full pathname of the scratchdir, the directory where ISO
326images are built before being archived. If you have plenty of RAM and
327want to use a ramdisk for scratch space, specify its path here.
328
329.TP
330.BI "\-T " "path"
331Specify the full pathname of the tempdir, the directory where temporary
332files (other than ISO images being assembled) are stored. See
333.B \-S
334
335.TP
336.BI "\-W "
337Don't make your backup self-booting. This is a really bad idea, IMO. Don't do
338this unless you have really great boot disks in your hand and you are an anally
339retentive SOB who can't wait 2 minutes for Mindi to run in the background. If
340you use \-W then you'd better know what the hell you're doing, okay?
341
342.TP
343.BI "\-b "
344Specify the internal block size used by the tape drive. This is usually 32K but
345some drives just don't like that. They should but they don't. That's what
346happens when tape drive vendors don't talk to kernel driver writers. Try 512 or
34716384.
348
349.TP
350.BI "\-e "
351Don't eject the CD or tape when backing up...
352
353.TP
354.BI "\-f " "device"
355Specify the drive on which your Master Boot Record lives. Usually, this is
356discovered automatically. A good use case may be when you have software RAID.
357
358.TP
359.BI "\-l " "GRUB|LILO|ELILO|RAW"
360Specify the boot loader. By default, your Master Boot Record is examined and
361the boot loader can usually be discovered. If you specify RAW then the MBR will
362be backed up and restored byte-for-byte without any analysis. It is likely that
363you will also need to specify the boot device with \-f <dev>. ELILO is mandatory
364for IA64 machines.
365
366.TP
367.BI "\-Q "
368Give more detailed information about the boot loader.
369
370.TP
371.BI "\-K " "loglevel"
372Specify the loglevel. Use 99 for full debug. Standard debug level is 4.
373
374.TP
375.BI "\-v "
376Gives mondoarchive version.
377
378.TP
379.BI "\-z "
380Use extended attributes and acl for each file and store them in the
381backup media. Use this option if you use SElinux e.g. but it will slow
382down backup and restore time of course.
383
384
385.SH DIAGNOSTICS
386Mondo generates one additional, and extremely important file:
387.BI /var/log/mondoarchive.log.
388When seeking technical support, attach this file to your email.
389
390
391.SH FILES
392.IR /var/log/mondoarchive.log
393This log contains important information required to analyse mondoarchive
394problem reports. Did I already said that it's highly recommended to send this file with
395support questions.
396
397.SH ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
398.IR ARCH
399This variable is passed to the environment by mondoarchive so that
400parted2fdisk.pl is aware of the underlying hardware architecture.
401
402.IR MONDO_SHARE
403This variable is passed to the environment by mondoarchive so that
404mindi is aware that it's called from it and act accordingly. It contains
405the shared directory for the mondo package.
406
407.IR PATH
408This variable is modified internally by mondoarchive so that /sbin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/sbin
409are appended to it systematically in order to find the required tools.
410
411.IR TMPDIR
412This variable is used, if defined, as the target directory to create
413all the temporary files needed during the operation (not the scratch files)
414
415.IR MRTMP
416This variable is used, if defined and if TMPDIR is not defined, as the target
417directory to create all the temporary files needed during the operation
418(not the scratch files)
419
420With none of these variables defined, nor the -T option on the CLI then
421/tmp is used for temporary files.
422
423.IR MRSCRATCH
424This variable is used, if defined, as the target directory to create all the
425scratch files needed during the operation such as the archives (not the temp
426files). If this variable is not defined, /tmp is used for scratch files if
427using the CLI without -S option specified, and the largest partition available
428is proposed in the GUI if that one is used.
429
430.SH NOTES
431A link to Mondo's HTML-based manual (by Bruno Cornec, Mikael Hultgren,
432Cafeole, Randy Delphs, Stan Benoit, and Hugo Rabson) may be found at
433.I http://www.mondorescue.org/docs.shtml
434\- or in
435.I /usr/share/doc/mondo-x.xx
436on your hard drive.
437
438.SH BUGS
439It is recommend that your system has more than 64 MB ram. SCSI device order
440change with nuke can have unexpected results. It is recommended you use expert
441mode with drastic hardware reconfigurations.
442
443.SH EXAMPLES
444
445.BI ISO:
446Backup to a directory; note that /mnt/foo's contents will be backed up except
447for its ISO's unless you exclude it, as follows:
448.br
449.I "mondoarchive -Oi -d /mnt/foo -E '/mnt/foo|/mnt/foo2' -p \`hostname\`-\`date +%Y-%m-%d\`"
450
451Backup to ISO's non-interactively, e.g. as a job running in /etc/cron.daily:
452.br
453.I "mkdir -p /bkp/\`date +%A\`; mondoarchive -Oi -9 -d /bkp/\`date +%A\` -E /bkp"
454
455.BI DVD:
456Backup PC using DVD Media:
457.br
458.I "mondoarchive -OVr -d /dev/scd0 -gF -s 4480m"
459
460.BI TAPE:
461Backup to tape, using lzo compression (WARNING - can be unstable):
462.br
463.I "mondoarchive -Ot -d /dev/st0 -L"
464
465Verify existing tape backup which was made with lzo compression:-
466.br
467.I "mondoarchive -Vt -d /dev/st0 -L -g"
468
469Backup to tape, using max compression:
470.br
471.I "mondoarchive -Ot -9 -d /dev/st0 "
472
473.BI CD-R:
474Backup to 700MB CD-R disks using a 16x CD burner:
475.br
476.I "mondoarchive -Oc 16 -s 700m -g"
477
478Verify existing CD-R or CD-RW backup (works for either):-
479.br
480.I "mondoarchive -Vc 16"
481
482.BI CD-RW:
483Backup to 650MB CD-RW disks using a 4x CD ReWriter:
484.br
485.I "mondoarchive -Ow 4"
486
487Backup just your /home and /etc directory to 650MB CD-RW disks using a 4x CD
488ReWriter:
489.br
490.I "mondoarchive -Ow 4 -I \*(lq/home|/etc\*(rq"
491
492.BI NFS:
493Backup to an NFS mount:
494.br
495.I "mondoarchive -On nfs://192.168.1.2:/home/nfs -d /Monday -E /mnt/nfs"
496
497Verify existing NFS backup:-
498.br
499.I "mondoarchive -Vn nfs://192.168.1.2:/home/nfs -d /Monday"
500
501.BI USB:
502Backup to your 4GB USB key, using gzip compression:
503.br
504.I "mondoarchive -OU -d /dev/sda -s 4g -G"
505
506.BI RAID:
507Backup PC to a Software Raid mount point, iso size 700mb:
508.br
509.I "mondoarchive -O -s 700m -d /mnt/raid"
510
511
512.SH "SEE ALSO"
513afio(1), bzip2(1), find(1), mindi(8), mondorestore(8).
514.SH AUTHORS
515Bruno Cornec (lead-development)
516.I "bruno_at_mondorescue.org"
517.br
518Andree Leidenfrost (co-developer)
519.I "aleidenf_at_bigpond.net.au"
520.br
521.SH ORIGINAL AUTHORS
522Hugo Rabson (original author)
523.I "hugo.rabson_at_mondorescue.org"
524.br
525Jesse Keating (original RPM packager)
526.I "hosting_at_j2solutions.net"
527.br
528Stan Benoit (testing)
529.I "troff_at_nakedsoul.org"
530.br
531Mikael Hultgren (docs)
532.I "mikael_hultgren_at_gmx.net"
533.br
534See mailing list at http://www.mondorescue.org for technical support.
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