source: branches/3.0/mondo-doc/mondoarchive.8 @ 3098

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21.TH mondoarchive 8 "PBDATE" "Mondo Rescue PBVER-rPBREV"
22
23.SH NAME
24mondoarchive \- a backup / disaster\-recovery tool.
25
26.SH SYNOPSIS
27.B mondoarchive \-O
28[
29.I options
30] : backup your PC
31.br
32.B mondoarchive \-V
33[
34.I options
35] : verify your backup
36
37.SH DESCRIPTION
38.PP
39.I mondoarchive
40backs up a subset of your files, your entire filesystem, or even images of
41non-Linux filesystems to CD's, tape, ISO images or an NFS mount. In the event of
42catastrophic data loss, you will be able to restore everything, taking a PC from
43bare metal to its original state if necessary.
44
45.PP
46With
47.BR \-O ,
48it backs up your filesystem to CD, tape, ISO images or NFS share. Boot media
49or a special boot CD will be created to allow you to restore from bare metal if
50necessary.
51
52.PP
53With
54.BR \-V ,
55it verifies the backup against the live filesystem. This option may be used in
56combination with
57.BR \-O
58to verify a backup after its creation, or on its own to see how much the live
59filesystem has changed since the backup was made.
60
61.PP
62Call mondoarchive
63.BR without
64.BR flags
65to make it auto-detect as many settings as possible, ask you politely for the
66rest, and then backup and verify your OS or a subset thereof.
67
68.PP
69To restore data, either run
70.I mondorestore
71from the command line or boot from the emergency media generated during
72the backup process. The latter will come in handy if a gremlin wipes your hard
73disk.
74
75.SH BACKUP MEDIA
76.TP 13
77You must specify one of the following:-
78
79.TP
80.BI "\-c " speed
81Use CD-R drive as backup device and its (write-once) disks as backup media.
82
83.TP
84.BI "\-w " speed
85Use CD-RW drive as backup device and its (write/rewrite) disks as backup media.
86Mondo will wipe media before writing to them.
87
88.TP
89.BI "\-r "
90Use DVD drive as backup device and its disks as backup media. Growisofs decides
91on the best speed for your drive. Note that calling mondoarchive
92.B using sudo when writing to DVDs will fail
93because growisofs does not support this \- see the growisofs manpage for
94details.
95
96.TP
97.BI "\-C " speed
98Use CD-R drive as a streaming device, almost like a tape streamer. Use
99write-once disks as backup media.
100.B Experimental.
101
102.TP
103.BI "\-p " prefix
104Use
105.B prefix
106to generate the name of your ISO images.
107By default, mondoarchive names images mondorescue-1.iso, mondorescue-2.iso, ...
108Using
109.B \-p machine
110will name your images machine-1.iso, machine-2.iso, ...
111
112.TP
113.BI "\-i "
114Use ISO files (CD images) as backup media. This is good for backing up your
115system to a spare hard drive. The
116.B \-n
117switch is a wiser choice if you plan to restore from a remote filesystem.
118
119.TP
120.BI "\-n " mount
121Use files residing on a remote share as backup media.
122.I mount
123is the remote mount-point, e.g. 'nfs://192.168.1.3:/home/nfs'
124for my file server. If not mounted, mondoarchive will do it for you. So nice ;-)
125If your NFS server only accept write from a backup user, you may specify it with the syntax:
126.B nfs://user@machine:/mount/path
127and mondoarchive will try to do its best to support it.
128Other protocols are available such as sshfs for fuse SSH based filesystem
129mount, with the same syntax e.g. 'sshfs://user@192.168.1.3:/home/nfs' and
130smbfs (aka cifs) for SaMBa or Windows based filesystem mount.
131
132.TP
133.BI "\-t "
134Use tape streamer as backup device and its tapes as backup media.
135
136.TP
137.BI "\-U "
138Use a generic USB device as backup device. Use this if you want to write
139your backup to a USB key or USB disk, which will be make bootable.
140The USB device should be attached to the system in order for this to work and
141its device name passed to the
142.BR \-d
143option. Do not use the partition name, but the raw device name (/dev/sda e.g.)
144.B WARNING: All the data on the related device will be removed.
145
146.TP
147.BI "\-u "
148Use a generic streaming device as backup device. Use this if you want to write
149your backup to a device that is not directly support by mondoarchive. This will
150send the data directly to a raw device.
151.B For experienced users only.
152
153.SH MAJOR OPTIONS
154.TP 13
155.BI "\-D "
156Make a differential backup: examine the filesystem and find which files have
157changed since the last full backup was carried out. Backup only those files.
158
159.TP
160.BI "\-E " "\*(lqdir|...\*(rq"
161Exclude dir(s) from backup. The dirs should be separated with a pipe and surrounded by quotes.
162This is the prefered and recommended option when doing partial archiving.
163Note that mondo automatically excludes removable media (/mnt/floppy,
164/mnt/cdrom, /proc, /sys, /run, /tmp). For example, if you are backing up to an NFS mount but you
165do not want to include the contents of the mount in a backup, exclude your
166local mount-point with this switch. It will also work with partitions, e.g.
167/dev/sdd4 if you have a peculiar SCSI zip drive which insists on showing up in
168the mountlist. NB: If you exclude /dev/sdd4 then the /dev entry itself will
169still be backed up, even though the mountlist entry will be suppressed.
170N.B.: If you specify a directory with a final / its content will be
171archived so it won't do what you expect.
172You may also specify full disk device to this option as with \-E
173\*(lq/dev/sda|/dev/cciss/c0d0\*(rq
174
175.TP
176.BI "\-I " "\*(lqdir|...\*(rq"
177Include dirs(s) in backup. The dirs should be separated with a pipe and surrounded by quotes.
178This option is mainly used to perform tests
179in order to reduce the time taken by the archiving operation.
180The default backup dir is \*(lq/\*(rq but you may specify alternatives,
181e.g. \-I \*(lq/home|/etc\*(rq to override that.
182You may also specify full disk device to this option as with \-I
183\*(lq/dev/sda|/dev/cciss/c0d0\*(rq
184N.B.: When using the
185.BR \-I
186option with the
187.BR \-E
188option, the \-E content should be subdirectories of those mentioned in
189the \-I only, as \-I takes precedence.
190
191.TP
192.BI "\-J " "file"
193Specify an explicit list of files and directories to include in a plain text file, one item
194(file or directory) per line. Beware that directories placed in that file are not managed recursively contrary to what is done with the \-I option.
195
196.TP
197.BI "\-N"
198Exclude all mounted network filesystems. This currently means NFS, SMB, Coda, MVFS, AFS
199OCFS and Netware. In other words, only backup the local hard disk(s).
200
201.TP
202.BI "\-d " "dev|dir"
203Specify the backup device (CD/tape/USB) or directory (NFS/ISO). For CD-R[W] drives,
204this is the SCSI node where the drive may be found, e.g. '0,1,0'. For tape
205users, this is the tape streamers /dev entry, e.g. '/dev/st0'. For USB users,
206this is the device name of your key or external disk. For ISO users,
207this is the directory where the ISO images are stored. For NFS users, this is
208the subdirectory under the NFS mount where the backups are stored. The default
209for ISO and NFS is '/var/cache/mondo'.
210
211.TP
212.BI "\-g "
213GUI mode. Without this switch, the screen output of mondoarchive is suitable
214for processing by an 'expect' wrapper, enabling the user to backup nightly via
215a cron job. However, if you want to run this program with an attractive but
216non-cron-friendly interface then use '\-g'.
217
218.TP
219.BI "\-k " "path"
220Path of user's kernel. If you are a Debian (<3.0) or Gentoo (<1.4) user then specify
221.B \-k FAILSAFE
222as your kernel. Otherwise, you will rarely need this option.
223
224.TP
225.BI "\-m "
226Manual (not self-retracting) CD trays are often found on laptops. If you are
227a laptop user, your CD burner has BurnProof technology or you experience
228problems with mondo then please call mondoarchive with this switch.
229
230.TP
231.BI "\-o "
232Use OBDR (One Button Disaster Recovery) type of tapes.
233By default, tapes are not bootable. With this flag, tape will be made bootable
234following the OBDR format.
235
236.TP
237.BI "\-s " "size"
238How much can each of your backup media hold? You may use 'm' and 'g' on the end
239of the number, e.g. '700m' for an extra-large CD-R. You no longer need to
240specify the size of your cartridges if you are backing up to tape.
241
242.TP
243.BI "\-x " "'dev ...'"
244Specify non-Linux partitions which you want to backup, e.g. NTFS or BeOS.
245
246
247.SH MINOR OPTIONS
248.TP 13
249.BI "\-[0-9] "
250Specify the compression level. Default is 3. No compression is 0.
251
252.TP
253.BI "\-A " "command"
254This command will be called after each CD/NFS/ISO file is written. It is useful
255if you want to do something with an ISO after creating it, e.g. write it to a
256CD burner using a non-standard command.
257.B \-A
258understands two tokens \- _ISO_ and _CD#_ - which will be translated into the
259ISO's filename and its index number (1, 2, ...) respectively. So, you could use
260.I \-A 'foobackup _ISO_; rm \-f _ISO_'
261to feed each ISO to some magical new backup tool.
262
263.TP
264.BI "-B " "command"
265This command will be called before each CD/NFS/ISO file is written. See
266.B \-A
267for more information.
268
269.TP
270.BI "\-H "
271When you boot from the tape/CD, your hard drive will be wiped and the archives
272will be restored. Your decision to boot from the tape/CD will be taken as
273consent. No further permission will be sought.
274.B Use with caution.
275
276.TP
277.BI "\-L "
278Use lzo, a fast compression engine, instead of bzip2. You may find lzo on
279Mondo's website or via FreshMeat. WARNING! Some versions of LZO are unstable.
280
281.TP
282.BI "\-G "
283Use gzip, the standard and quicker Linux compression engine, instead of bzip2.
284
285.TP
286.BI "\-R "
287EXPERIMENTAL. Do not use in mission-critical environments. Star is an
288alternative to afio. Mondo now supports POSIX ACLs and extended
289attributes, so \-R is essentially redundant for now.
290
291.TP
292.BI "\-P " "tarball"
293Post-nuke tarball. If you boot into Nuke Mode and everything is restored
294successfully then the
295.I post-nuke
296script will be sought and executed if found. This is useful for post-restore
297customization. It is assumed that the tarball (.tar.gz format) will contain not
298just the
299.I post-nuke
300script (or binary, or whatever it is) but also any files it requires.
301
302.TP
303.BI "\-S " "path"
304Specify the full pathname of the scratchdir, the directory where ISO
305images are built before being archived. If you have plenty of RAM and
306want to use a ramdisk for scratch space, specify its path here.
307
308.TP
309.BI "\-T " "path"
310Specify the full pathname of the tempdir, the directory where temporary
311files (other than ISO images being assembled) are stored. See
312.B \-S
313
314.TP
315.BI "\-W "
316Don't make your backup self-booting. This is a really bad idea, IMO. Don't do
317this unless you have really great boot disks in your hand and you are an anally
318retentive SOB who can't wait 2 minutes for Mindi to run in the background. If
319you use \-W then you'd better know what the hell you're doing, okay?
320
321.TP
322.BI "\-b "
323Specify the internal block size used by the tape drive. This is usually 32K but
324some drives just don't like that. They should but they don't. That's what
325happens when tape drive vendors don't talk to kernel driver writers. Try 512 or
32616384.
327
328.TP
329.BI "\-e "
330Don't eject the CD or tape when backing up...
331
332.TP
333.BI "\-f " "device"
334Specify the drive on which your Master Boot Record lives. Usually, this is
335discovered automatically. A good use case may be when you have software RAID.
336
337.TP
338.BI "\-l " "GRUB|LILO|ELILO|RAW"
339Specify the boot loader. By default, your Master Boot Record is examined and
340the boot loader can usually be discovered. If you specify RAW then the MBR will
341be backed up and restored byte-for-byte without any analysis. It is likely that
342you will also need to specify the boot device with \-f <dev>. ELILO is mandatory
343for IA64 machines.
344
345.TP
346.BI "\-Q "
347Give more detailed information about the boot loader.
348
349.TP
350.BI "\-K " "loglevel"
351Specify the loglevel. Use 99 for full debug. Standard debug level is 4.
352
353.TP
354.BI "\-v "
355Gives mondoarchive version.
356
357.TP
358.BI "\-z "
359Use extended attributes and acl for each file and store them in the
360backup media. Use this option if you use SElinux e.g. but it will slow
361down backup and restore time of course.
362
363
364.SH DIAGNOSTICS
365Mondo generates one additional, and extremely important file:
366.BI /var/log/mondoarchive.log.
367When seeking technical support, attach this file to your email.
368
369
370.SH FILES
371.IR /var/log/mondoarchive.log
372This log contains important information required to analyse mondoarchive
373problem reports. Did I already said that it's highly recommended to send this file with
374support questions.
375
376.SH ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
377.IR ARCH
378This variable is passed to the environment by mondoarchive so that
379parted2fdisk.pl is aware of the underlying hardware architecture.
380
381.IR MONDO_SHARE
382This variable is passed to the environment by mondoarchive so that
383mindi is aware that it's called from it and act accordingly. It contains
384the shared directory for the mondo package.
385
386.IR PATH
387This variable is modified internally by mondoarchive so that /sbin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/sbin
388are appended to it systematically in order to find the required tools.
389
390.IR TMPDIR
391This variable is used, if defined, as the target directory to create
392all the temporary files needed during the operation (not the scratch files)
393
394.IR TMP
395This variable is used, if defined and if TMPDIR is not defined, as the target
396directory to create all the temporary files needed during the operation
397(not the scratch files)
398
399.SH NOTES
400A link to Mondo's HTML-based manual (by Bruno Cornec, Mikael Hultgren,
401Cafeole, Randy Delphs, Stan Benoit, and Hugo Rabson) may be found at
402.I http://www.mondorescue.org/docs.shtml
403\- or in
404.I /usr/share/doc/mondo-x.xx
405on your hard drive.
406
407.SH BUGS
408It is recommend that your system has more than 64 MB ram. SCSI device order
409change with nuke can have unexpected results. It is recommended you use expert
410mode with drastic hardware reconfigurations.
411
412.SH EXAMPLES
413
414.BI ISO:
415Backup to a directory; note that /mnt/foo's contents will be backed up except
416for its ISO's unless you exclude it, as follows:
417.br
418.I "mondoarchive -Oi -d /mnt/foo -E '/mnt/foo|/mnt/foo2' -p \`hostname\`-\`date +%Y-%m-%d\`"
419
420Backup to ISO's non-interactively, e.g. as a job running in /etc/cron.daily:
421.br
422.I "mkdir -p /bkp/\`date +%A\`; mondoarchive -Oi -9 -d /bkp/\`date +%A\` -E /bkp"
423
424.BI DVD:
425Backup PC using DVD Media:
426.br
427.I "mondoarchive -OVr -d /dev/scd0 -gF -s 4480m"
428
429.BI TAPE:
430Backup to tape, using lzo compression (WARNING - can be unstable):
431.br
432.I "mondoarchive -Ot -d /dev/st0 -L"
433
434Verify existing tape backup which was made with lzo compression:-
435.br
436.I "mondoarchive -Vt -d /dev/st0 -L -g"
437
438Backup to tape, using max compression:
439.br
440.I "mondoarchive -Ot -9 -d /dev/st0 "
441
442.BI CD-R:
443Backup to 700MB CD-R disks using a 16x CD burner:
444.br
445.I "mondoarchive -Oc 16 -s 700m -g"
446
447Verify existing CD-R or CD-RW backup (works for either):-
448.br
449.I "mondoarchive -Vc 16"
450
451.BI CD-RW:
452Backup to 650MB CD-RW disks using a 4x CD ReWriter:
453.br
454.I "mondoarchive -Ow 4"
455
456Backup just your /home and /etc directory to 650MB CD-RW disks using a 4x CD
457ReWriter:
458.br
459.I "mondoarchive -Ow 4 -I \*(lq/home|/etc\*(rq"
460
461.BI NFS:
462Backup to an NFS mount:
463.br
464.I "mondoarchive -On nfs://192.168.1.2:/home/nfs -d /Monday -E /mnt/nfs"
465
466Verify existing NFS backup:-
467.br
468.I "mondoarchive -Vn nfs://192.168.1.2:/home/nfs -d /Monday"
469
470.BI USB:
471Backup to your 4GB USB key, using gzip compression:
472.br
473.I "mondoarchive -OU -d /dev/sda -s 4g -G"
474
475.BI RAID:
476Backup PC to a Software Raid mount point, iso size 700mb:
477.br
478.I "mondoarchive -O -s 700m -d /mnt/raid"
479
480
481.SH "SEE ALSO"
482afio(1), bzip2(1), find(1), mindi(8), mondorestore(8).
483.SH AUTHORS
484Bruno Cornec (lead-development)
485.I "bruno_at_mondorescue.org"
486.br
487Andree Leidenfrost (co-developer)
488.I "aleidenf_at_bigpond.net.au"
489.br
490.SH ORIGINAL AUTHORS
491Hugo Rabson (original author)
492.I "hugo.rabson_at_mondorescue.org"
493.br
494Jesse Keating (original RPM packager)
495.I "hosting_at_j2solutions.net"
496.br
497Stan Benoit (testing)
498.I "troff_at_nakedsoul.org"
499.br
500Mikael Hultgren (docs)
501.I "mikael_hultgren_at_gmx.net"
502.br
503See mailing list at http://www.mondorescue.org for technical support.
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