source: branches/2.2.9/mondo-doc/mondoarchive.8 @ 2492

Last change on this file since 2492 was 2492, checked in by Bruno Cornec, 10 years ago

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21.TH mondoarchive 8 "PBDATE" "Mondo Rescue PBVER-rPBREV"
22
23.SH NAME
24mondoarchive \- a backup / disaster\-recovery tool.
25
26.SH SYNOPSIS
27.B mondoarchive -O
28[
29.I options
30] : backup your PC
31.br
32.B mondoarchive -V
33[
34.I options
35] : verify your backup
36
37.SH DESCRIPTION
38.PP
39.I mondoarchive
40backs up a subset of your files, your entire filesystem, or even images of
41non-Linux filesystems to CD's, tape, ISO images or an NFS mount. In the event of
42catastrophic data loss, you will be able to restore everything, taking a PC from
43bare metal to its original state if necessary.
44
45.PP
46With
47.BR \-O ,
48it backs up your filesystem to CD, tape, ISO images or NFS share. Boot media
49or a special boot CD will be created to allow you to restore from bare metal if
50necessary.
51
52.PP
53With
54.BR \-V ,
55it verifies the backup against the live filesystem. This option may be used in
56combination with
57.BR \-O
58to verify a backup after its creation, or on its own to see how much the live
59filesystem has changed since the backup was made.
60
61.PP
62Call mondoarchive
63.BR without
64.BR flags
65to make it auto-detect as many settings as possible, ask you politely for the
66rest, and then backup and verify your OS or a subset thereof.
67
68.PP
69To restore data, either run
70.I mondorestore
71from the command line or boot from the emergency media generated during
72the backup process. The latter will come in handy if a gremlin wipes your hard
73disk.
74
75.SH BACKUP MEDIA
76.TP 13
77You must specify one of the following:-
78
79.TP
80.BI "-c " speed
81Use CD-R drive as backup device and its (write-once) disks as backup media.
82
83.TP
84.BI "-w " speed
85Use CD-RW drive as backup device and its (write/rewrite) disks as backup media.
86Mondo will wipe media before writing to them.
87
88.TP
89.BI "-r "
90Use DVD drive as backup device and its disks as backup media. Growisofs decides
91on the best speed for your drive. Note that calling mondoarchive
92.B using sudo when writing to DVDs will fail
93because growisofs does not support this - see the growisofs manpage for
94details.
95
96.TP
97.BI "-C " speed
98Use CD-R drive as a streaming device, almost like a tape streamer. Use
99write-once disks as backup media.
100.B Experimental.
101
102.TP
103.BI "-p " prefix
104Use
105.B prefix
106to generate the name of your ISO images.
107By default, mondoarchive names images mondorescue-1.iso, mondorescue-2.iso, ...
108Using
109.B -p machine
110will name your images machine-1.iso, machine-2.iso, ...
111
112.TP
113.BI "-i "
114Use ISO files (CD images) as backup media. This is good for backing up your
115system to a spare hard drive. The
116.B -n
117switch is a wiser choice if you plan to restore from a remote filesystem.
118
119.TP
120.BI "-n " mount
121Use files residing on a remote share as backup media.
122.I mount
123is the remote mount-point, e.g. 'nfs://192.168.1.3:/home/nfs'
124for my file server. If not mounted, mondoarchive will do it for you. So nice ;-)
125If your NFS server only accept write from a backup user, you may specify it with the syntax:
126.B nfs://user@machine:/mount/path
127and mondoarchive will try to do its best to support it.
128Other protocols are available such as sshfs for fuse SSH based filesystem
129mount, with the same syntax e.g. 'sshfs://user@192.168.1.3:/home/nfs'
130
131.TP
132.BI "-t "
133Use tape streamer as backup device and its tapes as backup media.
134
135.TP
136.BI "-U "
137Use a generic USB device as backup device. Use this if you want to write
138your backup to a USB key or USB disk, which will be make bootable.
139The USB device should be attached to the system in order for this to work and
140its device name passed to the
141.BR \-d
142option. Do not use the partition name, but the raw device name (/dev/sda e.g.)
143.B WARNING: All the data on the related device will be removed.
144
145.TP
146.BI "-u "
147Use a generic streaming device as backup device. Use this if you want to write
148your backup to a device that is not directly support by mondoarchive. This will
149send the data directly to a raw device.
150.B For experienced users only.
151
152.SH MAJOR OPTIONS
153.TP 13
154.BI "-D "
155Make a differential backup: examine the filesystem and find which files have
156changed since the last full backup was carried out. Backup only those files.
157
158.TP
159.BI "-E " "\*(lqpath ...\*(rq"
160Exclude path(s) from backup. The paths should be separated with a whitespace and surrounded by quotes.
161This is the prefered and recommended option when doing partial archiving.
162Note that mondo automatically excludes removable media (/mnt/floppy,
163/mnt/cdrom, /proc, /sys, /tmp). For example, if you are backing up to an NFS mount but you
164do not want to include the contents of the mount in a backup, exclude your
165local mount-point with this switch. It will also work with partitions, e.g.
166/dev/sdd4 if you have a peculiar SCSI zip drive which insists on showing up in
167the mountlist. NB: If you exclude /dev/sdd4 then the /dev entry itself will
168still be backed up, even though the mountlist entry will be suppressed.
169N.B.: If you specify a directory with a final / its content will be archived so it won't do what you expect.
170You may also specify full disk device to this option as with -E \*(lq/dev/sda /dev/cciss/c0d0\*(rq
171
172.TP
173.BI "-I " "\*(lqpath ...\*(rq"
174Include paths(s) in backup. This option is mainly use to perform tests in order to reduce the time taken by the archiving operation.
175The default backup path is \*(lq/\*(rq but you may specify alternatives, e.g. -I \*(lq/home /etc\*(rq to override that.
176You may also specify full disk device to this option as with -I \*(lq/dev/sda /dev/cciss/c0d0\*(rq
177N.B.: When using the
178.BR \-I
179option with the
180.BR \-E
181option, the -E content should be subdirectories of those mentioned in the -I only, as -I takes precedence.
182
183.TP
184.BI "-J " "file"
185Specify an explicit list of files and directories to include in a plain text file, one item
186(file or directory) per line. Beware that directories placed in that file are not managed recursively contrary to what is done with the -I option.
187
188.TP
189.BI "-N"
190Exclude all mounted network filesystems. This currently means NFS, SMB, Coda, MVFS, AFS
191OCFS and Netware. In other words, only backup the local hard disk(s).
192
193.TP
194.BI "-d " "dev|dir"
195Specify the backup device (CD/tape/USB) or directory (NFS/ISO). For CD-R[W] drives,
196this is the SCSI node where the drive may be found, e.g. '0,1,0'. For tape
197users, this is the tape streamers /dev entry, e.g. '/dev/st0'. For USB users,
198this is the device name of your key or external disk. For ISO users,
199this is the directory where the ISO images are stored. For NFS users, this is
200the directory within the NFS mount where the backups are stored. The default
201for ISO and NFS is '/var/cache/mondo'.
202
203.TP
204.BI "-g "
205GUI mode. Without this switch, the screen output of mondoarchive is suitable
206for processing by an 'expect' wrapper, enabling the user to backup nightly via
207a cron job. However, if you want to run this program with an attractive but
208non-cron-friendly interface then use '-g'.
209
210.TP
211.BI "-k " "path"
212Path of user's kernel. If you are a Debian (<3.0) or Gentoo (<1.4) user then specify
213.B -k FAILSAFE
214as your kernel. Otherwise, you will rarely need this option.
215
216.TP
217.BI "-m "
218Manual (not self-retracting) CD trays are often found on laptops. If you are
219a laptop user, your CD burner has BurnProof technology or you experience
220problems with mondo then please call mondoarchive with this switch.
221
222.TP
223.BI "-o "
224Use OBDR (One Button Disaster Recovery) type of tapes.
225By default, tapes are not bootable. With this flag, tape will be made bootable
226following the OBDR format.
227
228.TP
229.BI "-s " "size"
230How much can each of your backup media hold? You may use 'm' and 'g' on the end
231of the number, e.g. '700m' for an extra-large CD-R. You no longer need to
232specify the size of your cartridges if you are backing up to tape.
233
234.TP
235.BI "-x " "'dev ...'"
236Specify non-Linux partitions which you want to backup, e.g. NTFS or BeOS.
237
238
239.SH MINOR OPTIONS
240.TP 13
241.BI "-[0-9] "
242Specify the compression level. Default is 3. No compression is 0.
243
244.TP
245.BI "-A " "command"
246This command will be called after each CD/NFS/ISO file is written. It is useful
247if you want to do something with an ISO after creating it, e.g. write it to a
248CD burner using a non-standard command.
249.B -A
250understands two tokens - _ISO_ and _CD#_ - which will be translated into the
251ISO's filename and its index number (1, 2, ...) respectively. So, you could use
252.I -A 'foobackup _ISO_; rm -f _ISO_'
253to feed each ISO to some magical new backup tool.
254
255.TP
256.BI "-B " "command"
257This command will be called before each CD/NFS/ISO file is written. See
258.B -A
259for more information.
260
261.TP
262.BI "-H "
263When you boot from the tape/CD, your hard drive will be wiped and the archives
264will be restored. Your decision to boot from the tape/CD will be taken as
265consent. No further permission will be sought.
266.B Use with caution.
267
268.TP
269.BI "-L "
270Use lzo, a fast compression engine, instead of bzip2. You may find lzo on
271Mondo's website or via FreshMeat. WARNING! Some versions of LZO are unstable.
272
273.TP
274.BI "-G "
275Use gzip, the standard and quicker Linux compression engine, instead of bzip2.
276
277.TP
278.BI "-R "
279EXPERIMENTAL. Do not use in mission-critical environments. Star is an alternative to afio. Mondo now supports POSIX ACLs and extended attributes, so -R is essentially redundant for now.
280
281.TP
282.BI "-P " "tarball"
283Post-nuke tarball. If you boot into Nuke Mode and everything is restored
284successfully then the
285.I post-nuke
286script will be sought and executed if found. This is useful for post-restore
287customization. It is assumed that the tarball (.tar.gz format) will contain not
288just the
289.I post-nuke
290script (or binary, or whatever it is) but also any files it requires.
291
292.TP
293.BI "-S " "path"
294Specify the full pathname of the scratchdir, the directory where ISO images are built before being
295archived. If you have plenty of RAM and want to use a ramdisk for scratch
296space, specify its path here.
297
298.TP
299.BI "-T " "path"
300Specify the full pathname of the tempdir, the directory where temporary files (other than ISO images
301being assembled) are stored. See
302.B -S
303
304.TP
305.BI "-W "
306Don't make your backup self-booting. This is a really bad idea, IMO. Don't do
307this unless you have really great boot disks in your hand and you are an anally
308retentive SOB who can't wait 2 minutes for Mindi to run in the background. If
309you use -W then you'd better know what the hell you're doing, okay?
310
311.TP
312.BI "-b "
313Specify the internal block size used by the tape drive. This is usually 32K but
314some drives just don't like that. They should but they don't. That's what
315happens when tape drive vendors don't talk to kernel driver writers. Try 512 or
31616384.
317
318.TP
319.BI "-e "
320Don't eject the CD or tape when backing up...
321
322.TP
323.BI "-f " "device"
324Specify the drive on which your Master Boot Record lives. Usually, this is
325discovered automatically. A good use case may be when you have software RAID.
326
327.TP
328.BI "-l " "GRUB|LILO|ELILO|RAW"
329Specify the boot loader. By default, your Master Boot Record is examined and
330the boot loader can usually be discovered. If you specify RAW then the MBR will
331be backed up and restored byte-for-byte without any analysis. It is likely that
332you will also need to specify the boot device with -f <dev>. ELILO is mandatory
333for IA64 machines.
334
335.TP
336.BI "-Q "
337Give more detailed information about the boot loader.
338
339.TP
340.BI "-K " "loglevel"
341Specify the loglevel. Use 99 for full debug. Standard debug level is 4.
342
343.TP
344.BI "-z "
345Use extended attributes and acl for each file and store them in the backup media. Use this option if you use SElinux e.g. but it will slow down backup and restore time of course.
346
347
348.SH DIAGNOSTICS
349Mondo generates one additional, and extremely important file:
350.BI /var/log/mondoarchive.log.
351When seeking technical support, attach this file to your email.
352
353
354
355.SH FILES
356.IR /var/log/mondoarchive.log
357This log contains important information required to analyse mondoarchive
358problem reports. Did I already said that it's highly recommended to send this file with
359support questions.
360
361.SH NOTES
362A link to Mondo's HTML-based manual (by Bruno Cornec, Mikael Hultgren, Cafeole, Randy Delphs,
363Stan Benoit, and Hugo Rabson) may be found at
364.I http://www.mondorescue.org/docs.shtml
365- or in
366.I /usr/share/doc/mondo-x.xx
367on your hard drive.
368
369.SH BUGS
370It is recommend that your system has more than 64 MB ram. SCSI device order
371change with nuke can have unexpected results. It is recommended you use expert
372mode with drastic hardware reconfigurations.
373
374.SH EXAMPLES
375
376.BI ISO:
377Backup to a directory; note that /mnt/foo's contents will be backed up except
378for its ISO's unless you exclude it, as follows:-
379.br
380.I "mondoarchive -Oi -d /mnt/foo -E '/mnt/foo /mnt/foo2' -p \`hostname\`-\`date +%Y-%m-%d\`"
381
382Backup to ISO's non-interactively, e.g. as a job running in /etc/cron.daily:
383.br
384.I "mkdir -p /bkp/\`date +%A\`; mondoarchive -Oi -9 -d /bkp/\`date +%A\` -E /bkp"
385
386.BI DVD:
387Backup PC using DVD Media:
388.br
389.I "mondoarchive -OVr -d /dev/scd0 -gF -s 4480m"
390
391.BI TAPE:
392Backup to tape, using lzo compression (WARNING - can be unstable):
393.br
394.I "mondoarchive -Ot -d /dev/st0 -L"
395
396Verify existing tape backup which was made with lzo compression:-
397.br
398.I "mondoarchive -Vt -d /dev/st0 -L -g"
399
400Backup to tape, using max compression:
401.br
402.I "mondoarchive -Ot -9 -d /dev/st0 "
403
404.BI CD-R:
405Backup to 700MB CD-R disks using a 16x CD burner:
406.br
407.I "mondoarchive -Oc 16 -s 700m -g"
408
409Verify existing CD-R or CD-RW backup (works for either):-
410.br
411.I "mondoarchive -Vc 16"
412
413.BI CD-RW:
414Backup to 650MB CD-RW disks using a 4x CD ReWriter:
415.br
416.I "mondoarchive -Ow 4"
417
418Backup just your /home and /etc directory to 650MB CD-RW disks using a 4x CD
419ReWriter:
420.br
421.I "mondoarchive -Ow 4 -I \*(lq/home /etc\*(rq"
422
423.BI NFS:
424Backup to an NFS mount:
425.br
426.I "mondoarchive -On nfs://192.168.1.2:/home/nfs -d /Monday -E /mnt/nfs"
427
428Verify existing NFS backup:-
429.br
430.I "mondoarchive -Vn nfs://192.168.1.2:/home/nfs -d /Monday"
431
432.BI USB:
433Backup to your USB key, using gzip compression:
434.br
435.I "mondoarchive -OU -d /dev/sda -G"
436
437.BI RAID:
438Backup PC to a Software Raid mount point, iso size 700mb:
439.br
440.I "mondoarchive -O -s 700m -d /mnt/raid"
441
442
443.SH "SEE ALSO"
444afio(1), bzip2(1), find(1), mindi(8), mondorestore(8).
445.SH AUTHORS
446Bruno Cornec (lead-development)
447.I "bruno_at_mondorescue.org"
448.br
449Andree Leidenfrost (co-developer)
450.I "aleidenf_at_bigpond.net.au"
451.br
452.SH ORIGINAL AUTHORS
453Hugo Rabson (original author)
454.I "hugo.rabson_at_mondorescue.org"
455.br
456Jesse Keating (original RPM packager)
457.I "hosting_at_j2solutions.net"
458.br
459Stan Benoit (testing)
460.I "troff_at_nakedsoul.org"
461.br
462Mikael Hultgren (docs)
463.I "mikael_hultgren_at_gmx.net"
464.br
465See mailing list at http://www.mondorescue.org for technical support.
466.
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