source: branches/2.2.6/mondo-doc/mondorescue-howto.sgml @ 1967

Last change on this file since 1967 was 1967, checked in by bruno, 9 years ago
  • Remove all references to /root/images
  • Fix the lack of support for options in mondorestore by copying what is done for mondoarchive and sharing the functions analyzing the cli (getopt usage)
  • Review the now common handle_incoming_parameters to have it support correctly 2 modes (archiving and restoring)
  • Update mondorestore man page to take in account the options supported now
  • Replace mondorestore options --nuke, --interactive, with -Z nuke, -Z interactive ...
File size: 101.6 KB
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1<!DOCTYPE BOOK PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook V4.1//EN" [
2<!ENTITY curdate "PBDATE">
3<!ENTITY curver "PBVER-rPBREV">
4
5<!ENTITY WWWB "http://www.mondorescue.org/">
6<!ENTITY WWW '<ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org">MondoRescue</ulink>'>
7<!ENTITY ML '<ulink url="http://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/mondo-devel">mondorescue mailing list</ulink>'>
8<!ENTITY gfdl SYSTEM "fdl.sgml">
9]>
10
11<book>
12
13<bookinfo>
14<title>MondoRescue HOWTO</title>
15<subtitle>
16Utilisation and Configuration of Mondo and Mindi under Linux (Version &curver;)
17</subtitle>
18<graphic fileref="images/protected-by-mondo" align="center">
19
20<pubdate>
21in its latest version the
22&curdate;
23</pubdate>
24
25<abstract>
26<para>
27This document describes the use of mondo and mindi tools to realize disaster recovery backup of your systems. It provides information on installation, backup and restore modes, hardware and software requirements, and answers to some frequently asked questions.
28The goals are to offer a general view of the functions and their best usages.
29Mondo Rescue is a Disaster Recovery Solution which allows you
30to effortlessly backup and interactively restore Linux, Windows and
31other supported filesystem partitions to/from CD/DVD-+R/RW media, tape,
32NFS, ... and Mindi Linux provides the bootable emergency restore
33media which Mondo uses at boot-time.
34</para>
35</abstract>
36
37<author>
38<firstname>Bruno</firstname>
39<surname>Cornec</surname>
40<affiliation>
41<orgname>MondoRescue Project</orgname>
42<address><email>bruno@mondorescue.org</email></address>
43</affiliation>
44</author>
45<author>
46<firstname>Conor</firstname>
47<surname>Daly</surname>
48<affiliation>
49<orgname>MondoRescue Project</orgname>
50<address><email>conor.daly_at_met.ie</email></address>
51</affiliation>
52</author>
53<!--
54Hugo Rabson
55Mikael Hultgren
56Stan Benoit
57Randy Delfs
58Cafeole
59Bryan J. Smith
60-->
61
62<copyright>
63<year>2000-2006</year>
64<holder role="mailto:bruno@mondorescue.org">Bruno Cornec</holder>
65</copyright>
66
67<legalnotice>
68<title>License</title>
69<para>
70</para>
71<para>
72This HOWTO is a free documentation. you may copy, redistribute and/or modify it under the terms of the
73<Link LinkEnd="gfdl">
74GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1
75</link>.</para>
76<para>
77or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts. This document is distributed hoping it will be useful, but <emphasis>without any guaranty</emphasis>; you're completely responsible of its use, and coulnd't complain in case it doesn't work, or even if it breaks the hardware. All the software included in it, if not already copyrighted is released under the GPL.
78</para>
79</legalnotice>
80
81<revhistory>
82<revision>
83    <revnumber>2.0.7</revnumber>
84    <date>2006-05-16</date>
85    <authorinitials>Bruno Cornec</authorinitials>
86    <revdescription>
87    <para>
88    Integration of a chapter on HOWTO run mondo interactively using cron written by Conor Daly
89    </para>
90    </revdescription>
91</revision>
92<revision>
93    <revnumber>2.06</revnumber>
94    <date>2006-01-16</date>
95    <authorinitials>Bruno Cornec</authorinitials>
96    <revdescription>
97    <para>
98    First SGML version publically available, remade from the HTML docs of the project.
99    </para>
100    </revdescription>
101</revision>
102</revhistory>
103</bookinfo>
104
105<toc></toc>
106<lot></lot>
107
108
109<chapter id="intro">
110<title>About this Guide</title>
111
112<sect1 id="intro-purpose">
113<title>Purpose / Scope of this Guide</title>
114
115<para>
116This HOWTO serves to help people get started with using
117mondo/mindi as way to backup/restore their system. This is a work
118constantly evolving. It was started by Hugo Rabson and has
119since been worked upon by a number of people. See the
120'<ulink url="&WWWB;about.shtml#devteam">About</ulink>' web
121page for a list of members of the development team.</para>
122
123<para>There are many ways to contribute to the Linux movement
124without actually writing code. One of the most important is writing
125documentation, allowing each person to share their knowledge with
126thousands of others around the world. This HOWTO is designed to
127help you get familiar with how Mondo/Mindi works.</para>
128
129<para>
130Opinions expressed here are those of the authors.
131Informations are provided in the aim to be useful to the readers.
132However, there can't be, through this document, any warranty of any kind
133on the way it works on your systems, nor the author could be responsible for any problem caused by the use of these informations.
134However, software editors don't garantee you a lot either (re-read the contracts).
135</para>
136</sect1>
137
138<sect1 id="intro-newversion"><title>New versions of this document</title>
139
140<para>The newest version of this document can always be found on
141MondoRescue's homepage &WWW;.</para>
142<para>
143If you make a translation of this document into another language, please let meknow so that I can include a reference to it here.
144</para>
145</sect1>
146
147<sect1><title>Suggestions / Feedback</title>
148<para>
149I rely on you, the reader, to make this HOWTO useful. THis HOWTO is probably incomplete even if it tries to be accurate to the best of our knowledge.
150If you have any suggestions, corrections, recommandations or congratulations :-) don't hesitate to send them to me
151<email>bruno@mondorescue.org</email>,
152and I will try to incorporate them in a next revision or to the &ML;;
153e-mail the list at
154<ulink url="mailto:mondo-devel@lists.sourceforge.net">mondo-devel@lists.sourceforge.net</ulink>;
155tell us what is wrong and how it should be fixed.
156Include the section title and recommended changes. Whenever possible, include
157the exact, spell-checked, grammar-checked text that you think would
158improve the document.
159</para>
160<para>See Mondo's
161        <ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org/support.shtml">Support</ulink> page for
162more information.
163</para>
164<para>
165Please note that we do our best to help everyone but it is
166difficult for us to help you if you do not attach a log file to
167your e-mail. Let me say that again - attach your log file to your
168e-mail! Thank you. Without it we can't offer
169any tangible help because you aren't either. That's what the log
170file is for. It is located at <filename>/var/log/mondoarchive.log</filename>; and <filename>/var/log/mindi.log</filename> (if called alone) or at <filename>/var/log/mondorestore.log</filename>
171</para>
172<para>
173This document was originaly written by native english speakers, but is maintained by a non-native english speaker so help me correct mistaques (sic) instead of rumbling that I've done one :-)
174</para>
175<para>
176I am also willing to answer general questions on MondoRescue, the best I can.
177Before doing so, please read all of the information in this HOWTO, and then send me detailed information about the problem, especially including the logs generated by the tools, or traces obtained (Did I say that already :-].
178</para>
179<para>
180If you publish this document on a CD-ROM or in hardcopy form, a complimentary copy would be appreciated; mail me for my postal address. Also consider making a donation to the Linux Documentation Project to help support free documentation for Linux. Contact the Linux HOWTO coordinator,
181Guylhem AZNAR <email>guylhem@rrremovethis.oeil.qc.ca</email>.
182</para>
183</sect1>
184
185<sect1 id=intro-thanks><title>Aknowledgements</title>
186
187<para>Thanks goes to these people for helping and adding to this
188HOWTO.</para>
189
190<para>Document maintainer:</para>
191<itemizedlist mark="bullet" spacing="Compact">
192<listitem>
193<para>Bruno Cornec</para>
194</listitem>
195</itemizedlist>
196<para>Original Design Assistance by:</para>
197<itemizedlist>
198<listitem>
199<para>Xion Network.com</para>
200</listitem>
201</itemizedlist>
202<para>Original Document Assistance by:</para>
203<itemizedlist>
204<listitem>
205<para>Cafeole</para>
206</listitem>
207<listitem>
208<para>Troff</para>
209</listitem>
210<listitem>
211<para>Randy Delfs</para>
212</listitem>
213<listitem>
214<para>Mikael Hultgren</para>
215</listitem>
216</itemizedlist>
217<para>Original LinuxDoc and LaTeX Reformat by:</para>
218<itemizedlist>
219<listitem>
220<para>Bryan J. Smith</para>
221</listitem>
222</itemizedlist>
223<para>Original DocBook Reformat by:</para>
224<itemizedlist>
225<listitem>
226<para>Mikael Hultgren</para>
227</listitem>
228</itemizedlist>
229<para>Original author; 1.6x material:</para>
230<itemizedlist>
231<listitem>
232<para>Hugo Rabson</para>
233</listitem>
234</itemizedlist>
235
236</sect1>
237</chapter>
238
239<chapter id="quickstart"><title>QuickStart</title>
240<itemizedlist mark="bullet" spacing="Compact">
241<listitem>
242<para>We recommend that you read this complete
243HOWTO. However, if you are too busy or impatient, then
244please use this QuickStart guide to stay out of trouble.</para>
245</listitem>
246<listitem>
247<para>Install the tarball, RPM, or DEB mindi and mondo
248packages. (see <link linkend="installation">Installation</link>
249for more details)</para>
250</listitem>
251<listitem>
252<para>Execute as root (type 'su -' to become root if you are not
253logged in as root)</para>
254<para></para>
255
256<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
257<row>
258<entry>
259
260bash# mondoarchive
261
262</entry>
263</row>
264</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
265
266</listitem>
267</itemizedlist>
268<para></para>
269
270<informaltable><tgroup cols="2"><tbody>
271<row>
272<entry>
273<ulink url="images/mamain.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
274<imagedata fileref="images/mamain-mini">
275</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
276</ulink>
277</entry>
278<entry>
279Choose from the list of supported backup media types. The media you
280will use most often are CD/DVD-+R, CD/DVD-+RW, tape, NFS and hard disk. If
281you want to backup/restore over a network, choose 'NFS'. If you
282want to backup/restore to/from a local partition or if you simply
283want to store the ISO images in a local directory until you have
284time or facilities to burn them to CD's, choose 'hard disk'. If you
285choose 'CD/DVD-+R[W]' or 'tape' then in general your hardware will be
286detected and configured for you.
287</entry>
288</row>
289<row>
290<entry>
291<ulink url="images/maburnproof.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
292<imagedata fileref="images/maburnproof-mini">
293</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
294</ulink>
295</entry>
296<entry>
297        If you are backing up to CD/DVD-+R[W] then Mondo will ask you if your CD
298burner has BurnProof technology, is inside a laptop, or is
299otherwise eccentric. If you are backing up to a tape streamer then
300you will not see this message.
301</entry>
302</row>
303<row>
304<entry>
305<ulink url="images/macompression.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
306<imagedata fileref="images/macompression-mini">
307</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
308</ulink>
309</entry>
310<entry>
311How much compression do you want? None, if your tape streamer has
312built-in hardware compression. Maximum, if your CPU is blazingly
313fast. Average should do just fine for most situations.
314</entry>
315</row>
316<row>
317<entry>
318<ulink url="images/mainclude.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
319<imagedata fileref="images/mainclude-mini">
320</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
321</ulink>
322</entry>
323<entry>
324If you want to backup the whole computer (excluding /sys and /proc,
325naturally) then leave this as / which is the default. Otherwise,
326specify subsets, (e.g. /usr/local /home ) being sure to put a space
327in between each path.
328</entry>
329</row>
330<row>
331<entry>
332<ulink url="images/maexclude.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
333<imagedata fileref="images/maexclude-mini">
334</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
335</ulink>
336</entry>
337<entry>
338If you are backing up your whole computer then you might want to
339exclude certain directories, e.g. /shared/MP3. Please specify them
340in the 'exclude directories' dialog box. Please put a space in
341between each path, e.g. /shared/private /scratch /nfs /windows
342</entry>
343</row>
344<row>
345<entry>
346<ulink url="images/makernel.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
347<imagedata fileref="images/makernel-mini">
348</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
349</ulink>
350</entry>
351<entry>
352Is your kernel sane? Red Hat, Mandrake, SuSE, Debian and Slackware users
353should in general say 'yes' because these vendors are good at
354producing reliable kernels. If you are using Gentoo or LFS
355then your kernel might be non-standard, in which case say 'no' to
356use Mondo's failsafe kernel (provided separately).
357</entry>
358</row>
359<row>
360<entry>
361<ulink url="images/maverifyq.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
362<imagedata fileref="images/maverifyq-mini">
363</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
364</ulink>
365</entry>
366<entry>
367If you want to verify the archives after writing them to media, say
368'yes' here. If you have absolute faith in your hardware and your
369Linux distribution, say 'no'... and a little prayer.
370</entry>
371</row>
372<row>
373<entry>
374<ulink url="images/maproceedq.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
375<imagedata fileref="images/maproceedq-mini">
376</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
377</ulink>
378</entry>
379<entry>
380If you are sure you want to go ahead, say 'yes' and find something
381else to do while Mondo backs up your computer. If you say 'no' then
382you will be unceremoniously dumped at the shell prompt. :-)
383</entry>
384</row>
385<row>
386<entry>
387<ulink url="images/1.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
388<imagedata fileref="images/1-mini">
389</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
390</ulink>
391</entry>
392<entry>
393The backup process will now commence. There are some pre-backup
394tasks to be carried out first but the backup is essentially
395underway. To simplify the backup process, you were asked a series
396of questions. Next time, if you like, you could call mondoarchive
397with various command-line switches to control its behavior, instead
398of answering a series of questions. See the man page for details.
399</entry>
400</row>
401<row>
402<entry>
403<ulink url="images/3.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
404<imagedata fileref="images/3-mini">
405</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
406</ulink>
407</entry>
408<entry>
409Mondo will make a catalog of all files to be backed up. This may
410take up to five minutes. The list of files will be divided into
411sets, approximately 4 MB (before compression) of files per set.
412This typically takes one minute.
413</entry>
414</row>
415<row>
416<entry>
417<ulink url="images/4.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
418<imagedata fileref="images/1-mini">
419</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
420</ulink>
421</entry>
422<entry>
423Mondo calls Mindi. Mindi generates bootable media image and
424auxiliary data disk images which are based on your existing Linux
425distribution and filesystem. That way, you can be sure Mondo's
426tools will be compatible with your existing filesystems and
427binaries: Mondo's tools are your tools. Mindi takes up to five
428minutes to run.
429</entry>
430</row>
431<row>
432<entry>
433<ulink url="images/5tape.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
434<imagedata fileref="images/5tape-mini">
435</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
436</ulink>
437</entry>
438<entry>
439Finally, Mondo begins backing up your computer. This process may
440take a few minutes or a few hours, depending on how much data you
441are archiving, how fast your CPU is, how much RAM you have, and so
442on. It will backup your regular files and then your large files
443(files larger than approximately 32MB). If you have opted to verify
444your backups, Mondo will do that too.
445</entry>
446</row>
447</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
448
449<itemizedlist>
450<listitem>
451<para>Try to boot from the first media of the backup.
452Choose 'Compare Mode' by typing compare at the boot screen.
453</para>
454</listitem>
455<listitem>
456<para>If you can boot, fine. If not, make a Mindi "Test" CD to
457checkout the compatibility of your system. (see
458<link linkend="test-mindi">Testing Mindi</link> for more
459details). Remove the media; boot your computer as usual;
460execute as root</para>
461<para></para>
462<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
463<row>
464<entry>
465
466        bash# mindi
467</entry>
468</row>
469<row>
470<entry>
471        bash# cd /var/cache/mindi
472
473</entry>
474</row>
475</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
476
477<para>(for CD-R)</para>
478<para></para>
479<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
480<row>
481<entry>
482bash# cdrecord dev=0,0,0 speed=4 -eject -v mindi.iso
483</entry>
484</row>
485<row>
486<entry>
487bash# wodim dev=0,0,0 speed=4 -eject -v mindi.iso
488</entry>
489</row>
490</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
491
492<para>(for CD-RW)</para>
493<para></para>
494<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
495<row>
496<entry>
497bash# cdrecord dev=0,0,0 speed=4 blank=fast -eject -v mindi.iso
498</entry>
499</row>
500<row>
501<entry>
502bash# wodim dev=0,0,0 speed=4 blank=fast -eject -v mindi.iso
503</entry>
504</row>
505</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
506
507<para>Reboot your system with the created Mindi CD, with the BIOS
508set to boot from CD. If the result is a command line in 'Expert'
509mode, your system checks out. Remove the CD and reboot your
510system.</para>
511</listitem>
512<listitem>
513<para>If you still cannot boot from Mindi's CD then please e-mail
514the &ML; for help.
515</para>
516</listitem>
517</itemizedlist>
518<para>When making a backup on a live system, there will always be
519processes running that will write out data on the system after you
520have made the backup and before you have made the compare, this
521will result in difference showing up when comparing your backup.
522For a full explanation and what can be done to avoid this, please
523read this section.</para>
524<itemizedlist>
525
526        <listitem>
527<para>This QuickStart covers the ideal case. Upon receiving any
528system feedback/errors, read each related HOWTO section.</para>
529<para>Example 2-1. A test backup of your /home directory to CD-Rs
530using the command line</para>
531<para></para>
532<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
533<row>
534<entry>
535
536bash# mondoarchive -OVc 4 -I /home -gF
537
538</entry>
539</row>
540</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
541
542<para>The 'c' means you must be writing to CD-Rs, not CD-RWs (the
543latter would require 'w' instead of 'c'). The '4' is the speed of
544your CD writer. The string after -I is the path to be backed up.
545The '-gF' means you are going to see the pretty yellow-on-blue
546screen instead of the boring white-on-black screen. :) It also
547means Mondo will not offer to create physical boot media for
548you. It is assumed that you are able to boot from the CD which
549Mondo has generated.</para>
550<para>Example 2-2. A backup of your whole filesystem to NFS using
551the command line</para>
552<para></para>
553<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
554<row>
555<entry>
556
557        bash# mkdir -p /mnt/nfs
558</entry>
559</row>
560<row>
561<entry>
562        bash# mount 192.168.1.28:/home/nfs /mnt/nfs
563        </entry>
564</row>
565<row>
566<entry>
567bash# mondoarchive -OVn 192.168.1.28:/home/nfs -gF[...]
568        </entry>
569</row>
570<row>
571<entry>
572bash# umount /mnt/nfs
573        </entry>
574</row>
575<row>
576<entry>
577        bash# cdrecord dev=0,0,0 speed=4 -eject -v /var/cache/mindi/mindi.iso
578</entry>
579</row>
580</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
581
582<para>Note that you have to mount the NFS partition, backup to it,
583unmount it, and create a boot CD to allow you to restore from
584scratch if necessary. To reassure yourself that you will be able to
585restore from the NFS share even if your PC is wiped, please boot
586from the Mindi CD and type 'compare'. The on-screen instructions
587from that point on should be sufficient.</para>
588<para>Example 2-3. A backup of your whole
589filesystem to tape using the command line</para>
590<para></para>
591<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
592<row>
593<entry>
594
595bash# mondoarchive -OVt -d /dev/st0 -9 -L -g
596
597</entry>
598</row>
599</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
600
601<para>In this case, we assume Syslinux is incompatible with your
602boot media. For some reason, some BIOSes just don't like Syslinux.
603If you find this to be the case for your computer, please use '-L'
604to force Mondo to use LILO instead of Syslinux as the boot loader
605for its media. (NB: This has nothing to do with which boot
606loader your hard drive uses.) Also, it is a good habit to specify
607your tape streamer with '-d &lt;device&gt;'. You don't usually need
608to but it's good to be on the safe side. Some computers call your
609tape streamer /dev/osst0, some call it /dev/ftape, ...
610Also, depending on the tape streamer model, a tape should be inserted
611in the tape drive before starting mondoarchive, otherwise it may not
612recognize the drive.</para>
613</listitem>
614</itemizedlist>
615
616</chapter>
617
618<chapter id="overview"><title>Overview</title>
619
620<sect1 id="overview-mondorescue">
621<title>Mondo Rescue</title>
622<para>Mondo Rescue backs up your file system to CD, tape, NFS
623(archives stored remotely) or ISO's (archives stored locally).
624Mondo uses afio as the backup engine; afio is a well-respected
625replacement for tar. In the event of catastrophic data loss, you
626may restore some or all of your system, even if your hard drives
627are now blank. Mondo Rescue can do a lot of other cool
628things:</para>
629<itemizedlist>
630<listitem>
631<para>You can use Mondo to clone an installation of Linux. Just
632backup the crucial stuff and exclude /home, /var/log, etc.</para>
633</listitem>
634<listitem>
635<para>You can backup a non-RAID file system and restore it as RAID
636including the root partition (if your kernel supports that).</para>
637</listitem>
638<listitem>
639<para>You can backup a system running on one format and restore as
640another format.</para>
641</listitem>
642<listitem>
643<para>You can restructure your partitions, e.g. shrink/enlarge,
644reassign devices, add hard drives, etc, before you partition and
645format your drives. Mondo will restore your data and amend
646/etc/lilo.conf and /etc/fstab accordingly.</para>
647</listitem>
648<listitem>
649<para>You can backup Linux/Windows systems, including the boot
650sectors. Mondo will make everything right at restore-time.
651(However, do run "Scandisk" when you first boot into Windows, just
652in case.)</para>
653</listitem>
654<listitem>
655<para>You can use your Mondo backup CD to verify the integrity of
656your computer.</para>
657</listitem>
658</itemizedlist>
659<para>Mondo's principal virtue is that it protects you from the
660problems that can arise when you reinstall completely from scratch.
661If you want to wipe and restore your system every year just as a
662matter of 'good practice', Mondo is not for you. However, if you
663want to get up and running again in a hurry after someone breaks
664into your computer and wipes it (or if you accidentally wipe it
665yourself) then Mondo is definitely for you. It will permit you to
666roll back to a known-good installation in a very short period of
667time, sometimes as little as twenty minutes. Even if you backup
668large amounts of data to tape daily and do not want to add yet
669another backup regime, please consider backing up the core
670filesystem (i.e. everything but the directories containing your
671huge database and your prizewinning novel) every month or so, just
672in case. You will be glad you did.</para>
673<para>What is Mondo not?</para>
674<para>Mondo is not an everyday backup program. It is not designed
675to replace tar, afio, kbackup, etc. Mondo is designed to make it
676possible to recover from scratch if necessary. Tar and afio offer a
677quick, convenient way to backup small sets of files, sometimes to
678removable media.</para>
679</sect1>
680
681<sect1 id="overview-mindi">
682<title>Mindi</title>
683<para>
684Mindi Linux creates a set of boot/root media images
685that will let you perform basic system maintenance on your Linux
686distro. The principal virtues of Mindi's boot disks are the fact
687that they contain your kernel, modules, tools and libraries. You
688can ask for additional binaries (or other files) to be included on
689the kit. The libraries will be added for you.
690</para>
691<para>Whichever modules were loaded at backup-time, they are
692reloaded at boot-time. So, in theory, you will boot into almost the
693same environment as you were in when you backed up. If you want to
694add files to your Mindi boot disks, edit '&lt;INSTALLPATH OF
695MINDI&gt;/mindi/deplist.txt' and add the files to that list. The
696added files and dependencies, will be spread across the data disks
697at run-time.
698</para>
699<para>Mindi makes sure that Mondo has all the tools it needs at
700boot-time. Mondo uses fdisk, mkfs, cat, less, more, afio, gzip,
701bzip2, your keyboard configuration, your glibc libraries, your
702other libraries, your kernel, your modules, ... which is a lot of tools!
703Mindi takes care of all that, so that Mondo can get on with the job of backing
704up or restoring your data.
705</para>
706<para>Mindi is also handy for making boot CDs/disks which stand on
707their own. You do not need Mondo. Indeed, if you like, you could
708use another backup/restore program with Mindi. Just add it to
709Mindi's dependency list (type 'locate deplist.txt' to find it).
710Mindi will include your software on its boot CD/disks the next time
711you run mindi.
712</para>
713</sect1>
714
715
716<sect1 id="overview-linuxbackup">
717<title>Linux Backup</title>
718<para>Mondo Rescue and Mindi Linux are used primarily as Linux
719backup and cloning tools. The fall in prices of CD-RW drives and
720writable discs will allow current users to keep good backups and
721future users to leverage the cloning capability.</para>
722<para>Tape drives are more likely to suit your needs if you run a
723larger installation (or have lots of MP3's). Warning! OnStream
724drives do not play well with Mondo. I do not know why. It is, in my
725opinion, something which OnStream should look into. Mondo uses
726fopen(), fread(), fwrite() and fclose() to interact with tape
727drives. That works for most drives but some drives just don't like
728that.
729Also, depending on the tape streamer model, a tape should be inserted
730in the tape drive before starting mondoarchive, otherwise it may not
731recognize the drive.</para>
732<para>Mondo Rescue has been tested thousands of times on various computers.
733It has worked for them.
734Thousands of users testify to Mondo's stability and its ease of
735use. However, please test it on your own system before you rely on
736it. In fact, do not rely on any software until you have tested it
737to see if it performs as expected.</para>
738<para>To establish that Mondo will behave well in an emergency,
739please be prepared. Run a test backup as follows:-</para>
740<itemizedlist>
741<listitem>
742<para>Run mondoarchive without any command-line options.</para>
743</listitem>
744<listitem>
745    <para>Backup a subset of files - e.g. /usr/local - to CD or
746            tape. Say 'yes' when asked if you want to verify them.</para>
747</listitem>
748<listitem>
749    <para>If you are not backing up to CD, please create boot
750    media when prompted.</para>
751</listitem>
752</itemizedlist>
753<para>Next, restore archives to your live filesystem.</para>
754<itemizedlist>
755<listitem>
756<para>When mondoarchive terminates, run mondorestore without any
757command-line options.</para>
758</listitem>
759<listitem><para>Insert the media when prompted.
760                Press &lt;Enter&gt;. Wait a moment.</para></listitem>
761<listitem><para>Select a subset of files to restore, e.g. /usr/local/man
762                and /usr/local/bin. Hit OK.</para></listitem>
763<listitem><para>Restore files to /tmp or /root/RESTORED or something
764                similar.</para></listitem>
765<listitem><para>When mondorestore terminates, compare the restored files
766                to the originals using cmp or diff.</para></listitem>
767</itemizedlist>
768<para>Finally, simulate an emergency restore.</para>
769<itemizedlist>
770<listitem>
771<para>Boot from media.</para>
772</listitem>
773<listitem><para>Select 'Interactive Mode' at boot-time. (Type
774                'interactive' and hit &lt;Enter&gt;.)</para></listitem>
775<listitem><para>Hit OK when shown the mountlist. Say 'yes' when asked if
776                you accept the mountlist.</para></listitem>
777<listitem><para>Select files to restore, e.g. /usr/local/man and
778                /usr/local/bin. Hit OK.</para></listitem>
779<listitem><para>Restore files to /tmp or /root/RESTORED or something
780                similar.</para></listitem>
781<listitem><para>When mondorestore terminates, please reboot and compare
782                the restored files to the originals.</para></listitem>
783</itemizedlist>
784<para>FYI, the subroutines to repartition and reformat your drives
785are very stable. If you are a RAID or LVM user, you
786might&nbsp;encounter some difficulties when wiping and restoring
787from scratch because of the sheer range of filesystem layouts and
788the impossibility of testing Mondo on every single one. If you have
789trouble, just drop to the command-line and partition/format
790manually. Then, call mondorestore, select Interactive Mode, and say
791'no' when asked if you want Mondo to partition or format your
792drives for you.</para>
793<para>You see, even if you have trouble, you still have two hands
794and most of the tools you need - lvchange, pvcreate, fdisk, mkraid,
795etc. - to do it manually. After you have prepped and formatted your
796drives manually (if you have to), just run mondorestore again and
797say 'no' when asked if you want to prep or format your drives. What
798could be easier?</para>
799</sect1>
800
801<sect1 id="overview-winbackup">
802<title>Windows Backup</title>
803<para>Backing up windows partitions.</para>
804<sect2 id="overview-winbackup-win95"><title>Windows ME/95/98</title>
805<para>Verify that the partition is listed in /etc/fstab and is
806mounted (e.g. /dev/hda1). Mondo will take care of everything else.
807The files will be archived just like all other files in the live
808file system. At restore-time, Mondo will take care of the boot
809sector of /dev/hda1 prior to the restore.</para>
810<para>Note: if Windows ME/95/98 is not located on /dev/hda1 or
811/dev/sda1, then Mondo will not take care of the boot sector of
812/dev/hda1. The user will have to boot from a DOS floppy and run SYS
813C: to correct the Windows boot sector.</para>
814</sect2>
815<sect2 id="overview-winbackup-winnt"><title>Windows NT4/2K/XP</title>
816<para>Windows NT4/2K/XP typically use the NTFS file system, not
817VFAT.. The user should use '-x /dev/hda1' (or whichever device the
818Windows partition resides). Mondo will treat the partition as a
819biggiefile. Mondo will also add an entry to the mountlist to
820reflect the size and type of the partition. The user may not edit
821that partition's size at restore-time (for obvious reasons).</para>
822<para>Please bear in mind that Mondo was written for Linux users.
823If Mondo does not backup or restore your Windows system well, you
824might want to consider reporting it to the &ML;
825</para>
826</sect2>
827</sect1>
828
829<sect1 id="overview-history">
830<title>Mondo Rescue and Mindi Linux
831History</title>
832<para>Mondo Rescue was created in December 1999 by Hugo Rabson as a utility to
833clone Linux/Windows installations. Norton Ghost would not do the
834job, and his boss wanted to jump on the Linux bandwagon. So, he wrote
835a few scripts and shoehorned them into the latest Linux-Mandrake
836CD. Since that time, Mondo grew into a disaster recovery suite for
837Linux and Windows. Mondo forced him to learn about the kernel, its
838initrd initial ramdisk, modules, library dependencies, disk
839partitioning, and the myriad differences between the Top 10 Linux
840distributions.</para>
841<para>The first formal release was made on February 18th, 2000.
842Mondo is currently one of the top five Linux backup/restore
843programs. Mondo has been compared favorably to ArcServe, Arkeia and
844BRU. Although Mondo lacks the more advanced, enterprise-level
845features of ArcServe and Arkeia, for workstations and small- to
846medium-size servers it is ideal because it is small, fast,
847efficient, stable, comes with source code, and is being actively
848developed and supported.</para>
849<para>
850        Since November 2005, Hugo Rabson has tranfered the maintenance
851        of the Mondo Rescue suite to Andree Leidenfrost and Bruno Cornec,
852        both previous developers and packagers of the tool since nearly
853        the begining.
854</para>
855</sect1>
856
857<sect1 id="overview-sysreq">
858<title>System Requirements</title>
859<sect2 id="overview-sysrq-hwreq">
860<title>Hardware Requirements</title>
861
862<para>Your computer must have:</para>
863<itemizedlist>
864<listitem>
865        <para>Intel(R)-compatible CPU (ia32, x86_64/amd64 or ia64)</para>
866</listitem>
867<listitem>
868<para>64MB of RAM (128MB recommended)</para>
869</listitem>
870<listitem>
871<para>800MB of hard disk space free</para>
872</listitem>
873<listitem>
874<para>CD writer, tape streamer, NFS share or some way to backup the
875backups :)</para>
876</listitem>
877</itemizedlist>
878<para>It is recommended that your computer have very good airflow.
879The backup with Mondo Rescue and Mindi Linux will utilize your CPU,
880CD drive and fixed disk(s) like very few other applications. With a
881few hours of system backup activity, computers without sufficient
882airflow may show symptoms such as not burning full CD discs. The
883solution is a $20 or less additional fan at your local electronics
884discount store.</para>
885</sect2>
886
887<sect2 id="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">
888<title>Kernel Requirements</title>
889
890<para>Your kernel must have:</para>
891<itemizedlist>
892<listitem>
893<para>stable loopfs support, which means it really needs to be
8942.2.19 or 2.4.7 (or later)</para>
895</listitem>
896<listitem>
897<para>CD-ROM device support</para>
898</listitem>
899<listitem>
900<para>ISO9660 file system support</para>
901</listitem>
902<listitem>
903<para>initrd ramdisk support (built-in)</para>
904</listitem>
905<listitem>
906<para>Virtual memory file system support (built-in)</para>
907</listitem>
908<listitem>
909<para>ext2 file system support (built-in)</para>
910</listitem>
911<listitem>
912<para>Support for the backup media (Tape, CD-RW, NFS, Hard
913disk)</para>
914</listitem>
915<listitem>
916<para>If the backup media is CD-RW then you need SCSI emulation
917also</para>
918<para>vfat support in the active kernel - mindi needs this when creating
919syslinux boot media</para>
920</listitem>
921</itemizedlist>
922<para>Please note that the stock kernels of Red Hat/RHEL/Fedora,
923    Mandrake/Mandriva, SuSE/SLES/OpenSuSE, Debian and Slackware
924    all meet Mondo's requirements. If your kernel does not meet Mondo's
925    requirements then there is something wrong with it. Mondo's demands
926    are not unreasonable.</para>
927<para>Mondo (specifically Mindi) does not require any specific
928module. It does require that your kernel support the initrd
929initial ramdisk facility. Typically this is supported by the Linux
930kernel. Modules used are needed to support the CD,
931hard disks, etc. If the support is modular, then the modules will
932be incorporated in a boot disk by Mindi. If the support is built-in
933(static), then it will be available at boot-time by default.</para>
934</sect2>
935<sect2 id="overview-sysrq-swreq">
936<title>Software Requirements</title>
937<para>See Mondo's <ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org/downloads.shtml">Download
938page</ulink> for details.</para>
939<para>Mondo requires afio, bzip2, cdrtools/cdrecord/growisofs (may be part of the dvd+rw-tools package), ncurses, newt,
940isolinux/syslinux, lzo (optional), lzop (optional), mkisofs, slang,
941and a few other packages.</para>
942<para>Good Linux distributions provide all these packages. If yours
943does not then please go to the aforementioned Download page or surf
944the Net, preferably the website of the distribution you are
945using.</para>
946<para>Mondo's expectations are not unreasonable, either of your
947Linux distribution or of your kernel. However, if your distribution
948fails to meet its expectations and you cannot find out how to
949resolve them, please feel free to e-mail the &ML;
950</para>
951</sect2>
952</sect1>
953</chapter>
954
955<chapter id="installation">
956<title>Installation</title>
957
958<sect1 id="installation-mindi">
959<title>Mindi Installation</title>
960<para>If you are installing from a tarball then copy it to wherever
961you have enough space, for example /tmp and type:</para>
962<para></para>
963<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
964<row>
965<entry>
966
967        bash# cd /tmp
968</entry>
969</row>
970<row>
971<entry>
972        bash# tar -zxvf mindi-1.x.tgz
973        </entry>
974</row>
975<row>
976<entry>
977bash# cd mindi-1.x
978</entry>
979</row>
980<row>
981<entry>
982        bash# ./install.sh
983
984</entry>
985</row>
986</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
987
988<para>This installs mindi additional files into /usr/local/lib/mindi and
989the program into /usr/local/sbin</para>
990<para>Or, if you are installing from an RPM/deb then copy it to
991wherever you have enough space, for example /tmp and type:</para>
992<para></para>
993<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
994<row>
995<entry>
996
997bash# rpm -Uvh /tmp/mindi-1.x-x.i386.rpm
998</entry>
999</row>
1000<row>
1001<entry>
1002
1003or
1004</entry>
1005</row>
1006<row>
1007<entry>
1008
1009bash# dpkg -i /tmp/mindi-1.x-x.deb
1010
1011</entry>
1012</row>
1013</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1014
1015<para>This installs mindi additional files into /usr/lib/mindi and
1016the program into /usr/sbin.
1017</para>
1018</sect1>
1019
1020<sect1 id="installation-mindi-busybox">
1021<title>Mindi Busybox Installation</title>
1022<para>If you are installing from a tarball then copy it to wherever
1023you have enough space, for example /tmp and type:</para>
1024<para></para>
1025<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1026<row>
1027<entry>
1028
1029        bash# cd /tmp
1030</entry>
1031</row>
1032<row>
1033    <entry>
1034        bash# tar -zxvf mindi-busybox-1.x.tgz
1035    </entry>
1036</row>
1037<row>
1038    <entry>
1039        bash# cd mindi-busybox-1.x
1040    </entry>
1041</row>
1042<row>
1043    <entry>
1044        bash# make oldconfig
1045    </entry>
1046</row>
1047<row>
1048    <entry>
1049        bash# make busybox
1050    </entry>
1051</row>
1052<row>
1053    <entry>
1054        bash# make install
1055    </entry>
1056</row>
1057</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1058<para>This installs busybox files and symlinks into /usr/local/lib/mindi/rootfs
1059</para>
1060<para>Or, if you are installing from an RPM/deb then copy it to
1061wherever you have enough space, for example /tmp and type:</para>
1062<para></para>
1063<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1064<row>
1065<entry>
1066
1067bash# rpm -Uvh /tmp/mindi-busybox-1.x-x.i386.rpm
1068</entry>
1069</row>
1070<row>
1071<entry>
1072
1073or
1074</entry>
1075</row>
1076<row>
1077<entry>
1078
1079bash# dpkg -i /tmp/mindi-busybox-1.x-x.deb
1080
1081</entry>
1082</row>
1083</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1084
1085<para>This installs busybix files and symlinks into /usr/lib/mindi/rootfs
1086</para>
1087</sect1>
1088
1089<sect1 id="installation-mondo">
1090<title>Mondo Installation</title>
1091<para>If you are installing from a tarball then copy it to wherever
1092you have enough space, for example /tmp and type:</para>
1093<para></para>
1094<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1095<row>
1096<entry>
1097
1098        bash# cd /tmp
1099</entry>
1100</row>
1101<row>
1102<entry>
1103        bash# tar -zxvf mondo-2.xx.tgz
1104        </entry>
1105</row>
1106<row>
1107<entry>
1108bash# cd mondo-2.xx
1109        </entry>
1110</row>
1111<row>
1112<entry>
1113        bash# ./configure
1114        </entry>
1115</row>
1116<row>
1117<entry>
1118bash# make &amp;&amp; make install
1119
1120</entry>
1121</row>
1122</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1123
1124<para>This installs mondo into /usr/local/lib/mondo and installs
1125the programs into /usr/local/sbin</para>
1126<para>Or, if you are installing from an RPM/deb then copy it to copy it
1127to wherever you have enough space, for example /tmp and
1128type:</para>
1129<para></para>
1130<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1131<row>
1132<entry>
1133
1134bash# rpm -Uvh /tmp/mondo-2.x-x.i386.rpm
1135</entry>
1136</row>
1137<row>
1138<entry>
1139
1140or
1141</entry>
1142</row>
1143<row>
1144<entry>
1145
1146bash# dpkg -i /tmp/mondo-2.x-x.deb
1147
1148</entry>
1149</row>
1150</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1151
1152<para>This installs mondo into /usr/lib/mondo and installs
1153the programs into /usr/sbin</para>
1154</sect1>
1155
1156<sect1 id=rpm-verif>
1157        <title>RPM verifications</title>
1158        <para>For RPM based distributions (Fedora, OpenSuSE, Mandriva, ...), you may want to do this post-install in order to check the validity of your installation:</para>
1159<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1160<row>
1161    <entry>
1162        bash# rpm -Va mindi mondo mindi-busybox
1163    </entry>
1164</row>
1165</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1166<para>
1167    This gives some truly obtuse output. Basically it will list all files that do NOT pass the verify tests (done on size, MD5 signature, etc). Please read rpm man page to discover the meaning of the output.
1168    </para>
1169</sect1>
1170</chapter>
1171
1172<chapter id="test">
1173<title>Tests</title>
1174
1175<sect1 id="test-mindi">
1176<title>Testing Mindi</title>
1177
1178<para>Mindi is a vital part of the backup procedure. If you have
1179used Mondo before or if you are in a hurry, skip steps 6.2 and 6.3;
1180go straight to QuickStart.</para>
1181<para>However, if you have time or if you have been having trouble
1182getting Mondo to work, I would recommend trying out Mindi directly
1183(rather than via Mondo) to see if it can produce a bootable CD on
1184your system.</para>
1185<para>Make sure you are root while doing this, otherwise mindi will
1186fail, now do this.</para>
1187<para>If you have any problems, please:-</para>
1188<itemizedlist>
1189<listitem>
1190<para>less /var/log/mindi.log</para>
1191</listitem>
1192<listitem><para>feel free to edit mindi (it's a shell script, btw) to try
1193                to fix the problem yourself</para></listitem>
1194<listitem><para>contact the &ML; if you get stuck.</para></listitem>
1195</itemizedlist>
1196<para>Type:-</para>
1197<para></para>
1198<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1199<row>
1200<entry>
1201
1202bash# mindi
1203
1204</entry>
1205</row>
1206</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1207
1208<para>Example screen output, selecting to use your own kernel, to
1209create boot disks, and to create a bootable CD image:</para>
1210<para></para>
1211<screen>
1212
1213# mindi
1214Mindi Linux mini-distro generator v1.09-r762
1215
1216Latest Mindi is available from http://www.mondorescueg
1217
1218BusyBox sources are available from http://www.busybox.net
1219
1220------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1221Do you want to use your own kernel to build the boot disk (y/n) ?y
1222Would you like to use LILO (instead of syslinux)
1223for your boot media (y/n) ?n
1224Analyzing dependency requirements                               Done.
1225Making complete dependency list                                 Done.
1226Analyzing your keyboard's configuration.
1227
1228Adding the following keyboard mapping tables: us-latin1         Done.
1229Assembling dependency files...................................................................                                                  Done.
1230The files have been subdivided into 5 directories.                              Your mountlist will look like this:-
1231    Finding all volume groups
1232  No volume groups found
1233  No volume groups found
1234  No volume groups found
1235  No volume groups found
1236        DEVICE          MOUNTPOINT      FORMAT          SIZE (MB)
1237        /dev/hda1       /               ext3                399
1238        /dev/hda9       /home           ext3              48478
1239        /dev/hda6       /usr            ext3               4999
1240        /dev/hda7       /var            ext3               1000
1241        /dev/hda5       swap            swap                349
1242        /dev/hda8       swap            swap               2003
1243    Finding all volume groups
1244  No volume groups found
1245  No volume groups found
1246  No volume groups found
1247  No volume groups found
1248Tarring and zipping the groups..................                Done.
1249Creating data disk #1...#2...#3...#4...#5...                    Done.
1250Making 1722KB boot disk...........................1440+0 enregistrements lus.
12511440+0 enregistrements écrits.
1252mke2fs 1.38 (30-Jun-2005)
1253Failed to copy /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.12-15mdk-i686-up-4GB to ramdisk
1254
1255Making 2880KB boot disk...........................mkfs.vfat 2.10 (22 Sep 2003)
1256... 2880 KB boot disks were created OK                          Done.
1257In the directory '/var/cache/mindi' you will find the images:-
1258   mindi-data-1.img    mindi-data-2.img    mindi-data-3.img    mindi-data-4.img    mindi-data-5.img mindi-root.1440.img
1259Shall I make a bootable CD image? (y/n) y
1260NB: Mindi's bootable CD always uses isolinux.
1261
1262For a bootable CD w/LILO, please use Mondo.
1263
1264Finished.
1265
1266Boot and data disk images were created.
1267
1268#
1269       
1270</screen>
1271
1272<para>If your kernel is too large (more than about 900KB) then you
1273cannot make boot media, although you can still make a bootable
1274CD image. The easiest way to test Mindi in either case is to say
1275'n' to its first question and 'y' to its second, then use the
1276separate application cdrecord or wodim to make a bootable CD-R or
1277CD-RW.</para>
1278<para>Use the cdrecord or wodim application to write the CD image:</para>
1279<para></para>
1280<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1281<row>
1282<entry>
1283        bash# cd /var/cache/mindi
1284</entry>
1285</row>
1286<row>
1287        <entry>
1288        bash# cdrecord -scanbus
1289</entry>
1290</row>
1291<row>
1292        <entry>
1293        bash# wodim --devices
1294</entry>
1295</row>
1296</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1297
1298<para>The output of the above call will tell you your
1299CD writer's node. It is usually '0,0,0'. Choose one of the
1300following calls to write the CD, depending on whether the disk in
1301the drive is a CD-R or a CD-RW. Please replace 'x,x,x' with your
1302writer's node. For further information, type 'man cdrecord" from a
1303Linux command line.</para>
1304<para>If writing to a CD-RW Drive/Disc:</para>
1305<para></para>
1306<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1307<row>
1308<entry>
1309bash# cdrecord -v blank=fast dev=x,x,x speed=4 mindi.iso (for CD-RW)
1310</entry>
1311</row>
1312<row>
1313<entry>
1314        bash# wodim -v blank=fast dev=/dev/xxx speed=4 mindi.iso (for CD-RW)
1315</entry>
1316</row>
1317</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1318
1319<para>If writing to a CD-R Drive/Disc:</para>
1320<para></para>
1321<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1322<row>
1323<entry>
1324bash# cdrecord -v dev=x,x,x speed=4 mindi.iso (for CD-R)
1325</entry>
1326</row>
1327<row>
1328<entry>
1329        bash# wodim -v dev=/dev/xxx speed=4 mindi.iso (for CD-R)
1330</entry>
1331</row>
1332</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1333</sect1>
1334
1335<!--
1336<sect1 id="test-mondo">
1337<title>Testing Mondo</title>
1338</sect1>
1339-->
1340</chapter>
1341
1342<chapter id="backup">
1343<title>Backup</title>
1344
1345<sect1 id="backup-recommandations">
1346<title>Recommendations</title>
1347<itemizedlist>
1348<listitem>
1349<para>Shut down all possible applications (this minimizes any
1350        compare differences following the backup). Especially shutdown
1351        properly any running database on your system, as the recovery
1352        may lead to corrupted data. Or if applicable, boot to single user mode.</para>
1353</listitem>
1354<listitem>
1355<para>Type:</para>
1356</listitem>
1357</itemizedlist>
1358<para></para>
1359<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1360<row>
1361<entry>
1362
1363bash# mondoarchive
1364
1365</entry>
1366</row>
1367</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1368
1369<para>For most users, that should be enough. :-) Mondoarchive will
1370usually autodetect your hardware and configure it for you.</para>
1371<para>If you are a power user (or you like to control every detail
1372of how Mondo runs) then you may want to look at the command-line
1373switches. For example:-</para>
1374<para></para>
1375<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1376<row>
1377<entry>
1378
1379bash# mondoarchive -Ow9 -gF -I /home
1380
1381</entry>
1382</row>
1383</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1384
1385<para>cdrecord or wodim will tell you where your CD recorder lives, in SCSI
1386terms, which looks like '0,0,0'. The previous call to mondoarchive tells
1387Mondo to backup everything to a 4x CD-RW drive that has
1388a CD-RW disk in it. (Use -Oc instead of -Ow if you are using
1389CD-R.)</para>
1390<para>Please put the first CD-R(W) in the drive now. You will be
1391prompted to insert CD #2 but you will not be prompted to insert the
1392first disk. However, if you forget, do not worry: if Mondo fails to
1393write the first (or any) disk, it will offer to retry, abort or
1394fail.</para>
1395<para>Find the speed/compression
1396compromise that best suits your needs. Here maximum (-9) compression level is used.</para>
1397<para>If you are using cron then please consult the chapter that Conor Daly has dedicated to that <link linkend="backup-cron">topic</link>
1398</para>
1399</sect1>
1400
1401<sect1 id="backup-cmd">
1402<title>Backup Commands and Options</title>
1403
1404<para>Backup Command:</para>
1405<para></para>
1406<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1407<row>
1408<entry>
1409
1410mondoarchive &lt;-option1&gt; &lt;-option2&gt; ... &lt;-optionN&gt;
1411
1412</entry>
1413</row>
1414</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1415
1416<para>E.g.,</para>
1417<para></para>
1418<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1419<row>
1420<entry>
1421
1422bash# mondoarchive -E "/mnt/dos /mnt/cdrom" -9 -Oc 8
1423
1424</entry>
1425</row>
1426</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1427
1428<para>Would create backup CD to a CD-R disc at the highest
1429compression level, writing at speed 8 and ignoring the /mnt/dos and
1430/mnt/cdrom directories.</para>
1431<para>To see a detailed list of switches and their meaning, see the
1432<ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org/docs/mondoarchive.8.html">HTML
1433man page</ulink> on the website or type 'man mondoarchive' at the
1434console.</para>
1435<sect2 id="backup-cmd-cdr">
1436<title>Standard Example With CD-R</title>
1437<para></para>
1438<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1439<row>
1440<entry>
1441
1442bash# mondoarchive -Oc 2 -g
1443
1444</entry>
1445</row>
1446</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1447
1448<para>Replace '2' in '-Oc 2' with the writer's speed. If
1449mondoarchive cannot find your CD-R then please add '-d 0,0,0' (or
1450whatever your CD writer's SCSI node is; usually, it is 0,0,0) to
1451the call.</para>
1452<para>Please insert the first disk in the writer while the PC is
1453chugging away. If Mondo needs additional CD-R(W) then it will ask
1454for them.</para>
1455</sect2>
1456<sect2 id="backup-cmd-cdrw">
1457<title>Standard Example With CD-RW</title>
1458<para></para>
1459<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1460<row>
1461<entry>
1462
1463bash# mondoarchive -Ow 2 -g
1464
1465</entry>
1466</row>
1467</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1468
1469<para>Replace '2' in '-Ow 2' with the writer's speed.</para>
1470</sect2>
1471<sect2 id="backup-cmd-tape">
1472        <title>Standard Example With Tape</title>
1473<para></para>
1474<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1475<row>
1476<entry>
1477
1478bash# mondoarchive -Ot -d /dev/st0 -g
1479
1480</entry>
1481</row>
1482</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1483
1484</sect2>
1485<sect2 id="backup-cmd-failsafe">
1486        <title>Standard Example With Failsafe kernel</title>
1487<para></para>
1488<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1489<row>
1490<entry>
1491
1492bash# mondoarchive -k FAILSAFE -Ow 2
1493
1494</entry>
1495</row>
1496</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1497
1498<para>If you have problems during the restore phase, due to your kernel
1499        (which may be the case on some distributions), you may want to explore the Failsafe
1500        approach, In order for this option to work you'll have to get
1501        the mindi-kernel tarball or package for your distribution.</para>
1502</sect2>
1503<sect2 id="backup-cmd-network">
1504        <title>Standard Example With Network Backup</title>
1505<para></para>
1506<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1507<row>
1508<entry>
1509
1510        bash# mount 192.168.1.3:/home/nfs -t nfs /mnt/nfs
1511</entry>
1512</row>
1513<row>
1514        <entry>
1515        bash# mondoarchive -OVn 192.168.1.3:/home/nfs -g -s 200m
1516</entry>
1517</row>
1518<row>
1519        <entry>
1520        bash# umount /mnt/nfs
1521
1522</entry>
1523</row>
1524</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1525
1526<para>The resultant ISO's can be burned to CD's if you want (which
1527isn't a good idea unless you're a Mondo expert because they'll try
1528to restore over a network by default, which is silly because the
1529archives are on the CD's). Or, you can boot from the Mindi media
1530(or mondorescue.iso) and hit ENTER a few times to restore.</para>
1531<para>Those ISO images can also be used for a PXE restore. For this
1532        to work, please refer to the file README.pxe provided with
1533        your mindi package.
1534</para>
1535</sect2>
1536</sect1>
1537</chapter>
1538
1539<chapter id="backup-cron">
1540<title>HOWTO run mondo interactively using cron</title>
1541
1542<sect1 id="backup-cron-overview">
1543<title>Overview</title>
1544
1545<para>
1546        Mondoarchive is designed to run interactively (at least where
1547 media changes are necessary). Cron does not allow user interaction
1548 with a job. This section addresses the problem by using screen as a
1549 wrapper for mondo.
1550</para>
1551<para>
1552        This section is Copyright 2003 Conor Daly.
1553</para>
1554</sect1>
1555<sect1 id="backup-cron-intro">
1556        <title>Introduction</title>
1557
1558<para>
1559Mondoarchive is designed to run interactively. That's not strictly
1560 true, if you run mondoarchive without the '-g' switch, it will just
1561 run. However, there is a problem where media changes are necessary.
1562 The user must change the media and tell mondoarchive that the change
1563 has been done. The problem lies in the fact that cron does not allow
1564 user interaction with a job. If you schedule a mondoarchive job via
1565 cron, you better be sure it needs only one media. In practical terms,
1566 this means using tapes or ISOs (if CD-R(W) is your backup medium).
1567 However, for tape users, there's always the possibility that the
1568 backup will overflow the tape while for CD-R(W) users, there is the
1569 added hassle of burning the ISOs in the morning. If your CD_R(W)
1570 backup routinely occupies more than one media, this is not for you
1571 (use the ISO option and burn the CDs in the morning). This HOWTO
1572 addresses the problem by using screen as a wrapper for mondo.
1573</para>
1574</sect1>
1575<sect1 id="backup-cron-who">
1576        <title>Who should read this?</title>
1577<sect2><title>Insurance</title>
1578<para>
1579Mondo users who wish to automate the backup and whose backups
1580 routinely occupy close to one media are the best audience. If you
1581 backup to tape, the occasion will arise when the backup will overflow
1582 your tape. In this instance, mondoarchive will ask for another tape.
1583 If you're using cron to start the backup, you won't be able to tell
1584 mondo that the new tape is mounted and the backup will fail. If you
1585 backup to CD-R(W), the same situation will arise but sooner.
1586 </para>
1587 </sect2>
1588 <sect2><title>Efficiency</title>
1589<para>
1590If your backup already occupies two media, this method will allow
1591 as much of the backup as possible to proceed during quiet periods.
1592 Time the backup to start with enough time to complete the first media
1593 shortly before the operator arrives for work. The next media can
1594 be mounted and the backup completed asap and minimises the time for
1595 which users are inconvenienced by the backup (eg. database locked...).
1596 </para>
1597 </sect2>
1598 </sect1>
1599 <sect1 id="backup-cron-problem">
1600         <title>The Problem</title>
1601<sect2><title>Cron's environment</title>
1602<para>
1603When a user submits a job with cron, their environment is not
1604 preserved. This is reasonable since cron jobs are typically ongoing
1605 and may be adversely affected if the user's environment changes subsequent
1606 to the cron submission. Thus, a cron job should call a script that
1607 set's up the correct environment before starting the user's desired
1608 program. The 'at' command does this nicely.
1609 </para>
1610 </sect2>
1611 <sect2><title>Interactivity</title>
1612<para>
1613When a job is started with cron, it runs as a background process.
1614 No interaction with the program is possible (unless it is capable
1615 of interacting via a FIFO or some such) except termination via its
1616 pid. The only program that I know of that allows such interaction
1617 and serves as a wrapper for other processes is 'screen'
1618 </para>
1619 </sect2>
1620 <sect2><title>Screen</title>
1621<para>
1622There's one little problem with screen though. It expects to
1623 attach to a terminal when it first starts. This won't happen under
1624 cron so screen will fail. Fortunately, screen comes with a "start
1625 detached" (-d) option.
1626 </para>
1627 </sect2>
1628 </sect1>
1629 <sect1 id="backup-cron-solution">
1630         <title>The Solution</title>
1631<sect2><title>Briefly</title>
1632<para>
1633<itemizedlist>
1634<listitem>
1635        <para>Use 'at' to run your usual mondoarchive command</para>
1636</listitem>
1637<listitem>
1638        <para>Grab the script generated by 'at' and make a copy of it</para>
1639        </listitem>
1640<listitem>
1641        <para>Edit that script to use 'screen -m -d &lt;your mondoarchive command&gt;'</para>
1642        </listitem>
1643<listitem>
1644        <para>Run that script from your crontab</para>
1645        </listitem>
1646<listitem>
1647        <para>Use 'screen -r' to attach to the mondo screen to change CDs</para>
1648        </listitem>
1649<listitem>
1650        <para>Use '&lt;CTRL&gt;-a d' to detach the screen again</para>
1651</listitem>
1652</itemizedlist>
1653</para>
1654</sect2>
1655<sect2><title>In Detail</title>
1656        <sect3><title>at</title>
1657<para>
1658Use the 'at' command to submit your usual mondoarchive command.
1659My mondoarchive command is:
1660</para>
1661<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1662<row>
1663<entry>
1664
1665        # mondoarchive -D -Ow 10 -S /home/mondo/ -T /home/mondo/ -g \
1666        -E "\"/home/cdaly/GIS/W2K /home/mondo/\"" -9
1667
1668</entry>
1669</row>
1670</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1671<para>
1672        To submit the mondoarchive command with 'at' do:
1673</para>
1674<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1675<row>
1676<entry>
1677
1678    # at now + 5 min
1679mondoarchive -D -Ow 10 -S /home/mondo/ -T /home/mondo/ -g \
1680-E "\"/home/cdaly/GIS/W2K /home/mondo/\"" -9
1681&lt;CTRL&gt;-d
1682</entry>
1683</row>
1684</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1685<para>
1686
1687This generates a script in /var/spool/at/ which sets up your
1688 environment and runs your command. Grab this script to become your
1689 cron job.
1690 </para>
1691 </sect3>
1692 <sect3><title>Grab the 'at' script</title>
1693<para>
1694        Make a copy of the script generated by the 'at' command to use
1695        as the basis for your cron job.
1696        </para>
1697<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1698<row>
1699<entry>
1700
1701grep mondo /var/spool/at/*
1702</entry>
1703</row>
1704<row>
1705        <entry>
1706cp /var/spool/at/&lt;file-from-grep&gt; /root/mondo-cronscript
1707</entry>
1708</row>
1709</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1710<para>
1711
1712        You'll need to edit this.
1713</para>
1714 </sect3>
1715<sect3><title>Edit mondo-cronscript</title>
1716<para>
1717To use screen, you'll need to edit the cronscript and add the
1718 screen command. My mondo-cronscript looks like:
1719</para>
1720<screen>
1721
1722#!/bin/sh
1723# atrun uid=0 gid=0
1724# mail    cdaly 0 umask 22
1725PWD=/root; export PWD
1726XAUTHORITY=/root/.xauthyOrD4f; export XAUTHORITY
1727HOSTNAME=bofh.irmet.ie; export HOSTNAME
1728PVM_RSH=/usr/bin/rsh; export PVM_RSH
1729QTDIR=/usr/lib/qt-2.3.1; export QTDIR
1730LESSOPEN=\|/usr/bin/lesspipe.sh\ %s; export LESSOPEN
1731XPVM_ROOT=/usr/share/pvm3/xpvm; export XPVM_ROOT
1732KDEDIR=/usr; export KDEDIR
1733USER=root; export USER
1734LS_COLORS=no=00:fi=00:di=01\;34:ln=01\;36:pi=40\;33:so=01\;35:bd=40\;33\;01:cd=40\;33\;01:or=01\;05\;37\;41:mi=01\;05\;37\;41:ex=01\;32:\*.cmd=01\;32:\*.exe=01\;32:\*.com=01\;32:\*.btm=01\;32:\*.bat=01\;32:\*.sh=01\;32:\*.csh=01\;32:\*.tar=01\;31:\*.tgz=01\;31:\*.arj=01\;31:\*.taz=01\;31:\*.lzh=01\;31:\*.zip=01\;31:\*.z=01\;31:\*.Z=01\;31:\*.gz=01\;31:\*.bz2=01\;31:\*.bz=01\;31:\*.tz=01\;31:\*.rpm=01\;31:\*.cpio=01\;31:\*.jpg=01\;35:\*.gif=01\;35:\*.bmp=01\;35:\*.xbm=01\;35:\*.xpm=01\;35:\*.png=01\;35:\*.tif=01\;35:; export LS_COLORS
1735MACHTYPE=i386-redhat-linux-gnu; export MACHTYPE
1736MAIL=/var/spool/mail/root; export MAIL
1737INPUTRC=/etc/inputrc; export INPUTRC
1738BASH_ENV=/root/.bashrc; export BASH_ENV
1739LANG=en_US; export LANG
1740LOGNAME=root; export LOGNAME
1741SHLVL=1; export SHLVL
1742II_SYSTEM=/usr/local/ingres; export II_SYSTEM
1743USERNAME=root; export USERNAME
1744HOSTTYPE=i386; export HOSTTYPE
1745OSTYPE=linux-gnu; export OSTYPE
1746HISTSIZE=1000; export HISTSIZE
1747LAMHELPFILE=/etc/lam/lam-helpfile; export LAMHELPFILE
1748PVM_ROOT=/usr/share/pvm3; export PVM_ROOT
1749HOME=/root; export HOME
1750SSH_ASKPASS=/usr/libexec/openssh/gnome-ssh-askpass;
1751export SSH_ASKPASS
1752PATH=/usr/local/ingres/ingres/bin:/usr/local/ingres/ingres/utility:/usr/kerberos/sbin:/usr/kerberos/bin:/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/bin/X11:/usr/X11R6/bin:/root/bin; export PATH
1753cd /root || {
1754echo 'Execution directory inaccessible' >&2     
1755exit 1
1756}
1757screen -m -d mondoarchive -D -Ow 10 -S /home/mondo/ \
1758-T /home/mondo/ -g -E "\"/home/cdaly/GIS/W2K /home/mondo/\"" -9
1759#done
1760
1761</screen>
1762<para>
1763        The crucial line is this one:
1764</para>
1765<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1766<row>
1767<entry>
1768        screen -m -d mondoarchive -D -Ow 10 -S /home/mondo/ -T /home/mondo/ -g -E "\"/home/cdaly/GIS/W2K /home/mondo/\"" -9
1769</entry>
1770</row>
1771</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1772<para>
1773This uses 'screen -m -d' to <quote>-m -d Start screen in "detached" mode. This creates a new session
1774 but doesn't attach to it. This is useful for system startup scripts.
1775 (From 'man screen')
1776</quote>   
1777</para>
1778<para>
1779    When screen starts, it will be in the background and "detached".
1780</para>
1781</sect3>
1782<sect3><title>Run the thing with cron</title>
1783<para>
1784        To get the whole thing running, do:
1785</para>
1786<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1787<row>
1788<entry>
1789        crontab -e
1790        </entry>
1791</row>
1792</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1793<para>
1794and add the following lines:
1795</para>
1796<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1797<row>
1798<entry>
1799&num; run mondoarchive at 23:59 weekdays
1800</entry>
1801</row>
1802<row>
1803        <entry>
180459 23 * * 1-5 /root/mondo-cronscript
1805</entry>
1806</row>
1807</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1808<para>
1809        Your mondoarchive job will run at 23:59 monday-friday.
1810</para>
1811<para>
1812DON'T FORGET TO CHANGE TAPES!
1813</para>
1814</sect3>
1815<sect3><title>Getting at it...</title>
1816<para>
1817Once your cron job is running regularly, you'll want to get to
1818 it to change tapes and check status etc.
1819</para>
1820<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1821<row>
1822<entry>
1823screen -r
1824</entry>
1825</row>
1826</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1827<para>
1828attaches to the running screen where you can change CDs etc
1829</para>
1830<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1831<row>
1832<entry>
1833&lt;CTRL&gt;-a d
1834</entry>
1835</row>
1836</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1837<para>
1838detaches the running screen again.
1839</para>
1840</sect3>
1841<sect3><title>Caveat</title>
1842<para>
1843The script generated by 'at' is unique to the user/machine combination.
1844 You MUST regenerate it on each machine where it will be used. Using
1845 the one above will NOT work for you. MAKE YOUR OWN!
1846</para>
1847</sect3>
1848</sect2>
1849</sect1>
1850</chapter>
1851
1852<chapter id="compare">
1853<title>Compare</title>
1854<para>Before you trust your backup CD, make sure your BIOS can boot
1855CD (and that it is configured to do so).</para>
1856<itemizedlist>
1857<listitem>
1858<para>Boot from the first CD.</para>
1859</listitem>
1860<listitem>
1861<para>Type:</para>
1862</listitem>
1863</itemizedlist>
1864<para></para>
1865<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1866<row>
1867<entry>
1868
1869LILO: compare
1870
1871</entry>
1872</row>
1873</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1874
1875<para>Follow the on-screen instructions. This will compare your
1876backup against your original file system.</para>
1877<para>FYI, no bad archives have been created since May 2000. Having
1878said that, I would still encourage you to run Compare before
1879trusting the backups.</para>
1880<para>To view the file differences, look at the file
1881'/tmp/changed.txt'. Normal differences include logs and other
1882dynamic system files that changed during the time of the backup
1883process. If only a few files differ - e.g. files in /var, files
1884ending in '&amp;#732;', logs, temporary files, /etc/mtab,
1885/etc/adjtimex - then you know the archives are good. Your logs will
1886change over time, too. Bear in mind that a difference between the
1887backup and the live copy does not&nbsp;indicate a flaw in Mondo. It
1888indicates that you or your filesystem changed the files, so the
1889backup is no longer 100% up to date. However, that is inevitable,
1890as your filesystem changes from moment to moment (which is why you
1891back it up regularly).</para>
1892
1893</chapter>
1894
1895<chapter id="restore">
1896<title>Restore</title>
1897
1898<sect1 id="restore-overview">
1899<title>Overview</title>
1900
1901<para>I hope you don't have to restore from scratch very often.
1902It's nerve-wracking until you realize that Mondo's restore engine
1903is very reliable.
1904</para>
1905<para>If you find that you cannot make your PC boot from the CD,
1906take heart: the first backup media of each set contains disk
1907images to give you the same functionality as this media (minus the
1908archives, of course) on other boot media. Remember, your Mondo CD is a
1909fully functional CD-based mini-distribution as well as a recovery
1910CD.</para>
1911<para>You can choose from the following modes:</para>
1912
1913<variablelist>
1914<varlistentry><term>Interactive</term>
1915<listitem><para>Restore step-by-step, or restore a subset of the
1916archives. This is the method you should mainly use for your
1917recovery needs.</para>
1918</listitem></varlistentry>
1919<varlistentry><term>Nuke</term>
1920<listitem><para>Wipe your drives and restore everything,
1921automatically and unattended. Warning: This does exactly what is
1922says, so be careful using it.</para>
1923</listitem></varlistentry>
1924<varlistentry><term>Expert</term>
1925<listitem><para>Boot to a shell prompt. If you want to do anything
1926creative, you should boot into Expert Mode. It's called expert, I
1927think that says it all.</para>
1928</listitem>
1929</varlistentry>
1930</variablelist>
1931
1932<para>If the CD is not found during the initial restore CD boot
1933attempt, reboot the PC a second time prior to reporting failure.
1934Occasional timing errors and hardware/software/system conflicts do
1935occur.</para>
1936</sect1>
1937
1938<sect1 id="restore-tips">
1939<title>Tips and Tricks</title>
1940
1941<para>Ideally, restore your system to a spare hard drive to test
1942the integrity and reliability of your disks. To do that, either
1943edit your mountlist to make the devices point to your spare hard
1944drive, or swap your hard drive cables between boots.</para>
1945<para>At a bare minimum, compare your CD against your file system
1946before you decide whether to trust them.</para>
1947<para>To test Mondo's ability to handle your LILO or GRUB boot
1948loader and accompanying configuration file:</para>
1949<itemizedlist>
1950<listitem>
1951<para>Boot from the backup CD into Expert Mode</para>
1952</listitem>
1953<listitem>
1954<para>Type:</para>
1955</listitem>
1956</itemizedlist>
1957<para></para>
1958<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1959<row>
1960<entry>
1961
1962bash# mondorestore --mbr
1963
1964</entry>
1965</row>
1966</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1967
1968<itemizedlist>
1969<listitem>
1970<para>To fix any mess it made (not that it should) type:</para>
1971</listitem>
1972</itemizedlist>
1973<para></para>
1974<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1975<row>
1976<entry>
1977        bash# mount-me
1978</entry>
1979</row>
1980<row>
1981<entry>
1982        bash# chroot /mnt/RESTORING
1983        </entry>
1984</row>
1985<row>
1986<entry>
1987        </entry>
1988</row>
1989<row>
1990<entry>
1991bash# lilo OR grub-install '(hd0)'
1992        </entry>
1993</row>
1994<row>
1995<entry>
1996bash# exit
1997</entry>
1998</row>
1999<row>
2000<entry>
2001        bash# unmount-me
2002
2003</entry>
2004</row>
2005</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2006
2007<itemizedlist>
2008<listitem>
2009<para>If it did not work then please copy /tmp/mondorestore.log to
2010to your hard disk, USB key, ..., gzip it and e-mail it to the
2011&ML;.</para>
2012</listitem>
2013</itemizedlist>
2014
2015<sect2>
2016    <title>Barebones (Nuke) Restore</title>
2017<para>Imagine that your hard drives happen to be wiped,
2018deliberately or accidentally. Or, imagine that you want to clone
2019your existing operating system. In either case, you want to run in
2020Nuke Mode.</para>
2021<para>If you want to wipe everything and restore your whole system
2022from CD, please:</para>
2023<itemizedlist>
2024<listitem>
2025<para>Use the -H option when invoking mondoarchive</para>
2026</listitem>
2027<listitem>
2028<para>Boot from the first Mondo CD</para>
2029</listitem>
2030<listitem>
2031<para>Press RESTORE&lt;enter&gt;</para>
2032</listitem>
2033<listitem>
2034<para>Insert the subsequent CD when asked</para>
2035</listitem>
2036<listitem>
2037<para>Watch the screen for errors</para>
2038</listitem>
2039</itemizedlist>
2040<para>That's it. The restoration process for tape or NFS users is
2041similarly easy: just boot, answer the on-screen prompts, and
2042wait.</para>
2043<para>Now, should something go wrong, you will be able to examine
2044/tmp/mondorestore.log to see what happened. All is not lost. You
2045can fdisk and format the partitions yourself, using the tools that
2046come with the CD. You can then run mondorestore in Interactive Mode
2047and say 'no' when asked if you want Mondo to partition/format your
2048drives.</para>
2049<para>If you want to see exactly what Mondo is doing while it is
2050restoring, press &lt;Alt&gt;&lt;left cursor&gt; to view its
2051logfile, in a virtual console, scrolling past.</para>
2052</sect2>
2053<sect2>
2054<title>Interactive Restore</title>
2055<para>Interactive Mode is for people who have lost a subset of data
2056from their live file system, or perhaps who have lost some data
2057from their latest backup and want to restore a subset of data from
2058an earlier backup. If you want to restore only some files or if you
2059do not want to prep/format your drives, then you should boot into
2060Interactive Mode. The interactive mode will provide an 'Editing
2061mountlist screen' that allows you to setup a different disk
2062geometry.</para>
2063<para>To move up and down between partitions in the 'Editing
2064mountlist screen', use the Up and Down arrows. To move between the
2065main window and the buttons at the bottom, use the Left and Right
2066cursor keys. TAB shifts focus from one screen item to the other in
2067a haphazard fashion, owing to the complexities of the Newt
2068library.</para>
2069<para>If you want to restore selectively, just press &lt;enter&gt;
2070and follow the on-screen instructions. You will be asked to say
2071yes/no to a range of questions.</para>
2072<para>If you are planning to modify your partition table, you would
2073do well to read up on the partition layout and the use of fdisk, it
2074gives you some pointers on how to best lay out partitions.
2075You can find a good guide at
2076<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Partition/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Partition/index.html</ulink>
2077</para>
2078<para>If you want to restore a subset of the backup then:</para>
2079<itemizedlist>
2080<listitem>
2081<para>Boot from the CD</para>
2082</listitem>
2083<listitem>
2084<para>Type:</para>
2085</listitem>
2086</itemizedlist>
2087<para></para>
2088<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2089<row>
2090<entry>
2091
2092bash# interactive
2093
2094</entry>
2095</row>
2096</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2097
2098<itemizedlist>
2099<listitem>
2100<para>Then, after booting, answer the questions as follows:</para>
2101</listitem>
2102</itemizedlist>
2103<para></para>
2104<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2105<row>
2106<entry>
2107
2108        Do you want to partition your devices? no
2109        </entry>
2110</row>
2111<row>
2112<entry>
2113Do you want to format them? no
2114        </entry>
2115</row>
2116<row>
2117<entry>
2118Do you want to restore everything? no
2119        </entry>
2120</row>
2121<row>
2122<entry>
2123Do you want to restore something? yes
2124        </entry>
2125</row>
2126<row>
2127<entry>
2128Which path do you want to restore? /mydata [e.g.]
2129        </entry>
2130</row>
2131<row>
2132<entry>
2133Do you want to run LILO to setup your boot sectors? Yes
2134
2135</entry>
2136</row>
2137</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2138
2139</sect2>
2140
2141<sect2>
2142<title>Expert Restore</title>
2143<para>If you are planning to modify your partition table, you would
2144do well to read up on the partition layout and the use of fdisk, it
2145gives you some could pointers on how to best lay out partitions.
2146You can find good a guide at
2147<ulink url="http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/mini/Partition/index.html">http://www.ibiblio.o
2148rg/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/mini/Partition/index.html</ulink></para>
2149<para>To restore manually, please:</para>
2150<itemizedlist>
2151<listitem>
2152<para>Boot from the first CD, then type:</para>
2153</listitem>
2154</itemizedlist>
2155<para></para>
2156<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2157<row>
2158<entry>
2159
2160bash# expert
2161
2162</entry>
2163
2164</row>
2165</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2166
2167<itemizedlist>
2168<listitem>
2169<para>Then do whatever you like. :) You may type the following, of
2170course:</para>
2171</listitem>
2172</itemizedlist>
2173<para></para>
2174<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2175<row>
2176<entry>
2177
2178bash# mondorestore
2179
2180</entry>
2181</row>
2182</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2183</sect2>
2184       
2185<sect2>
2186<title>Modified partitions - Restore to a different disk geometry</title>
2187<para>One of the nice things about Mondo is that it lets you wipe
2188your existing system and restore it in any layout you like (within
2189reason). You can move from non-RAID to RAID,install and utilize
2190additional drives, move from ext2 to ReiserFS, etc., all without
2191risking the loss of data.</para>
2192<para>If the user excluded a particular partition from backup and
2193specifically excluded it from the mountlist itself using -E then
2194Mondo will insert a small (32MB) partition at restore-time, in
2195order to avoid having to re-jig fstab, the partition table,
2196etc.</para>
2197<para>To do this:</para>
2198<itemizedlist>
2199<listitem>
2200<para>Boot into Expert Mode, then type:</para>
2201</listitem>
2202</itemizedlist>
2203<para></para>
2204<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2205<row>
2206<entry>
2207
2208bash# mondorestore
2209
2210</entry>
2211</row>
2212</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2213
2214<itemizedlist>
2215<listitem>
2216<para>(edit the mountlist using the on-screen editor)</para>
2217</listitem>
2218</itemizedlist>
2219<para>If you want to move from ext2 to ReiserFS, you can do it here
2220(so long as your kernel supports ReiserFS). Ditto for XFS, JFS or
2221ext3.</para>
2222<para>Mondorestore will try to modify your /etc/fstab to reflect
2223changes you have made to the mountlist. If you are not using LILO,
2224you can still create your own /mnt/RESTORING/etc/lilo.conf and run
2225lilo -r /mnt/RESTORING to configure your boot sectors and Master
2226Boot Record.</para>
2227<para>Mondo (technically, Mindi on behalf of Mondo) creates a file
2228called a mountlist. This can be found on the ramdisk at
2229/tmp/mountlist.txt; it looks something like this:</para>
2230<para></para>
2231<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2232<row>
2233<entry>
2234
2235        /dev/hda1   /mnt/windows    vfat        4096000
2236</entry>
2237</row>
2238<row>
2239<entry>
2240        /dev/hda5   /               reiserfs    6023000
2241</entry>
2242</row>
2243<row>
2244<entry>
2245        /dev/hda6   /tmp            xfs         955000
2246</entry>
2247</row>
2248<row>
2249<entry>
2250        /dev/hda7   /usr            ext3        4096000
2251
2252</entry>
2253</row>
2254</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2255
2256<para>It is fairly easy to understand the list. Each line refers to
2257a single device/partition. The line format is:</para>
2258<para></para>
2259<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2260<row>
2261<entry>
2262
2263&lt;device&gt; &lt;partition&gt; &lt;format&gt; &lt;Kilobytes&gt;
2264
2265</entry>
2266</row>
2267</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2268
2269<para>If you have added a hard drive and want to take advantage of
2270the additional space, you could amend the above mountlist to
2271read:</para>
2272<para></para>
2273<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2274<row>
2275<entry>
2276
2277        /dev/hda1   /mnt/windows    vfat        6096000
2278</entry>
2279</row>
2280<row>
2281<entry>
2282        /dev/hda5   /               reiserfs    9123000
2283</entry>
2284</row>
2285<row>
2286<entry>
2287        /dev/hda6   /tmp            xfs         955000
2288</entry>
2289</row>
2290<row>
2291<entry>
2292        /dev/hdb1   /usr            ext3        8192000
2293</entry>
2294</row>
2295<row>
2296<entry>
2297        /dev/hdb2   /home           xfs         8192000
2298
2299</entry>
2300</row>
2301</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2302
2303<para>This assumes that your old hard drive is /dev/hda and the new
2304hard drive is /dev/hdb.</para>
2305<para>Or, if you want to add RAID support, create a new
2306/etc/raidtab on the ramdisk (which is beyond the scope of this
2307HOWTO) and then write a mountlist like this:</para>
2308<para></para>
2309<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2310<row>
2311<entry>
2312
2313        /dev/hda1   /mnt/windows    vfat        6096000
2314</entry>
2315</row>
2316<row>
2317<entry>
2318        /dev/md0    /               reiserfs    9123000
2319</entry>
2320</row>
2321<row>
2322<entry>
2323        /dev/md1    /tmp            xfs         955000
2324</entry>
2325</row>
2326<row>
2327<entry>
2328        /dev/md2    /usr            ext3        8192000
2329</entry>
2330</row>
2331<row>
2332<entry>
2333        /dev/md3    /home           xfs         8192000
2334
2335</entry>
2336</row>
2337</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2338
2339<para>So long as your /etc/raidtab file is sane, Mondo can
2340automatically partition and format your disks for you, including
2341the RAID devices.</para>
2342<para>Once you have finished editing /tmp/mountlist.txt using
2343mondorestore's built-in editor then you may choose 'OK'. Please
2344note that this will not write anything to your hard disk. You will
2345only reformat or repartition your disks if you say 'Yes' when asked
2346if you want to do those things.</para>
2347</sect2>
2348
2349<sect2>
2350<title>Advanced</title>
2351<para>It is now possible to restore to a live filesystem using
2352Mondo. In other words, you do not have to boot your PC from your
2353media in order to restore files. Mondo was originally designed
2354for disaster recovery - situations in which you cannot boot your
2355PC. If you can boot your PC, it is not really a disaster, is it? :)
2356Well, if you have wiped out your priceless collection of "MTV's
2357Bjork Unplugged" MP3's, perhaps it is. Anyway, just type this as
2358root</para>
2359<para></para>
2360<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2361<row>
2362<entry>
2363
2364bash# mondorestore
2365
2366</entry>
2367</row>
2368</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2369
2370<para></para>
2371<informaltable><tgroup cols="2"><tbody>
2372<row>
2373<entry>
2374<ulink url="images/rest1.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
2375<imagedata fileref="images/rest1-mini">
2376</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
2377</ulink>
2378</entry>
2379<entry>
2380Choose your type of backup media. The live restoration process is
2381very similar to what you'll experience if you type mondorestore
2382with no parameters after booting from a Mondo media.
2383</entry>
2384</row>
2385<row>
2386<entry>
2387<ulink url="images/rest2.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
2388<imagedata fileref="images/rest2-mini">
2389</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
2390</ulink>
2391</entry>
2392<entry>
2393Hit 'OK' when you have inserted the tape/CD. If you generated a
2394tape backup, the tape itself should be enough. If you generated a
2395CD backup, the first CD should be enough. Otherwise, you may need
2396the boot media.
2397</entry>
2398</row>
2399<row>
2400<entry>
2401<ulink url="images/rest3.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
2402<imagedata fileref="images/rest3-mini">
2403</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
2404</ulink>
2405</entry>
2406<entry>
2407Flag the files and directories you wish to restore. Use the 'More'
2408and 'Less' buttons to open and close subdirectories.
2409</entry>
2410</row>
2411<row>
2412<entry>
2413<ulink url="images/rest4.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
2414<imagedata fileref="images/rest4-mini">
2415</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
2416</ulink>
2417</entry>
2418<entry>
2419Specify the location to restore the files to. In general, '/' is
2420appropriate. If you do not want to overwrite newer versions of the
2421files you are restoring then specify /tmp/BKP or similar as the
2422restore path.
2423</entry>
2424</row>
2425<row>
2426<entry>
2427<ulink url="images/rest5.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
2428<imagedata fileref="images/rest5-mini">
2429</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
2430</ulink>
2431</entry>
2432<entry>
2433Mondorestore will retrieve configuration information from the
2434media. (The sample screen is for tape users. CD users will see
2435something different.)
2436</entry>
2437</row>
2438<row>
2439<entry>
2440<ulink url="images/rest6.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
2441<imagedata fileref="images/rest6-mini">
2442</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
2443</ulink>
2444</entry>
2445<entry>
2446Data will be restored to the hard disk - first the regular files,
2447then any big (32MB or greater) files in the restore set.
2448</entry>
2449</row>
2450</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2451
2452<para>I hope this manual was useful for you.</para>
2453</sect2>
2454</sect1>
2455
2456</chapter>
2457
2458<chapter id="faq">
2459<title>FAQ</title>
2460
2461<sect1 id="faq-overview">
2462<title>Overview</title>
2463<para>Are the errors from Mindi or Mondo? Look at
2464        /var/log/mondoarchive.log or /var/log/mindi.log (if run alone). Pipe
2465screen errors which relate to the creation of boot disk(s) and or
2466data disk(s) to a text file.</para>
2467<para>See the &WWW; for details. If you are going to e-mail
2468&ML; then
2469please attach that text file (zipped!) and give :</para>
2470<itemizedlist>
2471<listitem>
2472<para>Your kernel version (uname -a)</para>
2473</listitem>
2474<listitem>
2475        <para>Your Linux distro's name and version (/etc/distro-release)</para>
2476</listitem>
2477<listitem>
2478        <para>Whether your kernel supports initrd and loopfs; it should! (grep -E '^CONFIG_BLK_DEV_LOOP|^CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INITRD' /usr/src/linux/.config </para>
2479</listitem>
2480<listitem>
2481<para>What sort of PC you are using, including hard disk configurations (results of dmidecode, lshw, fdisk -l are useful here)</para>
2482</listitem>
2483</itemizedlist>
2484<para>Mondo is freely available under the GPL and you are given it for no charge.
2485When you e-mail the &ML;, please bear that in mind.</para>
2486</sect1>
2487<sect1 id="faq-general">
2488<title>General Questions</title>
2489
2490<qandaset>
2491<qandaentry>
2492        <question><para>Q: What is "Mindi"?</para></question>
2493        <answer>
2494<para>A: Mindi, a.k.a. Mindi-Linux, makes a mini-distribution from
2495your kernel, modules, modules, tools and libraries. It can also
2496generate an El Torito 2.88/5.76MB boot disk image. Mondo uses Mindi to
2497create a mini-distro, then boots from it and runs on it.</para>
2498</answer>
2499</qandaentry>
2500<qandaentry>
2501        <question><para>Q: Why is it called "Mondo"?</para></question>
2502        <answer>
2503<para>A: The Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles described cool things as
2504'mondo'. Hugo Rabson wasn't sure what to call this project. 'Faust' was one
2505idea he had, partly as a dig at his former boss who practically owned
2506him because of his legal status at the time. In the end, he chose
2507something short and distinctive.</para>
2508</answer>
2509</qandaentry>
2510<qandaentry>
2511<question><para>Q: Mondo does not work on my system. It
2512                keels over and dies. What's wrong?</para></question>
2513<answer>
2514        <para>A: It works on Red Hat 7.x/8/9, RHEL 2.1/3/4, Mandrakelinux 8.x/9.x/10.x/200x, Fedora 4/5/6, Debian 3.x, most flavors
2515                of SuSE/SLES, some flavors of Slackware, etc.
2516The more distributions we support, the more moving targets we have to
2517hit. Please bear this in mind when e-mailing the list. :) If you
2518would like to help us by beta-testing Mondo (or Mindi) on your PC
2519then we would be very interested in working with you to work around
2520the eccentricities of your Linux distro. However, rest assured, 90%
2521of the bugs reported are actually symptoms of FooLinux X.Y's
2522unique way of doing things.</para>
2523<para>Please send a copy of <filename>/var/log/mondoarchive.log</filename> to the &ML;
2524along with a description of your distro, your kernel, etc.
2525Oh, and before sending it, please try to read it.</para>
2526</answer>
2527</qandaentry>
2528<qandaentry>
2529        <question><para>Q: What if the error is in Mindi?</para></question>
2530        <answer>
2531                <para>A: Please send a copy of <filename>/var/log/mindi.log</filename> to the &ML;
2532along with a description of your distro, your kernel, etc.
2533Oh, and before sending it, please read it as it is much easier to understand it.</para>
2534</answer>
2535</qandaentry>
2536<qandaentry>
2537        <question><para>Q: Can I trust Mondo?</para></question>
2538        <answer>
2539<para>A: Mondo has generated reliable archives since May 2000.
2540Lost data occured by using bad CD-R disks and not verifying their
2541contents. Some users have not tried booting from their CD until
2542crunch time. Remember to boot into Compare Mode to verify the
2543backup before you trust it. If Mondo did not work, you would not be
2544reading this. If it does not work for you, your kernel is usually
2545the culprit. Check <link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux Kernel
2546support</link> to see what your kernel should support. Please
2547e-mail the list if you need some help with this.</para>
2548</answer>
2549</qandaentry>
2550<qandaentry>
2551        <question><para>Q: How do I report a bug?</para></question>
2552        <answer>
2553                <para>A: E-mail the bug report (mondo.err.xxxxx.tgz) to the &ML;.
2554                        Ok you've read it already but it's really important if you want help.
2555If you don't send a logfile then there isn't a lot that we can do for you, so
2556PLEASE include a logfile at the very least.</para>
2557</answer>
2558</qandaentry>
2559<qandaentry>
2560<question><para>Q: I think Mondo should (...insert
2561suggestion here...) and I have rewritten it accordingly. Would you
2562like to see my patch?</para></question>
2563<answer>
2564<para>A: Absolutely! :-) The best way for you to make Mondo do what
2565you want is to modify it and then send the patch. That way, we
2566can all benefit.</para>
2567</answer>
2568</qandaentry>
2569<qandaentry>
2570<question><para>Q: I think Mondo should (...insert
2571suggestion here...); will you incorporate this feature for me,
2572please?</para></question>
2573<answer>
2574<para>A: Please enter the suggestion in our feature system at &WWW;
2575</para>
2576</answer>
2577</qandaentry>
2578<qandaentry>
2579<question><para>Q: Mondo says, "XXX is missing," and
2580                then terminates. What's wrong?</para></question>
2581<answer>
2582<para>A: A good Linux distribution should contain XXX but the
2583designers, in their infinite wisdom, decided not to include that
2584particular tool. Check <ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org/downloads.shtml#dependencies">Related
2585        Linux Packages</ulink> and install the missing package. If that
2586fails, contact the vendor/distributor/manufacturer/designer of your
2587distro.</para>
2588</answer>
2589</qandaentry>
2590<qandaentry>
2591<question><para>Q: Can Mondo handle multi-CD backups and
2592                restores?</para></question>
2593<answer>
2594<para>A: Yes, up to twenty CD per set. This 20-CD limit results
2595from laziness on mondorescue's part. I'll be removed in the future. However, if
2596your system occupies more than 20 CD, may it's time for another type of media ?
2597</para>
2598</answer>
2599</qandaentry>
2600<qandaentry>
2601<question><para>Q: Can Mondo handle Linux/Windows
2602                dual-boot systems?</para></question>
2603<answer>
2604<para>A: Yes. If your system currently boots into Linux or Windows
2605via LILO, you can backup and restore both OSes at the same time
2606using Mondo. If you are using NTFS then add the switch, '-x
2607&lt;device&gt;'.</para>
2608</answer>
2609</qandaentry>
2610<qandaentry>
2611<question><para>Q: Can Mondo backup Windows-only
2612                systems?</para></question>
2613<answer>
2614<para>A: Not at the moment.
2615</para>
2616</answer>
2617</qandaentry>
2618<qandaentry>
2619        <question><para>Q: Does Mondo support LVM?</para></question>
2620        <answer>
2621<para>A: Mondo supports LVM v1 and v2. Mondo backs up and restores your
2622existing setup but it does not make it easy for you to change your
2623LVM configuration, at the moment. You have to edit <filename>/tmp/i-want-my-lvm</filename> at boot-time
2624to do that.</para>
2625</answer>
2626</qandaentry>
2627<qandaentry>
2628<question><para>Q: What if I don't use LILO? What if I
2629                use GRUB?</para></question>
2630<answer>
2631<para>A: GRUB is supported by Mondo.</para>
2632</answer>
2633</qandaentry>
2634<qandaentry>
2635<question><para>Q: I get the error, 'Cannot find
2636                /tmp/dev.0' or 'Cannot mount device 0x0701'; what do I do?</para></question>
2637<answer>
2638        <para>A: Please free up <filename>/dev/loop0</filename> using 'losetup /dev/loop0 -d' to
2639unmount that loop device. If your OS will not let you do that,
2640contact your local support group or Linux vendor.</para>
2641</answer>
2642</qandaentry>
2643<qandaentry>
2644<question><para>Q: Can I create a Mondo CD and then use
2645                it to create an archive of any OS on any PC?</para></question>
2646<answer>
2647<para>A: Not yet. You can use Mondo to backup Linux or
2648Linux/Windows dual boot. One day, Mondo will let you backup
2649partitions it can't read or write, by treating each partition as
2650one long file to be backed up. This file will be chopped,
2651compressed and archived like any other big file.</para>
2652</answer>
2653</qandaentry>
2654<qandaentry>
2655<question><para>Q: Why do you insist on putting media
2656disk images on Mondo CD? They waste space and I never use them. The
2657CD works just fine, so why keep the media disk images?</para>
2658</question>
2659<answer>
2660<para>A: Because. It helped us in the past. If you
2661really, truly want them gone then please submit a patch to make
2662them optional.</para>
2663</answer>
2664</qandaentry>
2665<qandaentry>
2666<question><para>Q: Why doesn't the Mondo project have a
2667cool-looking animal logo?</para></question>
2668<answer>
2669<para>A: Excellent question! Please submit graphics of candidate
2670        animal logos!</para>
2671        </answer>
2672</qandaentry>
2673<qandaentry>
2674<question><para>Q: Is there a Mondo user 'Code of
2675                Conduct?</para></question>
2676<answer>
2677<para>A: Yes. Read the HOWTO. Submit patches. Recommend realistic
2678improvements. Be courteous to other users on the discussion list.
2679Do not whine.</para>
2680</answer>
2681</qandaentry>
2682</qandaset>
2683</sect1>
2684
2685<sect1 id="faq-booting">
2686<title>Booting and Kernel related Questions</title>
2687<qandaset>
2688<qandaentry>
2689<question><para>Q: When I try to boot from the Mondo CD,
2690it says, "VFS: Unable to mount root fs." I am using an old Debian
2691distro. What do I do?</para></question>
2692<answer>
2693<para>A: Ask Debian's designers why they, unlike every other distro
2694I can find, have included cramfs and other 'goodies' with their
2695kernel. In the meantime, please use '-k FAILSAFE' in your command
2696line when calling Mondo.</para>
2697<para>A: From Sarge onwards, all stock Debian 2.6 kernels should work fine. If
2698you are still using stock Debian 2.4 kernels, FAILSAFE is the way to go.
2699Of course, if you have compiled your own kernel and experience problems,
2700FAILSAFE is the way to go as well, but this is not really
2701Debian-specific.</para>
2702</answer>
2703</qandaentry>
2704<qandaentry>
2705<question><para>Q: When I try to boot from the Mondo CD,
2706it says, "Cannot mount root fs - kernel panic," or something
2707similar. What do I do?</para></question>
2708<answer>
2709<para>A: Recompile your kernel (or use '-k FAILSAFE'). Take a look
2710at <link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux Kernel support</link> to
2711see what your kernel must support.</para>
2712</answer>
2713</qandaentry>
2714<qandaentry>
2715<question><para>Q: When I try to boot from the Mondo CD,
2716                it says, "UPGRADE YOUR RAM". What does that mean?</para></question>
2717<answer>
2718<para>A: Recompile your kernel and add Virtual memory file system
2719support. Take a look at <link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux
2720Kernel support</link> to see what your kernel must support. (Of
2721course, if your PC has less than 64MB of RAM, you could always...
2722what's the phrase? I know, upgrade your RAM!)</para>
2723</answer>
2724</qandaentry>
2725<qandaentry>
2726<question><para>Q: When I try to boot from the Mondo CD,
2727it says something about not finding my CD-ROM drive and then it
2728blames the kernel. What does that mean?</para></question>
2729<answer>
2730        <para>A: Your kernel must support initrd, loopfs, IDE|SCSI|USB CD-ROM's, and
2731ramdisks. Take a look at <link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux
2732Kernel support</link> to see what your kernel must support. If
2733your kernel does not support these things, Mondo will not boot from
2734your CD. However, when running Mindi, you may choose to use _its_
2735kernel instead of your own.
2736</para>
2737</answer>
2738</qandaentry>
2739<qandaentry>
2740<question><para>Q: The LILO Mondo media takes ages to
2741                boot. How can I speed it up?</para></question>
2742<answer>
2743<para>A: Edit mindi (it's a shell script, btw) and change
2744LILO_OPTIONS="" to LILO_OPTIONS="-c". This enables map compaction
2745in lilo and speeds up booting, for more info see the lilo man
2746page.</para>
2747</answer>
2748</qandaentry>
2749<qandaentry>
2750<question><para>Q: I made a Mondo CD using the failsafe
2751kernel (i.e. I said 'no' when Mondo asked if I wanted to use my own
2752kernel). It still doesn't boot. Help!</para></question>
2753<answer>
2754<para>A: OK, now that is a bug. :-) I included a kernel with Mondo
2755(technically, with Mindi, which Mondo uses) to make sure that users
2756could use Mondo despite flaws in their own kernels. If you are
2757using Mondo/Mindi's kernel but still cannot boot from your Mondo CD
2758then please e-mail the &ML;.</para>
2759</answer>
2760</qandaentry>
2761<qandaentry>
2762<question><para>Q: Why won't Mondo boot from my CD?
2763It says my kernel is flawed/outdated/ whatever, and when I wrote to
2764the ML, they told me the same thing... but I still don't get it. I
2765mean, my kernel works for everything else. Why not Mondo?</para></question>
2766<answer>
2767<para>A: Because Mondo makes a boot disk using your kernel. I bet
2768your other software doesn't do that. Also, not all kernels are
2769suitable for boot disks. I'm sorry but that's Life. Upgrade your
2770kernel and/or recompile it. Take a look at
2771<link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux Kernel support</link> to see
2772what your kernel must support.</para>
2773</answer>
2774</qandaentry>
2775<qandaentry>
2776<question><para>Q: Why do I only need a boot disk if I'm
2777                using a tape drive? Where are the data disks?</para></question>
2778<answer>
2779<para>A: On the tape. :-) The first 32MB of the tape will be set
2780aside for a large tarball containing the data disks, a list of all
2781files backed up, and other sundries. If Mondo and Mindi do their
2782respective jobs then you won't need additional media, just the
2783boot media and the tape(s).</para>
2784<para>For the moment mondorescue doesn't support OBDR for tapes.
2785        Feel free to produce patches for it :-)</para>
2786</answer>
2787</qandaentry>
2788<qandaentry>
2789<question><para>Q: Why does it say, "Process accounting
2790                FAILED" when I reboot?</para></question>
2791<answer>
2792<para>A: You were using Process Accounting. Red Hat (or whichever
2793distro you are using) does not provide a startup/shutdown script
2794yet. So, when you try to backup the process log, it just grows and
2795grows as Mondo tries to back it up. Mondo doesn't back it up
2796anymore and that's why. The unfortunate side-effect is... well,
2797what you see on your screen. Type 'touch /var/log/pacct' and then
2798'paccton' to fix the error message.</para>
2799</answer>
2800</qandaentry>
2801<qandaentry>
2802<question><para>Q: Why does it say,
2803&amp;#8220;request_module[block-major-1]: Root fs not mounted VFS:
2804Cannot open root device "100" or 01:00 Please append a correct
2805"root=" boot option kernel panic: VFS: Unable to mount root fs on
280601:00&amp;#8221; when i boot from the CD?</para></question>
2807<answer>
2808<para>A: Recompile your kernel and add initrd support. Take a look
2809at <link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux Kernel support</link> to
2810see what your kernel must support.</para>
2811</answer>
2812</qandaentry>
2813
2814<qandaentry>
2815<question><para id="TAPENICE">Q: My tape drive
2816doesn't play nicely with Mondo at boot-time. What do I do?</para></question>
2817<answer><para>A: Play with the 'mt' command (package mt-st). Use its setblksize and
2818defblksize switches to reconfigure your tape drive if necessary.
2819Some tape drives just are painful. If yours is one of
2820them then God help you. Mondo can handle any tape drive whose drive
2821and firmware can handle fopen(), fwrite(), fread() and fclose().
2822Mondo uses standard C libraries to talk to your tape streamer. If
2823your tape streamer can't handle that then you had better call a
2824priest. Either that or ask for a refund.
2825</para>
2826</answer>
2827</qandaentry>
2828</qandaset>
2829</sect1>
2830
2831<sect1 id="faq-install">
2832<title>Installation related Questions</title>
2833<qandaset>
2834<qandaentry>
2835<question><para>Q: Why do I get, "newt.h not found," or
2836"popt.h not found," several times when I try to install
2837Mondo?</para></question>
2838<answer>
2839<para>A: You have not installed libnewt and/or libnewt-devel.
2840Please do so. Check <ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org/downloads.shtml#dependencies">Related Linux
2841Packages</ulink> to see what Mondo requires and where you can get
2842tarballs and RPM's. Make sure you are using the right version of
2843newt/libnewt. Read the error messages carefully.</para>
2844</answer>
2845</qandaentry>
2846<qandaentry>
2847<question><para>Q: Newt won't compile when I try. What's
2848                the problem?</para></question>
2849<answer>
2850<para>A: You are probably missing popt.h, which newt needs to
2851compile, it can be found in the 'popt' package. Check your
2852distribution and see if they have popt, if not check
2853<ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org/downloads.shtml#dependencies">Related Linux Packages</ulink> to
2854see where you can get it.</para>
2855</answer>
2856</qandaentry>
2857<qandaentry>
2858<question><para>Q: I've just used up 6 CD-R, only to
2859                find that Mondo won't boot!</para></question>
2860<answer>
2861<para>A: You should have used CD-RW. ;) In the HOWTO, it gives
2862instructions on how to create a test CD (one, not six).</para>
2863</answer>
2864</qandaentry>
2865<qandaentry>
2866<question>
2867<para id="PACKREQ">Q: Lots of packages,
2868required by Mondo, are missing from my system. What do I do?</para>
2869</question>
2870<answer>
2871<para>
2872A: Install them. :) If you are using RPM or deb
2873then you'll be told which packages you need. Mondo offers a lot of
2874those packages on its
2875<ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org/downloads.shtml">Download</ulink>
2876web page.</para>
2877</answer>
2878</qandaentry>
2879</qandaset>
2880</sect1>
2881
2882<sect1 id="faq-hardware">
2883<title>Hardware related Questions</title>
2884<qandaset>
2885<qandaentry>
2886        <question><para>Q: Can Mondo handle CD-RW?</para></question>
2887        <answer>
2888<para>A: Yes. Use '-Ow &lt;speed&gt; &lt;device&gt;' to make it
2889work.</para>
2890</answer>
2891</qandaentry>
2892<qandaentry>
2893<question><para>Q: Does Mondo support tape
2894                drives?</para></question>
2895<answer>
2896        <para>A: Yes. See above.</para>
2897        <para>Of course, mondo will relay on the kernel to support your tape drive. So you should first check that your kernel found it correctly. Use for example one of the following commands:</para>
2898<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2899<row>
2900<entry>
2901        bash# dmesg | grep tape
2902</entry>
2903</row>
2904<row>
2905<entry>
2906        bash# cat /proc/scsi/scsi
2907</entry>
2908</row>
2909<row>
2910<entry>
2911        bash# mt -f /dev/st0 status
2912</entry>
2913</row>
2914</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2915
2916
2917</answer>
2918</qandaentry>
2919<qandaentry>
2920<question><para>Q: Does Mondo support my tape
2921                drive?</para></question>
2922<answer>
2923<para>A: If your tape drive and its firmware and the kernel-level
2924driver support fopen(), fread(), fwrite() and fclose() - standard C
2925library calls - then yes, Mondo should support it. If not, well,
2926you need a refund. :) Mondo plays nicely with any sane, sensible
2927drives. That's most of them, by the way. :) If your drive doesn't
2928play nicely with Mondo then you may try tinkering with setblksize
2929and defblksize using 'mt', or tweaking Mondo's block size by
2930recompiling it with make INTTAPE=4096 or INTTAPE=8192 or something.
2931Other than that, you need a priest or a refund.
2932Also, depending on the tape streamer model, a tape should be inserted
2933in the tape drive before starting mondoarchive, otherwise it may not
2934recognize the drive.</para>
2935</answer>
2936</qandaentry>
2937<qandaentry>
2938<question><para>Q: Sometimes, my laptop won't mount
2939                Mondo CD properly, or something. Umm...</para></question>
2940<answer>
2941<para>A: Please insert the CD, close the CD-ROM tray, wait a few
2942seconds and then press Enter to acknowledge insertion of the next
2943CD. Your laptop is on crack and is sucking a little too hard on the
2944pipe.</para>
2945</answer>
2946</qandaentry>
2947<qandaentry>
2948        <question><para>Q: Does Mondo support Hardware RAID?</para></question>
2949        <answer>
2950<para>A: Yes. You may backup and restore RAID systems. You may also
2951backup a non-RAID system and restore as RAID (or vice versa) by
2952using the mountlist editor to edit your RAID and non-RAID
2953partitions and their settings. Mondo will do the partitioning and
2954formatting for you.</para>
2955<para>Tested Raid controllers includes all those showing only classical devices
2956        such as /dev/sdx, and SmartArray cciss controllers.</para>
2957</answer>
2958</qandaentry>
2959<qandaentry>
2960<question><para>Q: Where is my CD burner, in SCSI terms?</para></question>
2961<answer>
2962<para>A: Type:</para>
2963<para></para>
2964<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2965<row>
2966    <entry>
2967        bash# cdrecord -scanbus
2968    </entry>
2969</row>
2970<row>
2971    <entry>
2972        bash# wodim --devices
2973    </entry>
2974</row>
2975</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2976<para>or for ATAPI type of devices on older kernel versions:</para>
2977<para></para>
2978<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2979<row>
2980    <entry>
2981        bash# cdrecord -scanbus dev=ATAPI
2982    </entry>
2983</row>
2984</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2985<para>you may replace ATAPI by ATA in the previous line with certain cdrecord versions and hadrware configurations</para>
2986
2987
2988<para>Find your CD burner's device# (e.g. '0,0,0'). Call Mondo with
2989the switch '-Oc &lt;speed&gt;' -d '&lt;device&gt;'. Or, if you feel
2990lucky, just use '-Oc 2'; Mondo will (a) assume you want to write at
29914x to a CD-R and (b) will do its best to find your CD burner.</para>
2992</answer>
2993</qandaentry>
2994<qandaentry>
2995        <question><para>Q: Can Mondo handle SCSI devices?</para></question>
2996        <answer>
2997<para>A: Mondo should be able to handle almost any hardware. So
2998long as your kernel and modules support it, Mindi will support it
2999and therefore so will Mondo.</para>
3000</answer>
3001</qandaentry>
3002<qandaentry>
3003        <question><para>Q: Why doesn't cdrecord -scanbus work ?</para></question>
3004        <answer>
3005                <para>A: If you have a 2.4.x kernel (typical example are fedora legacy kernels for redhat 7.X/8/9) and an IDE CDRW device, and the drive is not
3006listed when you run
3007
3008<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
3009<row>
3010<entry>
3011bash# cdrecord -scanbus
3012</entry>
3013</row>
3014</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
3015
3016try adding the following kernel option to your boot script to enable
3017SCSI emulation: hdx=ide-scsi, where "hdx" should be replaced with the
3018appropriate drive letter of the CDRW device, e.g., "hdc".
3019(Answer provided by Christopher Moriarity cdm7_at_cdc.gov)
3020</para>
3021</answer>
3022</qandaentry>
3023</qandaset>
3024</sect1>
3025
3026<sect1 id="faq-backup">
3027<title>Backup related Questions</title>
3028
3029<qandaset>
3030<qandaentry>
3031<question><para id="MMKM">Q: Mondo says, 'Cannot
3032                run mindi --makemountlist' and aborts. What do I do?</para></question>
3033<answer>
3034        <para>
3035                A: Look at <filename>/var/log/mindi.log</filename> and see what it
3036says. Also, try typing 'mindi --makemountlist /tmp/mountlist.txt'
3037to see what Mindi says. Send the log to the &ML; if you get stuck.
3038</para>
3039</answer>
3040</qandaentry>
3041<qandaentry>
3042<question><para>Q: Can Mondo burn CD as they are
3043                created?</para></question>
3044<answer>
3045<para>A: Yes. Use the '-Oc &lt;speed&gt;' switch. Use a negative
3046number for a dummy burn.</para>
3047</answer>
3048</qandaentry>
3049<qandaentry>
3050<question><para>Q: Mondo failed to burn my CD. It said
3051something like, "Error CDB A1 01 02 53 ..." and so on. What does
3052that mean?</para></question>
3053<answer>
3054<para>A: Cdrecord reported some serious errors while trying to burn
3055your CD. Check your CD burner, your CD-R and your kernel.</para>
3056</answer>
3057</qandaentry>
3058<qandaentry>
3059<question><para>Q: May I backup my system with one
3060                partition layout and restore with another?</para></question>
3061<answer>
3062<para>A: Yes. Boot in Interactive Mode and edit the mountlist using
3063the snazzy new mountlist editor. Mondo can now edit your RAID
3064partitions for you. Just open /dev/md0 (or whatever) and select
3065"RAID.." to start. Or, to add a RAID device:</para>
3066<itemizedlist>
3067<listitem>
3068<para>Add two or more partitions, of type and mountpoint
3069'raid'</para>
3070</listitem>
3071<listitem>
3072<para>Add device '/dev/md0' and click OK</para>
3073</listitem>
3074<listitem>
3075<para>Follow the prompts and your own common-sense :)</para>
3076</listitem>
3077</itemizedlist>
3078</answer>
3079</qandaentry>
3080<qandaentry>
3081<question><para>Q: Why does Mondo need so much free disk
3082                space?</para></question>
3083<answer>
3084        <para>A: Because it need space to create the archive files with afio, then
3085                again space to create the ISO images that you'll be able to burn.
3086</para>
3087</answer>
3088</qandaentry>
3089<qandaentry>
3090<question><para>Q: I am trying to do something clever,
3091e.g. write my ISO's to an NFS mount, and I get some weird error
3092messages. What do I do?</para></question>
3093<answer>
3094<para>A: Well, (a) use '-T /tmp' or '-T /home' or something in your
3095        call to Mondo. Oh, and (b) check the <filename>/etc/exports</filename> file on your NFS server
3096        and verify the exported filesystem is writable for the client, and relaunch exportfs -a.
3097</para>
3098</answer>
3099</qandaentry>
3100<qandaentry>
3101<question><para>Q: Can Mondo backup to data files on
3102                another partition, e.g. an NFS mount?</para></question>
3103<answer>
3104<para>A: Yes. Just backup as usual but add '-d /mnt/nfs' or
3105wherever your partition is mounted; don't use '-Oc' or '-Ot' at
3106all; just '-Oi -d /root'. Then, after booting from the media
3107which Mondo generates, you need to type 'ISO' at the
3108console.</para>
3109</answer>
3110</qandaentry>
3111<qandaentry>
3112<question><para>Q: Can Mondo backup _to_ an NFS
3113                partition, i.e. backup over a network? How about restoring?</para></question>
3114<answer>
3115<para>A: Yes. Use '-On &lt;mount&gt; &lt;directory&gt;'. Example:
3116</para>
3117<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
3118<row>
3119<entry>
3120
3121bash# mondoarchive -On 192.168.1.3:/home/nfs
3122
3123</entry>
3124</row>
3125</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
3126
3127</answer>
3128</qandaentry>
3129<qandaentry>
3130<question><para>Q: Does Mondo handle System or Hidden
3131                attributes when archiving Dos/Win files?</para></question>
3132<answer>
3133<para>A: No. It probably never will, either. Sorry.</para>
3134</answer>
3135</qandaentry>
3136</qandaset>
3137</sect1>
3138
3139<sect1 id="faq-compare">
3140<title>Compare related Questions</title>
3141
3142<qandaset>
3143<qandaentry>
3144<question><para>Q: When I compare my archives to my file
3145system, Mondo tells me there are differences or errors. Are the
3146archives bad?</para></question>
3147<answer>
3148        <para>A: Look at <filename>/tmp/changed.files</filename>; if the files are logfiles,
3149temp files or files which you think you may have changed recently
3150then the archives are simply out of date, albeit only by a few
3151minutes. Not a problem. However, if lots of files in /usr have
3152changed or if you get lots of errors then perhaps your CD, your
3153tapes or even your hardware could be to blame. Check your CD writer
3154or tape streamer.</para>
3155<para>Also, don't forget to review <filename>/var/log/mondoarchive.log</filename> for
3156more information.</para>
3157</answer>
3158</qandaentry>
3159</qandaset>
3160</sect1>
3161
3162<sect1 id="faq-restore">
3163<title>Restore related Questions</title>
3164<qandaset>
3165<qandaentry>
3166<question><para>Q: Can Mondo help me
3167                move/resize/re-allocate my partitions?</para></question>
3168<answer>
3169<para>A: Yes. Just backup your system in Interactive Mode using
3170Mondo. Edit the mountlist when prompted.</para>
3171</answer>
3172</qandaentry>
3173<qandaentry>
3174<question><para>Q: My zip drive is a SCSI drive. When I
3175restore, Mondo craps out, saying it can't mount the drive (because
3176there is no disk in it). What do I do?</para></question>
3177<answer>
3178<para>A: Restore in Interactive Mode. Delete the SCSI drive from
3179the mountlist before you restore. Then Mondo won't try to partition
3180or format it. Next time you backup, use -E /dev/sdd (or whatever
3181your zip drive is). The /dev entry will be excluded from the
3182mountlist but not from the filelist. So, when you restore, you
3183won't accidentally reformat your zip disk. However, after
3184restoring, you will find that /dev/sdd (the _file_) will still be
3185present in your /dev directory. Cool, eh?</para>
3186</answer>
3187</qandaentry>
3188<qandaentry>
3189<question><para>Q: I received a message like, 'Fileset
3190                NNN failed' during restore. What does it mean.</para></question>
3191<answer>
3192<para>A: It usually means either you had a very large (&gt;2GB)
3193file which was not archived owing to a flaw in your distro or your
3194filesystem has changed in relation to the backup.</para>
3195</answer>
3196</qandaentry>
3197<qandaentry>
3198<question><para>Q: Why does my ext3 partition have less
3199                space free than when I backed it up?</para></question>
3200<answer>
3201<para>A: Mondo creates a 10MB journal file area. Your journal was
3202probably smaller than that, hence the difference.</para>
3203</answer>
3204</qandaentry>
3205<qandaentry>
3206<question><para id="SEGF">Q: When I restore after
3207booting from the media, I sometimes get errors like, "Running
3208out of memory" or "Segmentation fault". What is going on?</para></question>
3209<answer><para>A: It sounds as if you are running out of disk
3210space, probably ram disk space. Type 'df -m' to see which
3211partitions are running low on space. Please send as much
3212information as you can to the &ML;. This problem is
3213believed to have been fixed in 1.63 and 1.71.</para>
3214</answer>
3215</qandaentry>
3216<qandaentry>
3217<question>
3218<para id="LVM">Q: I can't nuke-restore my LVM or RAID or
3219LVM-on-RAID setup. I have to do it manually. What now?</para></question>
3220<answer>
3221<para>A: You said it yourself. You have to do it manually. :) Sorry
3222but that's about it. At least you have all the tools to do it. I
3223assume you know how. If you don't, look at i-want-my-lvm (a script
3224on the ramdisk) if you're using LVM. It should give you a few
3225clues. RAID is harder but in general Mondo's RAID support is good.
3226After you've prepped and formatted your drives, run mondorestore
3227again but say 'no' when asked if you want Mondo to prep or format
3228your drives.</para>
3229</answer>
3230</qandaentry>
3231</qandaset>
3232</sect1>
3233</chapter>
3234
3235&gfdl;
3236
3237</book>
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