source: branches/stable/mondo-doc/mondoarchive.8 @ 1594

Last change on this file since 1594 was 1594, checked in by Bruno Cornec, 13 years ago

Use of conf file entries (iso_burning_*, media_device, media_size)
and adapatation of the rest of the code to that (including bkpinfo)

  • Property svn:keywords set to Id
File size: 14.1 KB
Line 
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21.TH mondoarchive 8 "DDD" "Mondo Rescue VVV-rRRR"
22
23.SH NAME
24mondoarchive \- a backup / disaster\-recovery tool.
25
26.SH SYNOPSIS
27.B mondoarchive -O
28[
29.I options
30] : backup your PC
31.br
32.B mondoarchive -V
33[
34.I options
35] : verify your backup
36
37.SH DESCRIPTION
38.PP
39.I mondoarchive
40backs up a subset of your files, your entire filesystem, or even images of
41non-Linux filesystems to CD's, tape, ISO images or an NFS mount. In the event of
42catastrophic data loss, you will be able to restore everything, taking a PC from
43bare metal to its original state if necessary.
44
45.pp
46With
47.BR \-O ,
48it backs up your filesystem to CD, tape, ISO images or NFS share.
49A special boot CD will be created to allow you to restore from bare metal if
50necessary.
51
52.pp
53With
54.BR \-V ,
55it verifies the backup against the live filesystem. This option may be used in
56combination with
57.BR \-O
58to verify a backup after its creation, or on its own to see how much the live
59filesystem has changed since the backup was made.
60
61.pp
62Call mondoarchive
63.BR without
64.BR flags
65to make it auto-detect as many settings as possible, ask you politely for the
66rest, and then backup and verify your OS or a subset thereof.
67
68.pp
69To restore data, either run
70.I mondorestore
71from the command line or boot from the emergency CD generated during
72the backup process. The latter will come in handy if a gremlin wipes your hard
73disk.
74
75.SH BACKUP MEDIA
76.TP 13
77You must specify one of the following:-
78
79.TP
80.BI "-w " speed
81Specify the speed to use for the writer (CR-RW|DVD-+RW|...).
82Mondo will wipe media before writing to them.
83
84.TP
85.BI "-r "
86Use DVD drive as backup device and its disks as backup media.
87Note that calling mondoarchive
88.B using sudo when writing to DVDs will fail
89because growisofs does not support this - see the growisofs manpage for
90details.
91
92.TP
93.BI "-C "
94Use CD-R drive as a streaming device, almost like a tape streamer. Use
95write-once disks as backup media.
96.B Experimental.
97
98.TP
99.BI "-p " prefix
100Use
101.B prefix
102to generate the name of your ISO images.
103By default, mondoarchive names images mondorescue-1.iso, mondorescue-2.iso, ...
104Using
105.B -p machine
106will name your images machine-1.iso, machine-2.iso, ...
107
108.TP
109.BI "-i "
110Use ISO files (CD images) as backup media. This is good for backing up your
111system to a spare hard drive. The
112.B -n
113switch is a wiser choice if you plan to restore from a remote filesystem.
114
115.TP
116.BI "-n " mount
117Use files residing on NFS partition as backup media.
118.I mount
119is the remote mount-point, e.g. '192.168.1.3:/home/nfs'
120for my file server. Please mount it before backing up/verifying.
121
122.TP
123.BI "-t "
124Use tape streamer as backup device and its tapes as backup media.
125
126.TP
127.BI "-u "
128Use a generic streaming device as backup device. Use this if you want to write
129your backup to a device that is not directly support by mondoarchive. This will
130send the data directly to a raw device.
131.B For experienced users only.
132
133.TP
134.BI "-U "
135Use a generic USB device as backup device. Use this if you want to write
136your backup to a USB key or USB disk, which will be make bootable.
137The USB device should be attached to the system ir order for this to work.
138.B WARNING: All the data on the related devices will be removed.
139
140.SH MAJOR OPTIONS
141.TP 13
142.BI "-D "
143Make a differential backup: examine the filesystem and find which files have
144changed since the last full backup was carried out. Backup only those files.
145
146.TP
147.BI "-E " "\*(lqpath ...\*(rq"
148Exclude path(s) from backup. The paths should be separated with a whitespace.
149Note that mondo automatically excludes removable media (/mnt/floppy,
150/mnt/cdrom, /proc, /sys, /tmp). For example, if you are backing up to an NFS mount but you
151do not want to include the contents of the mount in a backup, exclude your
152local mount-point with this switch. It will also work with partitions, e.g.
153/dev/sdd4 if you have a peculiar SCSI zip drive which insists on showing up in
154the mountlist. NB: If you exclude /dev/sdd4 then the /dev entry itself will
155still be backed up, even though the mountlist entry will be suppressed.
156N.B.: If you specify a directory with a final / its content will be archived so it won't do what you expect.
157
158.TP
159.BI "-I " "\*(lqpath ...\*(rq"
160Include paths(s) in backup. The default backup path is \*(lq/\*(rq but you may
161specify alternatives, e.g. -I \*(lq/home /etc\*(rq to override that.
162
163.TP
164.BI "-J " "file"
165Specify an explicit list of files and directories to include in a plain text file, one item
166(file or directory) per line. Beware that directories placed in that file are not managed recursively contrary to what is done with the -I option.
167
168.TP
169.BI "-N"
170Exclude all mounted network filesystems. This currently means NFS, SMB, Coda, MVFS, AFS
171OCFS and Netware. In other words, only backup the local hard disk(s).
172
173.TP
174.BI "-d " "dev|dir"
175Specify the backup device (CD/tape/USB) or directory (NFS/ISO). For CD-R[W] drives,
176this is the SCSI node where the drive may be found, e.g. '0,1,0'. For tape
177users, this is the tape streamers /dev entry, e.g. '/dev/st0'. For USB users,
178this is the device name of your key or external disk. For ISO users,
179this is the directory where the ISO images are stored. For NFS users, this is
180the directory within the NFS mount where the backups are stored. The default
181for ISO and NFS is '/root/images/mondo'.
182
183.TP
184.BI "-g "
185GUI mode. Without this switch, the screen output of mondoarchive is suitable
186for processing by an 'expect' wrapper, enabling the user to backup nightly via
187a cron job. However, if you want to run this program with an attractive but
188non-cron-friendly interface then use '-g'.
189
190.TP
191.BI "-k " "path"
192Path of user's kernel. If you are a Debian or Gentoo user then specify
193.B -k FAILSAFE
194as your kernel. Otherwise, you will rarely need this option.
195
196.TP
197.BI "-m "
198Manual (not self-retracting) CD trays are often found on laptops. If you are
199a laptop user, your CD burner has BurnProof technology or you experience
200problems with mondo then please call mondoarchive with this switch.
201
202.TP
203.BI "-o "
204Use LILO as boot loader of boot CD instead of SYSLINUX/ISOLINUX. By
205default, ISOLINUX is used for CD's. Use LILO if you
206prefer to use that boot loader. NB: This does not affect which boot loader you
207use to boot your PC, merely the boot loader used by the CD's created
208by Mondo. Use ELILO instead which is mandatory for IA64 machines.
209
210.TP
211.BI "-s " "size"
212How much can each of your backup media hold? You may use 'm' and 'g' on the end
213of the number, e.g. '700m' for an extra-large CD-R. You no longer need to
214specify the size of your cartridges if you are backing up to tape.
215
216.TP
217.BI "-x " "'dev ...'"
218Specify non-Linux partitions which you want to backup, e.g. NTFS or BeOS.
219
220
221.SH MINOR OPTIONS
222.TP 13
223.BI "-[0-9] "
224Specify the compression level. Default is 3. No compression is 0.
225
226.TP
227.BI "-A " "command"
228This command will be called after each CD/NFS/ISO file is written. It is useful
229if you want to do something with an ISO after creating it, e.g. write it to a
230CD burner using a non-standard command.
231.B -A
232understands two tokens - _ISO_ and _CD#_ - which will be translated into the
233ISO's filename and its index number (1, 2, ...) respectively. So, you could use
234.I -A 'foobackup _ISO_; rm -f _ISO_'
235to feed each ISO to some magical new backup tool.
236
237.TP
238.BI "-B " "command"
239This command will be called before each CD/NFS/ISO file is written. See
240.B -A
241for more information.
242
243.TP
244.BI "-H "
245When you boot from the tape/CD, your hard drive will be wiped and the archives
246will be restored. Your decision to boot from the tape/CD will be taken as
247consent. No further permission will be sought.
248.B Use with caution.
249
250.TP
251.BI "-L "
252Use lzo, a fast compression engine, instead of bzip2. You may find lzo on
253Mondo's website or via FreshMeat. WARNING! Some versions of LZO are unstable.
254
255.TP
256.BI "-G "
257Use gzip, the standard and quicker Linux compression engine, instead of bzip2.
258
259.TP
260.BI "-R "
261EXPERIMENTAL. Do not use in mission-critical environments. Star is an alternative to afio. Mondo now supports POSIX ACLs and extended attributes, so -R is essentially redundant for now.
262
263.TP
264.BI "-P " "tarball"
265Post-nuke tarball. If you boot into Nuke Mode and everything is restored
266successfully then the
267.I post-nuke
268script will be sought and executed if found. This is useful for post-restore
269customization. It is assumed that the tarball (.tar.gz format) will contain not
270just the
271.I post-nuke
272script (or binary, or whatever it is) but also any files it requires.
273
274.TP
275.BI "-S " "path"
276Specify the full pathname of the scratchdir, the directory where ISO images are built before being
277archived. If you have plenty of RAM and want to use a ramdisk for scratch
278space, specify its path here.
279
280.TP
281.BI "-T " "path"
282Specify the full pathname of the tempdir, the directory where temporary files (other than ISO images
283being assembled) are stored. See
284.B -S
285
286.TP
287.BI "-W "
288Don't make your backup self-booting. This is a really bad idea, IMO. Don't do
289this unless you have really great boot disks in your hand and you are an anally
290retentive SOB who can't wait 2 minutes for Mindi to run in the background. If
291you use -W then you'd better know what the hell you're doing, okay?
292
293.TP
294.BI "-b "
295Specify the internal block size used by the tape drive. This is usually 32K but
296some drives just don't like that. They should but they don't. That's what
297happens when tape drive vendors don't talk to kernel driver writers. Try 512 or
29816384.
299
300.TP
301.BI "-e "
302Don't eject the CD or tape when backing up or restoring... unless cdrecord
303insists on it. If it does, well, tough. Sorry. :)
304
305.TP
306.BI "-f " "device"
307Specify the drive on which your Master Boot Record lives. Usually, this is
308discovered automatically.
309
310.TP
311.BI "-l " "GRUB|LILO|ELILO|RAW"
312Specify the boot loader. By default, your Master Boot Record is examined and
313the boot loader can usually be discovered. If you specify RAW then the MBR will
314be backed up and restored byte-for-byte without any analysis. It is likely that
315you will also need to specify the boot device with -f <dev>. ELILO is mandatory
316for IA64 machines.
317
318.TP
319.BI "-Q "
320Give more detailed information about the boot loader.
321
322.TP
323.BI "-K " "loglevel"
324Specify the loglevel. Use 99 for full debug. Standard debug level is 4.
325
326.TP
327.BI "-z "
328Use extended attributes and acl for each file and store them in the backup media. Use this option if you use SElinux e.g. but it will slow down backup and restore time of course.
329
330
331.SH DIAGNOSTICS
332Mondo generates one additional, and extremely important file:
333.BI /var/log/mondoarchive.log.
334When seeking technical support, attach this file to your email.
335
336
337
338.SH FILES
339.IR /var/log/mondoarchive.log
340This log contains important information required to analyse mondoarchive
341problem reports. Did I already said that it's highly recommended to send this file with
342support questions.
343
344.SH NOTES
345A link to Mondo's HTML-based manual (by Bruno Cornec, Mikael Hultgren, Cafeole, Randy Delphs,
346Stan Benoit, and Hugo Rabson) may be found at
347.I http://www.mondorescue.org/docs.shtml
348- or in
349.I /usr/share/doc/mondo-x.xx
350on your hard drive.
351
352.SH BUGS
353It is recommend that your system has more than 64 MB ram. SCSI device order
354change with nuke can have unexpected results. It is recommended you use expert
355mode with drastic hardware reconfigurations.
356
357.SH EXAMPLES
358
359.BI ISO:
360Backup to a directory; note that /mnt/foo's contents will be backed up except
361for its ISO's unless you exclude it, as follows:-
362.br
363.I "mondoarchive -Oi -d /mnt/foo -E '/mnt/foo /mnt/foo2' -p \`hostname\`-\`date +%Y-%m-%d\`"
364
365Backup to ISO's non-interactively, e.g. as a job running in /etc/cron.daily:
366.br
367.I "mkdir -p /bkp/\`date +%A\`; mondoarchive -Oi -9 -d /bkp/\`date +%A\` -E /bkp"
368
369.BI DVD:
370Backup PC using DVD Media:
371.br
372.I "mondoarchive -OVr -d /dev/scd0 -gF -s 4480m"
373
374.BI TAPE:
375Backup to tape, using lzo compression (WARNING - can be unstable):
376.br
377.I "mondoarchive -Ot -d /dev/st0 -L"
378
379Verify existing tape backup which was made with lzo compression:-
380.br
381.I "mondoarchive -Vt -d /dev/st0 -L -g"
382
383Backup to tape, using max compression:
384.br
385.I "mondoarchive -Ot -9 -d /dev/st0 "
386
387.BI CD-R:
388Backup to 700MB CD-R disks using a 16x CD burner:
389.br
390.I "mondoarchive -Oc 16 -s 700m -g"
391
392Verify existing CD-R or CD-RW backup (works for either):-
393.br
394.I "mondoarchive -Vc 16"
395
396.BI CD-RW:
397Backup to 650MB CD-RW disks using a 4x CD ReWriter:
398.br
399.I "mondoarchive -Ow 4"
400
401Backup just your /home and /etc directory to 650MB CD-RW disks using a 4x CD
402ReWriter:
403.br
404.I "mondoarchive -Ow 4 -I \*(lq/home /etc\*(rq"
405
406.BI USB:
407Backup to your USB key, using gzip compression:
408.br
409.I "mondoarchive -OU -d /dev/sda -G"
410
411.BI NFS:
412Backup to an NFS mount:
413.br
414.I "mondoarchive -On 192.168.1.2:/home/nfs -d /Monday -E /mnt/nfs"
415
416Verify existing NFS backup:-
417.br
418.I "mondoarchive -Vn 192.168.1.2:/home/nfs -d /Monday"
419
420.BI RAID:
421Backup PC to a Software Raid mount point, iso size 700mb:
422.br
423.I "mondoarchive -O -s 700m -d /mnt/raid"
424
425
426.SH "SEE ALSO"
427afio(1), bzip2(1), find(1), mindi(8), mondorestore(8).
428.SH AUTHORS
429Bruno Cornec (lead-development)
430.I "bruno_at_mondorescue.org"
431.br
432Andree Leidenfrost (co-developper)
433.I "aleidenf_at_bigpond.net.au"
434.br
435.SH ORIGINAL AUTHORS
436Hugo Rabson (original author)
437.I "hugo.rabson_at_mondorescue.org"
438.br
439Jesse Keating (original RPM packager)
440.I "hosting_at_j2solutions.net"
441.br
442Stan Benoit (testing)
443.I "troff_at_nakedsoul.org"
444.br
445Mikael Hultgren (docs)
446.I "mikael_hultgren_at_gmx.net"
447.br
448See mailing list at http://www.mondorescue.org for technical support.
449.
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