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1<!DOCTYPE BOOK PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook V4.1//EN" [
2<!ENTITY curdate "DDD">
3<!ENTITY curver "VVV">
4
5<!ENTITY WWWB "http://www.mondorescue.org/">
6<!ENTITY WWW '<ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org">MondoRescue</ulink>'>
7<!ENTITY gfdl SYSTEM "fdl.sgml">
8]>
9
10<book>
11
12<bookinfo>
13<title>MondoRescue HOWTO</title>
14<subtitle>
15Utilisation and Configuration of Mondo and Mindi under Linux (Version &curver;)
16</subtitle>
17<graphic fileref="images/protected-by-mondo.png" align="center">
18
19<pubdate>
20in its latest version the
21&curdate;
22</pubdate>
23
24<abstract>
25<para>
26This document describes the use of mondo and mindi tools to realize disaster recovery backup of your systems. It provides information on installation, backup and restore modes, hardware and software requirements, and answers to some frequently asked questions.
27The goals are to offer a general view of the functions and their best usages.
28Mondo Rescue is a Disaster Recovery Solution which allows you
29to effortlessly backup and interactively restore Linux, Windows and
30other supported filesystem partitions to/from CD/DVD-+R/RW media, tape,
31NFS, ... and Mindi Linux provides the bootable emergency restore
32CD/floppy set which Mondo uses at boot-time.
33</para>
34</abstract>
35
36<author>
37<firstname>Bruno</firstname>
38<surname>Cornec</surname>
39<affiliation>
40<orgname>MondoRescue Project</orgname>
41<address><email>bcornec@users.berlios.de</email></address>
42</affiliation>
43</author>
44<!--
45Hugo Rabson
46Mikael Hultgren
47Stan Benoit
48Randy Delfs
49Cafeole
50Bryan J. Smith
51-->
52
53<copyright>
54<year>2000-2006</year>
55<holder role="mailto:bcornec@users.berlios.de">Bruno Cornec</holder>
56</copyright>
57
58<legalnotice>
59<title>License</title>
60<para>
61</para>
62<para>
63This HOWTO is a free documentation. you may copy, redistribute and/or modify it under the terms of the
64<Link LinkEnd="gfdl">
65GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1
66</link>.</para>
67<para>
68or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invarian
69t Sections, Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts. This document is distributed
70hoping it will be useful, but <emphasis>without any guaranty</emphasis>; you're
71completely responsible of its use, and coulnd't complain in case it doesn't work
72, or even if it breaks the hardware. All the software included in it, if not alr
73eady copyrighted is released under the GPL.
74</para>
75</legalnotice>
76
77<revhistory>
78<revision>
79    <revnumber>2.06</revnumber>
80    <date>2006-01-16</date>
81    <authorinitials>Bruno Cornec</authorinitials>
82    <revdescription>
83    <para>
84    First SGML version publically available, remade from the HTML docs of the project.
85    </para>
86    </revdescription>
87</revision>
88</revhistory>
89</bookinfo>
90
91<toc></toc>
92<lot></lot>
93
94
95<chapter id="intro">
96<title>About this Guide</title>
97
98<sect1 id="intro-purpose">
99<title>Purpose / Scope of this Guide</title>
100
101<para>
102This HOWTO serves to help people get started with using
103mondo/mindi as way to backup/restore their system. This is a work
104constantly evolving. It was started by Hugo Rabson and has
105since been worked upon by a number of people. See the
106'<ulink url="&WWWB;about.html#devteam">About</ulink>' web
107page for a list of members of the development team.</para>
108
109<para>There are many ways to contribute to the Linux movement
110without actually writing code. One of the most important is writing
111documentation, allowing each person to share their knowledge with
112thousands of others around the world. This HOWTO is designed to
113help you get familiar with how Mondo/Mindi works.</para>
114
115<para>
116Opinions expressed here are those of the authors.
117Informations are provided in the aim to be useful to the readers.
118However, there can't be, through this document, any warranty of any kind
119on the way it works on your systems, nor the author could be responsible for any problem caused by the use of these informations.
120However, software editors don't garantee you a lot either (re-read the contracts).
121</para>
122</sect1>
123
124<sect1 id="intro-newversion"><title>New versions of this document</title>
125
126<para>The newest version of this document can always be found on
127MondoRescue's homepage &WWW;.</para>
128<para>
129If you make a translation of this document into another language, please let meknow so that I can include a reference to it here.
130</para>
131</sect1>
132
133<sect1><title>Suggestions / Feedback</title>
134<para>
135I rely on you, the reader, to make this HOWTO useful. THis HOWTO is probably incomplete even if it tries to be accurate to the best of our knowledge.
136If you have any suggestions, corrections, recommandations or congratulations :-) don't hesitate to send them to me
137<email>bcornec@users.berlios.de</email>,
138and I will try to incorporate them in a next revision or to the mondorescue mailling list at <ulink url="http://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/mondo-devel">http://lists.sourceforge.net/lists
139/listinfo/mondo-devel</ulink>;
140e-mail the list at
141<ulink url="mailto:mondo-devel@lists.sourceforge.net">mondo-devel@lists.sourceforge.net</ulink>;
142tell us what is wrong and how it should be fixed.
143Include the section title and recommended changes. Whenever possible, include
144the exact, spell-checked, grammar-checked text that you think would
145improve the document.
146</para>
147<para>See Mondo's
148<ulink url="../../feedback/feedback.html">Feedback</ulink> page for
149more information.
150</para>
151<para>
152Please note that we do our best to help everyone but it is
153difficult for us to help you if you do not attach a log file to
154your e-mail. Let me say that again - attach your log file to your
155e-mail! Thank you. Without it we can't offer
156any tangible help because you aren't either. That's what the log
157file is for. It is located at <filename>/var/log/mondo-archive.log</filename>; and <filename>/var/log/miindi.log</filename> or at <filename>/var/log/mondo-restore.log</filename>
158</para>
159<para>
160This document was originaly written by native english speakers, but is maintained by a non-native english speaker so help me correct mistaques instead of rumbling that I've done one :-)
161</para>
162<para>
163I am also willing to answer general questions on MondoRescue, the best I can.
164Before doing so, please read all of the information in this HOWTO, and then send me detailed information about the problem, especially including the logs generated by the tools, or traces obtained (Did I say that already :-].
165</para>
166<para>
167If you publish this document on a CD-ROM or in hardcopy form, a complimentary copy would be appreciated; mail me for my postal address. Also consider making a donation to the Linux Documentation Project to help support free documentation for Linux. Contact the Linux HOWTO coordinator,
168Guylhem AZNAR <email>guylhem@rrremovethis.oeil.qc.ca</email>.
169</para>
170</sect1>
171
172<sect1 id=intro-thanks><title>Aknowledgements</title>
173
174<para>Thanks goes to these people for helping and adding to this
175HOWTO.</para>
176
177<para>Document maintainer:</para>
178<itemizedlist mark="bullet" spacing="Compact">
179<listitem>
180<para>Bruno Cornec</para>
181</listitem>
182</itemizedlist>
183<para>Original Design Assistance by:</para>
184<itemizedlist>
185<listitem>
186<para>Xion Network.com</para>
187</listitem>
188</itemizedlist>
189<para>Original Document Assistance by:</para>
190<itemizedlist>
191<listitem>
192<para>Cafeole</para>
193</listitem>
194<listitem>
195<para>Troff</para>
196</listitem>
197<listitem>
198<para>Randy Delfs</para>
199</listitem>
200<listitem>
201<para>Mikael Hultgren</para>
202</listitem>
203</itemizedlist>
204<para>Original LinuxDoc and LaTeX Reformat by:</para>
205<itemizedlist>
206<listitem>
207<para>Bryan J. Smith</para>
208</listitem>
209</itemizedlist>
210<para>Original DocBook Reformat by:</para>
211<itemizedlist>
212<listitem>
213<para>Mikael Hultgren</para>
214</listitem>
215</itemizedlist>
216<para>Original author; 1.6x material:</para>
217<itemizedlist>
218<listitem>
219<para>Hugo Rabson</para>
220</listitem>
221</itemizedlist>
222
223</sect1>
224</chapter>
225
226<chapter id="quickstart"><title>QuickStart</title>
227<itemizedlist mark="bullet" spacing="Compact">
228<listitem>
229<para>We recommend that you read this complete
230HOWTO. However, if you are too busy or impatient, then
231please use this QuickStart guide to stay out of trouble.</para>
232</listitem>
233<listitem>
234<para>Install the tarball, RPM, or DEB mindi and mondo
235packages. (see <link linkend="installation">Installation</link>
236for more details)</para>
237</listitem>
238<listitem>
239<para>Execute as root (type 'su -' to become root if you are not
240logged in as root)</para>
241<para></para>
242
243<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
244<row>
245<entry>
246
247bash# mondoarchive
248
249</entry>
250</row>
251</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
252
253</listitem>
254</itemizedlist>
255<para></para>
256
257<informaltable><tgroup cols="2"><tbody>
258<row>
259<entry>
260<ulink url="images/mamain.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
261<imagedata fileref="images/mamain-mini.png">
262</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
263</ulink>
264</entry>
265<entry>
266Choose from the list of supported backup media types. The media you
267will use most often are CD/DVD-+R, CD/DVD-+RW, tape, NFS and hard disk. If
268you want to backup/restore over a network, choose 'NFS'. If you
269want to backup/restore to/from a local partition or if you simply
270want to store the ISO images in a local directory until you have
271time or facilities to burn them to CD's, choose 'hard disk'. If you
272choose 'CD/DVD-R[W]' or 'tape' then in general your hardware will be
273detected and configured for you.
274</entry>
275</row>
276<row>
277<entry>
278<ulink url="images/maburnproof.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
279<imagedata fileref="images/maburnproof-mini.png">
280</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
281</ulink>
282</entry>
283<entry>
284        If you are backing up to CD/DVD-+R[W] then Mondo will ask you if your CD
285burner has BurnProof technology, is inside a laptop, or is
286otherwise eccentric. If you are backing up to a tape streamer then
287you will not see this message.
288</entry>
289</row>
290<row>
291<entry>
292<ulink url="images/macompression.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
293<imagedata fileref="images/macompression-mini.png">
294</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
295</ulink>
296</entry>
297<entry>
298How much compression do you want? None, if your tape streamer has
299built-in hardware compression. Maximum, if your CPU is blazingly
300fast. Average should do just fine for most situations.
301</entry>
302</row>
303<row>
304<entry>
305<ulink url="images/mainclude.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
306<imagedata fileref="images/mainclude-mini.png">
307</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
308</ulink>
309</entry>
310<entry>
311If you want to backup the whole computer (excluding /tmp and /proc,
312naturally) then leave this as / which is the default. Otherwise,
313specify subsets, (e.g. /usr/local /home ) being sure to put a space
314in between each path.
315</entry>
316</row>
317<row>
318<entry>
319<ulink url="images/maexclude.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
320<imagedata fileref="images/maexclude-mini.png">
321</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
322</ulink>
323</entry>
324<entry>
325If you are backing up your whole computer then you might want to
326exclude certain directories, e.g. /shared/MP3. Please specify them
327in the 'exclude directories' dialog box. Please put a space in
328between each path, e.g. /shared/private /scratch /nfs /windows
329</entry>
330</row>
331<row>
332<entry>
333<ulink url="images/makernel.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
334<imagedata fileref="images/makernel-mini.png">
335</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
336</ulink>
337</entry>
338<entry>
339Is your kernel sane? Red Hat, Mandrake, SuSE, Debian and Slackware users
340should in general say 'yes' because these vendors are good at
341producing reliable kernels. If you are using Gentoo or LFS
342then your kernel might be non-standard, in which case say 'no' to
343use Mondo's failsafe kernel.
344</entry>
345</row>
346<row>
347<entry>
348<ulink url="images/maverifyq.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
349<imagedata fileref="images/maverifyq-mini.png">
350</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
351</ulink>
352</entry>
353<entry>
354If you want to verify the archives after writing them to media, say
355'yes' here. If you have absolute faith in your hardware and your
356Linux distribution, say 'no'... and a little prayer.
357</entry>
358</row>
359<row>
360<entry>
361<ulink url="images/maproceedq.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
362<imagedata fileref="images/maproceedq-mini.png">
363</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
364</ulink>
365</entry>
366<entry>
367If you are sure you want to go ahead, say 'yes' and find something
368else to do while Mondo backs up your computer. If you say 'no' then
369you will be unceremoniously dumped at the shell prompt. :-)
370</entry>
371</row>
372<row>
373<entry>
374<ulink url="images/1.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
375<imagedata fileref="images/1-mini.png">
376</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
377</ulink>
378</entry>
379<entry>
380The backup process will now commence. There are some pre-backup
381tasks to be carried out first but the backup is essentially
382underway. To simplify the backup process, you were asked a series
383of questions. Next time, if you like, you could call mondoarchive
384with various command-line switches to control its behavior, instead
385of answering a series of questions. See the man page for details.
386</entry>
387</row>
388<row>
389<entry>
390<ulink url="images/3.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
391<imagedata fileref="images/3-mini.png">
392</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
393</ulink>
394</entry>
395<entry>
396Mondo will make a catalog of all files to be backed up. This may
397take up to five minutes. The list of files will be divided into
398sets, approximately 4 MB (before compression) of files per set.
399This typically takes one minute.
400</entry>
401</row>
402<row>
403<entry>
404<ulink url="images/4.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
405<imagedata fileref="images/1-mini.png">
406</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
407</ulink>
408</entry>
409<entry>
410Mondo calls Mindi. Mindi generates bootable floppy disk images and
411auxiliary data disk images which are based on your existing Linux
412distribution and filesystem. That way, you can be sure Mondo's
413tools will be compatible with your existing filesystems and
414binaries: Mondo's tools are your tools. Mindi takes up to five
415minutes to run.
416</entry>
417</row>
418<row>
419<entry>
420<ulink url="images/5tape.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
421<imagedata fileref="images/5tape-mini.png">
422</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
423</ulink>
424</entry>
425<entry>
426Finally, Mondo begins backing up your computer. This process may
427take a few minutes or a few hours, depending on how much data you
428are archiving, how fast your CPU is, how much RAM you have, and so
429on. It will backup your regular files and then your large files
430(files larger than approximately 32MB). If you have opted to verify
431your backups, Mondo will do that too.
432</entry>
433</row>
434<row>
435<entry>
436<ulink url="images/10cd.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
437<imagedata fileref="images/10cd-mini.png">
438</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
439</ulink>
440</entry>
441<entry>
442Do you want to create a boot floppy at the end? Yes, if you're a
443tape or NFS user. No, if you are using CD/DVD-R[W]'s and your computer
444supports bootable CD's. Tape users only need one floppy but other
445users may need more. Mondo will advise accordingly.
446</entry>
447</row>
448</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
449
450<itemizedlist>
451<listitem>
452<para>Try to boot from the first CD of the backup (or the first
453floppy, if you made floppies). Choose 'Compare Mode' by typing
454compare at the boot screen.</para>
455</listitem>
456<listitem>
457<para>If you can boot, fine. If not, make a Mindi "Test" CD to
458checkout the compatibility of your system. (see
459<link linkend="testingmindi">Testing Mindi</link> for more
460details). Remove the CD/floppy; boot your computer as usual;
461execute as root</para>
462<para></para>
463<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
464<row>
465<entry>
466
467        bash# mindi
468        bash# cd /root/images/mindi
469
470</entry>
471</row>
472</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
473
474<para>(for CD-R)</para>
475<para></para>
476<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
477<row>
478<entry>
479
480bash# cdrecord dev=0,0,0 speed=4 -eject -v mindi.iso
481
482</entry>
483</row>
484</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
485
486<para>(for CD-RW)</para>
487<para></para>
488<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
489<row>
490<entry>
491
492bash# cdrecord dev=0,0,0 speed=4 blank=fast -eject -v mindi.iso
493
494</entry>
495</row>
496</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
497
498<para>Reboot your system with the created Mindi CD, with the BIOS
499set to boot from CD. If the result is a command line in 'Expert'
500mode, your system checks out. Remove the CD and reboot your
501system.</para>
502</listitem>
503<listitem>
504<para>If you still cannot boot from Mindi's CD then please e-mail
505the <link linkend="feedback">mailing list</link> for help.
506</para>
507</listitem>
508</itemizedlist>
509<para>When making a backup on a live system, there will always be
510processes running that will write out data on the system after you
511have made the backup and before you have made the compare, this
512will result in difference showing up when comparing your backup.
513For a full explanation and what can be done to avoid this, please
514read this section.</para>
515<itemizedlist>
516
517        <listitem>
518<para>This QuickStart covers the ideal case. Upon receiving any
519system feedback/errors, read each related HOWTO section.</para>
520<para>Example 2-1. A test backup of your /home directory to CD-Rs
521using the command line</para>
522<para></para>
523<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
524<row>
525<entry>
526
527bash# mondoarchive -OVc 4 -I /home -gF
528
529</entry>
530</row>
531</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
532
533<para>The 'c' means you must be writing to CD-Rs, not CD-RWs (the
534latter would require 'w' instead of 'c'). The '4' is the speed of
535your CD writer. The string after -I is the path to be backed up.
536The '-gF' means you are going to see the pretty yellow-on-blue
537screen instead of the boring white-on-black screen. :) It also
538means Mondo will not offer to create physical boot floppies for
539you. It is assumed that you are able to boot from the CD which
540Mondo has generated.</para>
541<para>Example 2-2. A backup of your whole filesystem to NFS using
542the command line</para>
543<para></para>
544<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
545<row>
546<entry>
547
548        bash# mkdir -p /mnt/nfs
549        bash# mount 192.168.1.28:/home/nfs /mnt/nfs
550        bash# mondoarchive -OVn 192.168.1.28:/home/nfs -gF[...]
551        bash# umount /mnt/nfs
552        bash# cdrecord dev=0,0,0 speed=4 -eject -v /root/images/mindi/mindi.iso
553
554</entry>
555</row>
556</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
557
558<para>Note that you have to mount the NFS partition, backup to it,
559unmount it, and create a boot CD to allow you to restore from
560scratch if necessary. To reassure yourself that you will be able to
561restore from the NFS share even if your PC is wiped, please boot
562from the Mindi CD and type 'compare'. The on-screen instructions
563from that point on should be sufficient.</para>
564<para>Example 2-3. A backup of your whole
565filesystem to tape using the command line</para>
566<para></para>
567<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
568<row>
569<entry>
570
571bash# mondoarchive -OVt -d /dev/st0 -9 -L -g
572
573</entry>
574</row>
575</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
576
577<para>In this case, we assume Syslinux is incompatible with your
578boot media. For some reason, some BIOSes just don't like Syslinux.
579If you find this to be the case for your computer, please use '-L'
580to force Mondo to use LILO instead of Syslinux as the boot loader
581for its CD/floppies. (NB: This has nothing to do with which boot
582loader your hard drive uses.) Also, it is a good habit to specify
583your tape streamer with '-d &lt;device&gt;'. You don't usually need
584to but it's good to be on the safe side. Some computers call your
585tape streamer /dev/osst0, some call it /dev/ftape, ...</para>
586</listitem>
587</itemizedlist>
588
589</chapter>
590
591<chapter id="overview"><title>Overview</title>
592
593<sect1 id="overview-mondorescue">
594<title>Mondo Rescue</title>
595<para>Mondo Rescue backs up your file system to CD, tape, NFS
596(archives stored remotely) or ISO's (archives stored locally).
597Mondo uses afio as the backup engine; afio is a well-respected
598replacement for tar. In the event of catastrophic data loss, you
599may restore some or all of your system, even if your hard drives
600are now blank. Mondo Rescue can do a lot of other cool
601things:</para>
602<itemizedlist>
603<listitem>
604<para>You can use Mondo to clone an installation of Linux. Just
605backup the crucial stuff and exclude /home, /var/log, etc.</para>
606</listitem>
607<listitem>
608<para>You can backup a non-RAID file system and restore it as RAID
609including the root partition (if your kernel supports that).</para>
610</listitem>
611<listitem>
612<para>You can backup a system running on one format and restore as
613another format.</para>
614</listitem>
615<listitem>
616<para>You can restructure your partitions, e.g. shrink/enlarge,
617reassign devices, add hard drives, etc, before you partition and
618format your drives. Mondo will restore your data and amend
619/etc/lilo.conf and /etc/fstab accordingly.</para>
620</listitem>
621<listitem>
622<para>You can backup Linux/Windows systems, including the boot
623sectors. Mondo will make everything right at restore-time.
624(However, do run "Scandisk" when you first boot into Windows, just
625in case.)</para>
626</listitem>
627<listitem>
628<para>You can use your Mondo backup CD to verify the integrity of
629your computer.</para>
630</listitem>
631</itemizedlist>
632<para>Mondo's principal virtue is that it protects you from the
633problems that can arise when you reinstall completely from scratch.
634If you want to wipe and restore your system every year just as a
635matter of 'good practice', Mondo is not for you. However, if you
636want to get up and running again in a hurry after someone breaks
637into your computer and wipes it (or if you accidentally wipe it
638yourself) then Mondo is definitely for you. It will permit you to
639roll back to a known-good installation in a very short period of
640time, sometimes as little as twenty minutes. Even if you backup
641large amounts of data to tape daily and do not want to add yet
642another backup regime, please consider backing up the core
643filesystem (i.e. everything but the directories containing your
644huge database and your prizewinning novel) every month or so, just
645in case. You will be glad you did.</para>
646<para>What is Mondo not?</para>
647<para>Mondo is not an everyday backup program. It is not designed
648to replace tar, afio, kbackup, etc. Mondo is designed to make it
649possible to recover from scratch if necessary. Tar and afio offer a
650quick, convenient way to backup small sets of files, sometimes to
651removable media.</para>
652</sect1>
653
654<sect1 id="overview-mindi">
655<title>Mindi</title>
656<para>
657Mindi Linux creates a set of boot/root floppy disk images
658that will let you perform basic system maintenance on your Linux
659distro. The principal virtues of Mindi's boot disks are the fact
660that they contain your kernel, modules, tools and libraries. You
661can ask for additional binaries (or other files) to be included on
662the kit. The libraries will be added for you.
663</para>
664<para>Whichever modules were loaded at backup-time, they are
665reloaded at boot-time. So, in theory, you will boot into almost the
666same environment as you were in when you backed up. If you want to
667add files to your Mindi boot disks, edit '&lt;INSTALLPATH OF
668MINDI&gt;/mindi/deplist.txt' and add the files to that list. The
669added files and dependencies, will be spread across the data disks
670at run-time.
671</para>
672<para>Mindi makes sure that Mondo has all the tools it needs at
673boot-time. Mondo uses fdisk, mkfs, cat, less, more, afio, gzip,
674bzip2, your keyboard configuration, your glibc libraries, your
675other libraries, your kernel, your modules, ... a lot! Mindi takes
676care of all that, so that Mondo can get on with the job of backing
677up or restoring your data.
678</para>
679<para>Mindi is also handy for making boot CDs/disks which stand on
680their own. You do not need Mondo. Indeed, if you like, you could
681use another backup/restore program with Mindi. Just add it to
682Mindi's dependency list (type 'locate deplist.txt' to find it).
683Mindi will include your software on its boot CD/disks the next time
684you run mindi.
685</para>
686</sect1>
687
688
689<sect1 id="overview-linuxbackup">
690<title>Linux Backup</title>
691<para>Mondo Rescue and Mindi Linux are used primarily as Linux
692backup and cloning tools. The fall in prices of CD-RW drives and
693writable discs will allow current users to keep good backups and
694future users to leverage the cloning capability.</para>
695<para>Tape drives are more likely to suit your needs if you run a
696larger installation (or have lots of MP3's). Warning! OnStream
697drives do not play well with Mondo. I do not know why. It is, in my
698opinion, something which OnStream should look into. Mondo uses
699fopen(), fread(), fwrite() and fclose() to interact with tape
700drives. That works for most drives but some drives just don't like
701that.</para>
702<para>I have tested it thousands of times on my own computer with
703my own data and with no alternate backup regime. It worked for me.
704Thousands of users testify to Mondo's stability and its ease of
705use. However, please test it on your own system before you rely on
706it. In fact, do not rely on any software until you have tested it
707to see if it performs as expected.</para>
708<para>To establish that Mondo will behave well in an emergency,
709please be prepared. Run a test backup as follows:-</para>
710<itemizedlist>
711<listitem>
712<para>Run mondoarchive without any command-line options.</para>
713</listitem>
714<listitem>Backup a subset of files - e.g. /usr/local - to CD or
715tape. Say 'yes' when asked if you want to verify them.</listitem>
716<listitem>If you are not backing up to CD, please create boot
717floppies when prompted.</listitem>
718</itemizedlist>
719<para>Next, restore archives to your live filesystem.</para>
720<itemizedlist>
721<listitem>
722<para>When mondoarchive terminates, run mondorestore without any
723command-line options.</para>
724</listitem>
725<listitem>Insert the CD or the first boot floppy when prompted.
726Press &lt;Enter&gt;. Wait a moment.</listitem>
727<listitem>Select a subset of files to restore, e.g. /usr/local/man
728and /usr/local/bin. Hit OK.</listitem>
729<listitem>Restore files to /tmp or /root/RESTORED or something
730similar.</listitem>
731<listitem>When mondorestore terminates, compare the restored files
732to the originals using cmp or diff.</listitem>
733</itemizedlist>
734<para>Finally, simulate an emergency restore.</para>
735<itemizedlist>
736<listitem>
737<para>Boot from CD/floppies.</para>
738</listitem>
739<listitem>Select 'Interactive Mode' at boot-time. (Type
740'interactive' and hit &lt;Enter&gt;.)</listitem>
741<listitem>Hit OK when shown the mountlist. Say 'yes' when asked if
742you accept the mountlist.</listitem>
743<listitem>Select files to restore, e.g. /usr/local/man and
744/usr/local/bin. Hit OK.</listitem>
745<listitem>Restore files to /tmp or /root/RESTORED or something
746similar.</listitem>
747<listitem>When mondorestore terminates, please reboot and compare
748the restored files to the originals.</listitem>
749</itemizedlist>
750<para>FYI, the subroutines to repartition and reformat your drives
751are very stable. If you are a RAID or LVM user, you
752might&nbsp;encounter some difficulties when wiping and restoring
753from scratch because of the sheer range of filesystem layouts and
754the impossibility of testing Mondo on every single one. If you have
755trouble, just drop to the command-line and partition/format
756manually. Then, call mondorestore, select Interactive Mode, and say
757'no' when asked if you want Mondo to partition or format your
758drives for you.</para>
759<para>You see, even if you have trouble, you still have two hands
760and most of the tools you need - lvchange, pvcreate, fdisk, mkraid,
761etc. - to do it manually. After you have prepped and formatted your
762drives manually (if you have to), just run mondorestore again and
763say 'no' when asked if you want to prep or format your drives. What
764could be easier?</para>
765</sect1>
766
767<sect1 id="overview-winbackup">
768<title>Windows Backup</title>
769<para>Backing up windows partitions.</para>
770<sect2 id="overview-winbackup-win95"><title>Windows ME/95/98</title>
771<para>Verify that the partition is listed in /etc/fstab and is
772mounted (e.g. /dev/hda1). Mondo will take care of everything else.
773The files will be archived just like all other files in the live
774file system. At restore-time, Mondo will take care of the boot
775sector of /dev/hda1 prior to the restore.</para>
776<para>Note: if Windows ME/95/98 is not located on /dev/hda1 or
777/dev/sda1, then Mondo will not take care of the boot sector of
778/dev/hda1. The user will have to boot from a DOS floppy and run SYS
779C: to correct the Windows boot sector.</para>
780</sect2>
781<sect2 id="overview-winbackup-winnt"><title>Windows NT4/2K/XP</title>
782<para>Windows NT4/2K/XP typically use the NTFS file system, not
783VFAT.. The user should use '-x /dev/hda1' (or whichever device the
784Windows partition resides). Mondo will treat the partition as a
785biggiefile. Mondo will also add an entry to the mountlist to
786reflect the size and type of the partition. The user may not edit
787that partition's size at restore-time (for obvious reasons).</para>
788<para>Please bear in mind that Mondo was written for Linux users.
789If Mondo does not backup or restore your Windows system well, you
790might want to consider paying for 1-to-1 technical support.
791Ironically, the only people to pay for 1-to-1 technical support
792have been Linux users, whereas Windows users want a free ride. That
793is one reason why the Linux community gives me warm fuzzies.</para>
794</sect1>
795
796<sect1 id="overview-history">
797<title>Mondo Rescue and Mindi Linux
798History</title>
799<para>Mondo Rescue was created in December 1999 as a utility to
800clone Linux/Windows installations. Norton Ghost would not do the
801job, and my boss wanted to jump on the Linux bandwagon. So, I wrote
802a few scripts and shoehorned them into the latest Linux-Mandrake
803CD. Since that time, Mondo grew into a disaster recovery suite for
804Linux and Windows. Mondo forced me to learn about the kernel, its
805initrd initial ramdisk, modules, library dependencies, disk
806partitioning, and the myriad differences between the Top 10 Linux
807distributions.</para>
808a few scripts and shoehorned them into the latest Linux-Mandrake
809CD. Since that time, Mondo grew into a disaster recovery suite for
810Linux and Windows. Mondo forced me to learn about the kernel, its
811initrd initial ramdisk, modules, library dependencies, disk
812partitioning, and the myriad differences between the Top 10 Linux
813distributions.</para>
814<para>The first formal release was made on February 18th, 2000.
815Mondo is currently one of the top five Linux backup/restore
816programs. Mondo has been compared favorably to ArcServe, Arkeia and
817BRU. Although Mondo lacks the more advanced, enterprise-level
818features of ArcServe and Arkeia, for workstations and small- to
819medium-size servers it is ideal because it is small, fast,
820efficient, stable, comes with source code, and is being actively
821developed and supported.</para>
822</sect1>
823
824<sect1 id="overview-sysreq">
825<title>System
826Requirements</title>
827<sect2 id="overview-sysrq-hwreq">
828<title>Hardware Requirements</title>
829
830<para>Your computer must have:</para>
831<itemizedlist>
832<listitem>
833<para>Intel(R)-compatible CPU</para>
834</listitem>
835<listitem>
836<para>64MB of RAM (128MB recommended)</para>
837</listitem>
838<listitem>
839<para>800MB of hard disk space free</para>
840</listitem>
841<listitem>
842<para>CD writer, tape streamer, NFS share or some way to backup the
843backups :)</para>
844</listitem>
845</itemizedlist>
846<para>It is recommended that your computer have very good airflow.
847The backup with Mondo Rescue and Mindi Linux will utilize your CPU,
848CD drive and fixed disk(s) like very few other applications. With a
849few hours of system backup activity, computers without sufficient
850airflow may show symptoms such as not burning full CD discs. The
851solution is a $20 or less additional fan at your local electronics
852discount store.</para>
853</sect2>
854
855<sect2 id="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">
856<title>Kernel Requirements</title>
857
858<para>Your kernel must have:</para>
859<itemizedlist>
860<listitem>
861<para>stable loopfs support, which means it really needs to be
8622.2.19 or 2.4.7 (or later)</para>
863</listitem>
864<listitem>
865<para>CD-ROM device support</para>
866</listitem>
867<listitem>
868<para>ISO9660 file system support</para>
869</listitem>
870<listitem>
871<para>initrd ramdisk support (built-in)</para>
872</listitem>
873<listitem>
874<para>Virtual memory file system support (built-in)</para>
875</listitem>
876<listitem>
877<para>floppy disk support (built in)</para>
878</listitem>
879<listitem>
880<para>ext2 file system support (built-in)</para>
881</listitem>
882<listitem>
883<para>Support for the backup media (Tape, CD-RW, NFS, Hard
884disk)</para>
885</listitem>
886<listitem>
887<para>If the backup media is CD-RW then you need SCSI emulation
888also</para>
889</listitem>
890</itemizedlist>
891<para>Please note that the stock kernels of Red Hat 7.2, 7.3, 8.0,
892Mandrake 8.2, 9.0, SuSE 7.x,, 8.x, and Slackware 8.x all meet
893Mondo's requirements. If your kernel does not meet Mondo's
894requirements then there is something wrong with it. Mondo's demands
895are not unreasonable.</para>
896<para>Mondo (specifically Mindi) does not require any specific
897modules. It does require that your kernel support the initrd
898initial ramdisk facility. Typically this is supported by the Linux
899kernel. Modules used are needed to support the CD, floppy disks,
900hard disks, etc. If the support is modular, then the modules will
901be incorporated in a boot disk by Mindi. If the support is built-in
902(static), then it will be available at boot-time by default.</para>
903</sect2>
904<sect2 id="overview-sysrq-swreq">
905<title>Software Requirements</title>
906<para>See Mondo's <ulink url="../download.html">Download
907page</ulink> for details.</para>
908<para>Mondo requires afio, bzip2, cdrtools/cdrecord, ncurses, newt,
909isolinux/syslinux, lzo (optional), lzop (optional), mkisofs, slang,
910and a few other packages.</para>
911<para>Good Linux distributions provide all these packages. If yours
912does not then please go to the aforementioned Download page or surf
913the Net, preferably the website of the distribution you are
914using.</para>
915<para>Mondo's expectations are not unreasonable, either of your
916Linux distribution or of your kernel. However, if your distribution
917fails to meet its expectations and you cannot find out how to
918resolve them, please feel free to e-mail the
919<ulink url="../../feedback/feedback.html">mailing
920</sect2>
921</sect1>
922</chapter>
923
924<chapter id="installation">
925<title>Installation</title>
926
927<sect1 id="installation-mindi">
928<title>Mindi Installation</title>
929<para>If you are installing from a tarball then copy it to wherever
930you have enough space, for example /tmp and type:</para>
931<para></para>
932<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
933<row>
934<entry>
935
936bash# cd /tmpbash# tar -zxvf mindi-0.7x.tgzbash# cd mindi-0.7xbash# ./install.sh
937
938</entry>
939</row>
940</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
941
942<para>This installs mindi into /usr/local/share/mindi and installs
943links to the programs into /usr/local/sbin</para>
944<para>Or, if you are installing from an RPM then copy it to
945wherever you have enough space, for example /tmp and type:</para>
946<para></para>
947<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
948<row>
949<entry>
950
951bash# rpm -Uvh /tmp/mindi-0.7x-x.i386.rpm
952
953</entry>
954</row>
955</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
956
957<para>This installs mindi into /usr/share/mindi and installs links
958to the programs into /usr/sbin. This may be /usr/local/share/mindi
959and /usr/local/sbin, depending on the package you use. Different
960Linux distributions put system files in different places. The funny
961thing is, each distribution claims it is right and the others are
962wrong. Oh, and they all agree that I mustn't have read the LFS!
963:-)</para>
964<para>Debian users may wish to first create a .deb file and then
965use the debian package manager:</para>
966<para></para>
967<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
968<row>
969<entry>
970
971bash# cd /tmpbash# alien mindi*.rpmbash# dpkg -i mindi*.deb
972
973</entry>
974</row>
975</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
976
977<para>This installs mindi into /usr/share/mindi and installs links
978to the programs into /usr/sbin</para>
979</sect1>
980
981<sect1 id="installation-mondo">
982<title>Mondo Installation</title>
983<para>If you are installing from a tarball then copy it to wherever
984you have enough space, for example /tmp and type:</para>
985<para></para>
986<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
987<row>
988<entry>
989
990bash# cd /tmpbash# tar -zxvf mondo-1.xx.tgzbash# cd mondo-1.xxbash# make &amp;&amp; make install
991
992</entry>
993</row>
994</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
995
996<para>This installs mondo into /usr/local/share/mondo and installs
997links to the programs into /usr/local/bin</para>
998<para>Or, if you are installing from an RPM then copy it to copy it
999to wherever you have enough space, for example /tmp and
1000type:</para>
1001<para></para>
1002<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1003<row>
1004<entry>
1005
1006bash# rpm -Uvh /tmp/mondo-1.5x-x.i386.rpm
1007
1008</entry>
1009</row>
1010</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1011
1012<para>This installs mondo into /usr/share/mondo and installs links
1013to the programs into /usr/bin</para>
1014<para>Debian users may wish to first create a .deb file and then
1015use the debian package manager:</para>
1016<para></para>
1017<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1018<row>
1019<entry>
1020
1021bash# cd /tmpbash# alien mondo*.rpmbash# dpkg -i mondo*.deb
1022
1023</entry>
1024</row>
1025</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1026
1027<para>This installs mondo into /usr/share/mondo and installs links
1028to the programs into /usr/bin</para>
1029</sect1>
1030</chapter>
1031
1032<chapter id="test">
1033<title>Tests</title>
1034
1035<sect1 id="test-mindi">
1036<title>Testing Mindi</title>
1037
1038<para>Mindi is a vital part of the backup procedure. If you have
1039used Mondo before or if you are in a hurry, skip steps 6.2 and 6.3;
1040go straight to QuickStart.</para>
1041<para>However, if you have time or if you have been having trouble
1042getting Mondo to work, I would recommend trying out Mindi directly
1043(rather than via Mondo) to see if it can produce a bootable CD on
1044your system.</para>
1045<para>Make sure you are root while doing this, otherwise mindi will
1046fail, now do this.</para>
1047<para>If you have any problems, please:-</para>
1048<itemizedlist>
1049<listitem>
1050<para>read /var/log/mindi.log</para>
1051</listitem>
1052<listitem>feel free to edit mindi (it's a shell script, btw) to try
1053to fix the problem yourself</listitem>
1054<listitem>contact the mailing list if you get stuck.</listitem>
1055</itemizedlist>
1056<para>Type:-</para>
1057<para></para>
1058<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1059<row>
1060<entry>
1061
1062bash# mindi
1063
1064</entry>
1065</row>
1066</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1067
1068<para>Example screen output, selecting to use your own kernel, to
1069create boot disks, and to create a bootable CD image:</para>
1070<para></para>
1071<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1072<row>
1073<entry>
1074
1075Mindi Linux mini-distro generator v0.72 by HRabson &lt;hugorabson@msn.com&gt;--------------------------
1076----------------------------------------------------Do you want to use your own kernel to build the boo
1077t disk (y/n) ? yYour kernel is /boot/vmlinuz-2.4.14-k6 (v2.4.14-k6)Generating list of dependency files.
1078....................... Done.Analyzing your keyboard's configuration.Adding the following keyboard mapp
1079ing tables:................... DoneDropping i686-optimized libraries if appropriate.............DoneAss
1080embling dependency files........ Done.The files have been subdivided into 2 directories.Your mountlist
1081will look like this:-DEVICE MOUNTPOINT FORMAT SIZE (MB)/dev/hda3 / ext2 996/dev/hda2 swap swap 127/dev/
1082hda4 /usr ext2 6189Tarring and zipping the groups......... Done.Creating data disk #1...#2... Done.1722
1083KB boot disk was created OK............................ Done.2880KB boot disk was created OK...........
1084................. Done.In the directory '/root/images/mindi' you will find the images:-mindi-boot.1722.
1085img mindi-boot.2880.img mindi-data-1.img mindi-data-2.imgWould you like to create boot+data floppy disk
1086s now (y/n) ?yWARNING! THIS WILL ERASE YOUR FLOPPY DISKS.About to write boot disk. Please press ENTER.W
1087riting boot disk.................................................. Done.About to write data disk #1. Pl
1088ease press ENTER.Writing data disk #1........................... Done.About to write data disk #2. Plea
1089se press ENTER.Writing data disk #2........................... Done.Shall I make a bootable CD image? (
1090y/n) yFinished.One 1.72MB boot disk, one 2.88MB boot disk and 2 data disks were created.
1091
1092</entry>
1093</row>
1094</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1095
1096<para>If your kernel is too large (more than about 900KB) then you
1097cannot make boot floppies, although you can still make a bootable
1098CD image. The easiest way to test Mindi in either case is to say
1099'n' to its first question and 'y' to its second, then use the
1100separate application cdrecord to make a bootable CD-R or
1101CD-RW.</para>
1102<para>Use the cdrecord application to write the CD image:</para>
1103<para></para>
1104<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1105<row>
1106<entry>
1107
1108bash# cd /root/images/mindibash# cdrecord -scanbus
1109
1110</entry>
1111</row>
1112</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1113
1114<para>The output of the above call to cdrecord will tell you your
1115CD writer's node. It is usually '0,0,0'. Choose one of the
1116following calls to write the CD, depending on whether the disk in
1117the drive is a CD-R or a CD-RW. Please replace 'x,x,x' with your
1118writer's node. For further information, type 'man cdrecord" from a
1119Linux command line.</para>
1120<para>If writing to a CD-RW Drive/Disc:</para>
1121<para></para>
1122<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1123<row>
1124<entry>
1125
1126bash# cdrecord -blank fast dev=x,x,x speed=4 mindi.iso (for CD-RW)
1127
1128</entry>
1129</row>
1130</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1131
1132<para>If writing to a CD-R Drive/Disc:</para>
1133<para></para>
1134<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1135<row>
1136<entry>
1137
1138bash# cdrecord dev=x,x,x speed=4 mindi.iso (for CD-R)
1139
1140</entry>
1141</row>
1142</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1143</sect1>
1144<sect1 id="test-mondo">
1145<title>Testing Mondo</title>
1146
1147</sect1>
1148</chapter>
1149
1150<chapter id="backup">
1151<title>Backup</title>
1152
1153<sect1 id="backup-recommandations">
1154<title>Recommandations</title>
1155<para>Mama does Mondo? Papa does Mondo? Is that a Dean Martin song?
1156Well, anyway, here is how I backup my system:</para>
1157<itemizedlist>
1158<listitem>
1159<para>Shut down all possible applications (this minimizes any
1160compare differences following the backup)</para>
1161</listitem>
1162<listitem>
1163<para>Type:</para>
1164</listitem>
1165</itemizedlist>
1166<para></para>
1167<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1168<row>
1169<entry>
1170
1171bash# mondoarchive
1172
1173</entry>
1174</row>
1175</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1176
1177<para>For most users, that should be enough. :-) Mondoarchive will
1178usually autodetect your hardware and configure it for you.</para>
1179<para>If you are a power user (or you like to control every detail
1180of how Mondo runs) then you may want to look at the command-line
1181switches. For example:-</para>
1182<para></para>
1183<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1184<row>
1185<entry>
1186
1187bash# mondoarchive -Ow4 -gF -I /home
1188
1189</entry>
1190</row>
1191</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1192
1193<para>Cdrecord will tell me where my CD recorder lives, in SCSI
1194terms, which in my case is '0,0,0'. The call to mondoarchive tells
1195Mondo that I want to backup everything to a 4x CD-RW drive that has
1196a CD-RW disk in it. (Use -Oc instead of -Ow if you are using
1197CD-R.)</para>
1198<para>Please put the first CD-R(W) in the drive now. You will be
1199prompted to insert CD #2 but you will not be prompted to insert the
1200first disk. However, if you forget, do not worry: if Mondo fails to
1201write the first (or any) disk, it will offer to retry, abort or
1202fail.</para>
1203<para>I run Mondo at the highest compression available ('-9) and
1204then go to work. I then walk home at lunch (I live right by my
1205workplace), change CD, eat lunch, and go back to work. When I get
1206home, it has all been done.</para>
1207<para>Your mileage may vary. Experiment. Find the speed/compression
1208compromise that best suits your needs.</para>
1209<para>If you are using cron then please use -F to make sure that
1210Mondo does not prompt you to create bootable floppy disks. Cron
1211does not handle user interaction well because it pipes stdin and
1212stdout specially. Please consult cron's manual for more
1213information. Jesse Keating has written a script for cron/Mondo
1214users. It is available on the
1215<ulink url="../../docs/docs.html">Documentation</ulink>
1216page.</para>
1217</sect1>
1218
1219<sect1 id="backup-cmd">
1220<title>Backup Commands and Options</title>
1221
1222<para>Backup Command:</para>
1223<para></para>
1224<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1225<row>
1226<entry>
1227
1228mondoarchive &lt;-option1&gt; &lt;-option2&gt; ... &lt;-optionN&gt;
1229
1230</entry>
1231</row>
1232</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1233
1234<para>E.g.,</para>
1235<para></para>
1236<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1237<row>
1238<entry>
1239
1240bash# mondoarchive -E /mnt/dos /mnt/cdrom -9 -Oc 8
1241
1242</entry>
1243</row>
1244</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1245
1246<para>Would create backup CD to a CD-R disc at the highest
1247compression level, writing at speed 2 and ignoring the /mnt/dos and
1248/mnt/cdrom directories.</para>
1249<para>To see a detailed list of switches and their meaning, see the
1250<ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org/download/mondoarchive.1.html">HTML
1251man page</ulink> on the website or type 'man mondoarchive' at the
1252console.</para>
1253<sect2 id="backup-cmd-cdr">
1254<title>Standard Example With CD-R</title>
1255<para></para>
1256<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1257<row>
1258<entry>
1259
1260bash# mondoarchive -Oc 2 -g
1261
1262</entry>
1263</row>
1264</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1265
1266<para>Replace '2' in '-Oc2' with the writer's speed. If
1267mondoarchive cannot find your CD-R then please add '-d 0,0,0' (or
1268whatever your CD writer's SCSI node is; usually, it is 0,0,0) to
1269the call.</para>
1270<para>Please insert the first disk in the writer while the PC is
1271chugging away. If Mondo needs additional CD-R(W) then it will ask
1272for them.</para>
1273</sect2>
1274<sect2 id="backup-cmd-cdrw">
1275<title>Standard Example With CD-RW</title>
1276<para></para>
1277<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1278<row>
1279<entry>
1280
1281bash# mondoarchive -Ow 2 -g
1282
1283</entry>
1284</row>
1285</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1286
1287<para>Replace '2' in '-Ow2' with the writer's speed.</para>
1288</sect2>
1289<sect2 id="backup-cmd-tape">
1290        <title>Standard Example With Tape</title>
1291<para></para>
1292<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1293<row>
1294<entry>
1295
1296bash# mondoarchive -Ot -d /dev/st0 -g
1297
1298</entry>
1299</row>
1300</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1301
1302<para>With previous versions of Mondo, you needed to specify the
1303size of the tape. As of v1.51, that is no longer necessary.</para>
1304</sect2>
1305<sect2 id="backup-cmd-failsafe">
1306        <title>Standard Example With Failsafe kernel</title>
1307<para></para>
1308<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1309<row>
1310<entry>
1311
1312bash# mondoarchive -k FAILSAFE -Ow 2
1313
1314</entry>
1315</row>
1316</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1317
1318<para>Due to slight policy differences in the Debian distribution
1319approach, the '-k FAILSAFE' option is typically needed with
1320Debian.</para>
1321</sect2>
1322<sect2 id="backup-cmd-network">
1323        <title>Standard Example With Network Backup</title>
1324<para></para>
1325<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1326<row>
1327<entry>
1328
1329bash# mount 192.168.1.3:/home/nfs -t nfs /mnt/nfsbash# mondoarchive -OVn 192.168.1.3:/home/nfs -g -s 20
13300mbash# umount /mnt/nfs
1331
1332</entry>
1333</row>
1334</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1335
1336<para>The resultant ISO's can be burned to CD's if you want (which
1337isn't a good idea unless you're a Mondo expert because they'll try
1338to restore over a network by default, which is silly cos the
1339archives are on the CD's). Or, you can boot from the Mindi floppies
1340(or mondorescue.iso) and hit ENTER a few times to restore.</para>
1341</sect2>
1342</sect1>
1343</chapter>
1344
1345<chapter id="compare">
1346<title>Compare</title>
1347<para>Before you trust your backup CD, make sure your BIOS can boot
1348CD (and that it is configured to do so).</para>
1349<itemizedlist>
1350<listitem>
1351<para>Boot from the first CD.</para>
1352</listitem>
1353<listitem>
1354<para>Type:</para>
1355</listitem>
1356</itemizedlist>
1357<para></para>
1358<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1359<row>
1360<entry>
1361
1362bash# compare
1363
1364</entry>
1365</row>
1366</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1367
1368<para>Follow the on-screen instructions. This will compare your
1369backup against your original file system.</para>
1370<para>FYI, no bad archives have been created since May 2000. Having
1371said that, I would still encourage you to run Compare before
1372trusting the backups.</para>
1373<para>To view the file differences, look at the file
1374'/tmp/changed.txt'. Normal differences include logs and other
1375dynamic system files that changed during the time of the backup
1376process. If only a few files differ - e.g. files in /var, files
1377ending in '&amp;#732;', logs, temporary files, /etc/mtab,
1378/etc/adjtimex - then you know the archives are good. Your logs will
1379change over time, too. Bear in mind that a difference between the
1380backup and the live copy does not&nbsp;indicate a flaw in Mondo. It
1381indicates that you or your filesystem changed the files, so the
1382backup is no longer 100% up to date. However, that is inevitable,
1383as your filesystem changes from moment to moment (which is why you
1384back it up regularly).</para>
1385
1386</chapter>
1387
1388<chapter id="restore">
1389<title>Restore</title>
1390
1391<sect1 id="restore-overview">
1392<title>Overview</title>
1393
1394<para>I hope you don't have to restore from scratch very often.
1395It's nerve-wracking until you realize that Mondo's restore engine
1396is very reliable. I backup and restore my system 2 or 3 times a
1397week as part of the testing process. I have no other backup regime,
1398so it had better work.</para>
1399<para>If you find that you cannot make your PC boot from the CD,
1400take heart: the first backup CD of each set contains floppy disk
1401images to give you the same functionality as the CD (minus the
1402archives, of course) on floppies. Remember, your Mondo CD is a
1403fully functional CD-based mini-distribution as well as a recovery
1404CD.</para>
1405<para>You can choose from the following modes:</para>
1406<variablelist>
1407<listitem>
1408<para></para>
1409</listitem></varlistentry>
1410<varlistentry><term>Interactive</term>
1411<listitem><!-- $MVD$:spaceretainer() --><para>&nbsp;</para>
1412<para></para>
1413</listitem></varlistentry>
1414<listitem><para>Restore step-by-step, or restore a subset of the
1415archives. This is the method you should mainly use for your
1416recovery needs.</para>
1417<para></para>
1418</listitem></varlistentry>
1419<varlistentry><term>Nuke</term>
1420<listitem><!-- $MVD$:spaceretainer() --><para>&nbsp;</para>
1421<para></para>
1422</listitem></varlistentry>
1423<listitem><para>Wipe your drives and restore everything,
1424automatically and unattended. Warning: This does exactly what is
1425says, so be carefull using it.</para>
1426<para></para>
1427</listitem></varlistentry>
1428<varlistentry><term>Expert</term>
1429<listitem><!-- $MVD$:spaceretainer() --><para>&nbsp;</para>
1430<para></para>
1431</listitem></varlistentry>
1432<listitem><para>Boot to a shell prompt. If you want to do anything
1433creative, you should boot into Expert Mode. It's called expert, I
1434think that says it all.</para></listitem></varlistentry>
1435</variablelist>
1436<para>If the CD is not found during the initial restore CD boot
1437attempt, reboot the PC a second time prior to reporting failure.
1438Occasional timing errors and hardware/software/system conflicts do
1439occur.</para>
1440</sect1>
1441
1442<sect1 id="restore-tips">
1443<title>Tips and Tricks</title>
1444
1445<para>Ideally, restore your system to a spare hard drive to test
1446the integrity and reliability of your disks. To do that, either
1447edit your mountlist to make the devices point to your spare hard
1448drive, or swap your hard drive cables between boots.</para>
1449<para>At a bare minimum, compare your CD against your file system
1450before you decide whether to trust them.</para>
1451<para>To test Mondo's ability to handle your LILO or GRUB boot
1452loader and accompanying configuration file:</para>
1453<itemizedlist>
1454<listitem>
1455<para>Boot from the backup CD into Expert Mode</para>
1456</listitem>
1457<listitem>
1458<para>Type:</para>
1459</listitem>
1460</itemizedlist>
1461<para></para>
1462<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1463<row>
1464<entry>
1465
1466bash# mondorestore --mbr
1467
1468</entry>
1469</row>
1470</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1471
1472<itemizedlist>
1473<listitem>
1474<para>To fix any mess it made (not that it should) type:</para>
1475</listitem>
1476</itemizedlist>
1477<para></para>
1478<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1479<row>
1480<entry>
1481
1482bash# mount-mebash# chroot /mnt/RESTORINGbash# lilo OR grub-install '(hd0)'bash# exitbash# unmount-me
1483
1484</entry>
1485</row>
1486</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1487
1488<itemizedlist>
1489<listitem>
1490<para>If it did not work then please copy /tmp/mondo-restore.log to
1491a floppy (or to your hard disk), gzip it and e-mail it to the
1492mailing list.</para>
1493</listitem>
1494</itemizedlist>
1495<sect2 id="AEN39"><title>9.2.1. Barebones (Nuke) Restore</title>
1496<para>Imagine that your hard drives happen to be wiped,
1497deliberately or accidentally. Or, imagine that you want to clone
1498your existing operating system. In either case, you want to run in
1499Nuke Mode.</para>
1500<para>If you want to wipe everything and restore your whole system
1501from CD, please:</para>
1502<itemizedlist>
1503<listitem>
1504<para>Boot from the first Mondo CD</para>
1505</listitem>
1506<listitem>
1507<para>Press &lt;enter&gt;</para>
1508</listitem>
1509<listitem>
1510<para>Insert the subsequent CD when asked</para>
1511</listitem>
1512<listitem>
1513<para>Watch the screen for errors</para>
1514</listitem>
1515</itemizedlist>
1516<para>That's it. The restoration process for tape or NFS users is
1517similarly easy: just boot, answer the on-screen prompts, and
1518wait.</para>
1519<para>Now, should something go wrong, you will be able to examine
1520/tmp/mondo-restore.log to see what happened. All is not lost. You
1521can fdisk and format the partitions yourself, using the tools that
1522come with the CD. You can then run mondorestore in Interactive Mode
1523and say 'no' when asked if you want Mondo to partition/format your
1524drives.</para>
1525<para>If you want to see exactly what Mondo is doing while it is
1526restoring, press &lt;Alt&gt;&lt;left cursor&gt; to view its
1527logfile, in a virtual console, scrolling past.</para>
1528</sect2><sect2 id="AEN40"><title>9.2.2. Interactive Restore</title>
1529<para>Interactive Mode is for people who have lost a subset of data
1530from their live file system, or perhaps who have lost some data
1531from their latest backup and want to restore a subset of data from
1532an earlier backup. If you want to restore only some files or if you
1533do not want to prep/format your drives, then you should boot into
1534Interactive Mode. The interactive mode will provide an 'Editing
1535mountlist screen' that allows you to setup a different disk
1536geometry.</para>
1537<para>To move up and down between partitions in the 'Editing
1538mountlist screen', use the Up and Down arrows. To move between the
1539main window and the buttons at the bottom, use the Left and Right
1540cursor keys. TAB shifts focus from one screen item to the other in
1541a haphazard fashion, owing to the complexities of the Newt
1542library.</para>
1543<para>If you want to restore selectively, just press &lt;enter&gt;
1544and follow the on-screen instructions. You will be asked to say
1545yes/no to a range of questions.</para>
1546<para>If you are planning to modify your partition table, you would
1547do well to read up on the partition layout and the use of fdisk, it
1548gives you some could pointers on how to best lay out partitions.
1549You can find good guide her.
1550<ulink url="http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/mini/Partition/index.html">http://www.ibiblio.o
1551rg/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/mini/Partition/index.html</ulink></para>
1552<para>If you want to restore a subset of the backup then:</para>
1553<itemizedlist>
1554<listitem>
1555<para>Boot from the CD</para>
1556</listitem>
1557<listitem>
1558<para>Type:</para>
1559</listitem>
1560</itemizedlist>
1561<para></para>
1562<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1563<row>
1564<entry>
1565
1566bash# interactive
1567
1568</entry>
1569</row>
1570</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1571
1572<itemizedlist>
1573<listitem>
1574<para>Then, after booting, answer the questions as follows:</para>
1575</listitem>
1576</itemizedlist>
1577<para></para>
1578<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1579<row>
1580<entry>
1581
1582Do you want to partition your devices? noDo you want to format them? noDo you want to restore everythin
1583g? noDo you want to restore something? yesWhich path do you want to restore? /home/hugo [e.g.]Do you wa
1584nt to run LILO to setup your boot sectors? Yes
1585
1586</entry>
1587</row>
1588</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1589
1590</sect2><sect2 id="AEN42"><title>9.2.3. Expert Restore</title>
1591<para>If you are planning to modify your partition table, you would
1592do well to read up on the partition layout and the use of fdisk, it
1593gives you some could pointers on how to best lay out partitions.
1594You can find good guide her.
1595<ulink url="http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/mini/Partition/index.html">http://www.ibiblio.o
1596rg/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/mini/Partition/index.html</ulink></para>
1597<para>To restore manually, please:</para>
1598<itemizedlist>
1599<listitem>
1600<para>Boot from the first CD, then type:</para>
1601</listitem>
1602</itemizedlist>
1603<para></para>
1604<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1605<row>
1606<entry>
1607
1608bash# expert
1609
1610</entry>
1611
1612</row>
1613</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1614
1615<itemizedlist>
1616<listitem>
1617<para>Then do whatever you like. :) You may type the following, of
1618course:</para>
1619</listitem>
1620</itemizedlist>
1621<para></para>
1622<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1623<row>
1624<entry>
1625
1626bash# mondorestore
1627
1628</entry>
1629</row>
1630</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1631
1632</sect2><sect2 id="AEN44"><title>9.2.4. Modified partitions -
1633Restore to a different disk geometry</title>
1634<para>One of the nice things about Mondo is that it lets you wipe
1635your existing system and restore it in any layout you like (within
1636reason). You can move from non-RAID to RAID,install and utilize
1637additional drives, move from ext2 to ReiserFS, etc., all without
1638risking the loss of data.</para>
1639<para>If the user excluded a particular partition from backup and
1640specifically excluded it from the mountlist itself using -E then
1641Mondo will insert a small (32MB) partition at restore-time, in
1642order to avoid having to re-jig fstab, the partition table,
1643etc.</para>
1644<para>To do this:</para>
1645<itemizedlist>
1646<listitem>
1647<para>Boot into Expert Mode, then type:</para>
1648</listitem>
1649</itemizedlist>
1650<para></para>
1651<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1652<row>
1653<entry>
1654
1655bash# mondorestore
1656
1657</entry>
1658</row>
1659</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1660
1661<itemizedlist>
1662<listitem>
1663<para>(edit the mountlist using the on-screen editor)</para>
1664</listitem>
1665</itemizedlist>
1666<para>If you want to move from ext2 to ReiserFS, you can do it here
1667(so long as your kernel supports ReiserFS). Ditto for XFS, JFS or
1668ext3.</para>
1669<para>Mondorestore will try to modify your /etc/fstab to reflect
1670changes you have made to the mountlist. If you are not using LILO,
1671you can still create your own /mnt/RESTORING/etc/lilo.conf and run
1672lilo -r /mnt/RESTORING to configure your boot sectors and Master
1673Boot Record.</para>
1674<para>Mondo (technically, Mindi on behalf of Mondo) creates a file
1675called a mountlist. This can be found on the ramdisk at
1676/tmp/mountlist.txt; it looks something like this:</para>
1677<para></para>
1678<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1679<row>
1680<entry>
1681
1682/dev/hda1/mnt/windows vfat 4096000/dev/hda5 / reiserfs 6023000&gt;/dev/hda6 /tmp xfs 955000/dev/hda7 /u
1683sr xfs 4096000
1684
1685</entry>
1686</row>
1687</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1688
1689<para>It is fairly easy to understand the list. Each line refers to
1690a single device/partition. The line format is:</para>
1691<para></para>
1692<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1693<row>
1694<entry>
1695
1696&lt;device&gt; &lt;partition&gt; &lt;format&gt; &lt;Kilobytes&gt;
1697
1698</entry>
1699</row>
1700</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1701
1702<para>If you have added a hard drive and want to take advantage of
1703the additional space, you could amend the above mountlist to
1704read:</para>
1705<para></para>
1706<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1707<row>
1708<entry>
1709
1710/dev/hda1/mnt/windows vfat 6096000/dev/hda5 / reiserfs 9123000/dev/hda6 /tmp xfs 955000/dev/hdb1 /usr x
1711fs 8192000/dev/hdb2 /home xfs 8192000
1712
1713</entry>
1714</row>
1715</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1716
1717<para>This assumes that your old hard drive is /dev/hda and the new
1718hard drive is /dev/hdb.</para>
1719<para>Or, if you want to add RAID support, create a new
1720/etc/raidtab on the ramdisk (which is beyond the scope of this
1721HOWTO) and then write a mountlist like this:</para>
1722<para></para>
1723<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1724<row>
1725<entry>
1726
1727/dev/hda1 /mnt/windows vfat 6096000/dev/md0 / reiserfs 9123000/dev/md1 /tmp xfs 955000/dev/md2 xfs 8192
1728000/dev/md3 /home xfs 8192000
1729
1730</entry>
1731</row>
1732</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1733
1734<para>So long as your /etc/raidtab file is sane, Mondo can
1735automatically partition and format your disks for you, including
1736the RAID devices.</para>
1737<para>Once you have finished editing /tmp/mountlist.txt using
1738mondorestore's built-in editor then you may choose 'OK'. Please
1739note that this will not write anything to your hard disk. You will
1740only reformat or repartition your disks if you say 'Yes' when asked
1741if you want to do those things.</para>
1742</sect2><sect2 id="AEN47"><title>9.2.5. Advanced</title>
1743<para>It is now possible to restore to a live filesystem using
1744Mondo. In other words, you do not have to boot your PC from your
1745CD/floppy in order to restore files. Mondo was originally designed
1746for disaster recovery - situations in which you cannot boot your
1747PC. If you can boot your PC, it is not really a disaster, is it? :)
1748Well, if you have wiped out your priceless collection of "MTV's
1749Bjork Unplugged" MP3's, perhaps it is. Anyway, just type this as
1750root</para>
1751<para></para>
1752<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1753<row>
1754<entry>
1755
1756bash# mondorestore
1757
1758</entry>
1759</row>
1760</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1761
1762<para></para>
1763<informaltable><tgroup cols="2"><tbody>
1764<row>
1765<entry>
1766<ulink url="images/rest1.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
1767<imagedata fileref="images/rest1-mini.png">
1768</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
1769</ulink>
1770</entry>
1771<entry>
1772Choose your type of backup media. The live restoration process is
1773very similar to what you'll experience if you type mondorestore
1774with no parameters after booting from a Mondo CD/floppy.
1775</entry>
1776</row>
1777<row>
1778<entry>
1779<ulink url="images/rest2.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
1780<imagedata fileref="images/rest2-mini.png">
1781</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
1782</ulink>
1783</entry>
1784<entry>
1785Hit 'OK' when you have inserted the tape/CD. If you generated a
1786tape backup, the tape itself should be enough. If you generated a
1787CD backup, the first CD should be enough. Otherwise, you may need
1788the boot floppy.
1789</entry>
1790</row>
1791<row>
1792<entry>
1793<ulink url="images/rest3.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
1794<imagedata fileref="images/rest3-mini.png">
1795</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
1796</ulink>
1797</entry>
1798<entry>
1799Flag the files and directories you wish to restore. Use the 'More'
1800and 'Less' buttons to open and close subdirectories.
1801</entry>
1802</row>
1803<row>
1804<entry>
1805<ulink url="images/rest4.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
1806<imagedata fileref="images/rest4-mini.png">
1807</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
1808</ulink>
1809</entry>
1810<entry>
1811Specify the location to restore the files to. In general, '/' is
1812appropriate. If you do not want to overwrite newer versions of the
1813files you are restoring then specify /tmp/BKP or similar as the
1814restore path.
1815</entry>
1816</row>
1817<row>
1818<entry>
1819<ulink url="images/rest5.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
1820<imagedata fileref="images/rest5-mini.png">
1821</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
1822</ulink>
1823</entry>
1824<entry>
1825Mondorestore will retrieve configuration information from the
1826media. (The sample screen is for tape users. CD users will see
1827something different.)
1828</entry>
1829</row>
1830<row>
1831<entry>
1832<ulink url="images/rest6.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
1833<imagedata fileref="images/rest6-mini.png">
1834</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
1835</ulink>
1836</entry>
1837<entry>
1838Data will be restored to the hard disk - first the regular files,
1839then any big (32MB or greater) files in the restore set.
1840</entry>
1841</row>
1842</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1843
1844<para>I hope this manual is proving to be useful to you.</para>
1845</sect1>
1846
1847</chapter>
1848
1849<chapter id="faq">
1850<title>FAQ</title>
1851
1852<sect1 id="faq-overview">
1853<title>Overview</title>
1854<para>Are the errors from Mindi or Mondo? Look at
1855/var/log/mondo-archive.log, /var/log/mindi.log or the
1856mondo.err.xxxxx.tgz log indicated by the screen message. Pipe
1857screen errors which relate to the creation of boot disk(s) and or
1858data disk(s) to a text file.</para>
1859<para>See the <ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org">web
1860site</ulink> for details. If you are going to e-mail
1861<ulink url="../../feedback/feedback.html">the list</ulink> then
1862please attach that text file (zipped!) and tell me:</para>
1863<itemizedlist>
1864<listitem>
1865<para>Your kernel version</para>
1866</listitem>
1867<listitem>
1868<para>Your Linux distro's name and version</para>
1869</listitem>
1870<listitem>
1871<para>Whether your kernel supports initrd and loopfs; it
1872should!</para>
1873</listitem>
1874<listitem>
1875<para>What sort of PC you are using, including hard disk
1876configurations</para>
1877</listitem>
1878</itemizedlist>
1879<para>Mondo is freely available and you are given it for no charge.
1880When you e-mail the mailing list, please bear that in mind.</para>
1881</sect1>
1882<sect1 id="faq-general">
1883<title>General Questions</title>
1884<variablelist>
1885<listitem>
1886<para></para>
1887</listitem></varlistentry>
1888<varlistentry><term>Q:
1889<para><ulink url="faqgeneral.html#AEN496">What is
1890"Mindi"?</ulink></para></term>
1891<varlistentry><term>Q:
1892<para><ulink url="faqgeneral.html#AEN501">Why is it called
1893"Mondo"?</ulink></para></term>
1894<varlistentry><term>Q:
1895<para><ulink url="faqgeneral.html#AEN506">Mondo does not work on my
1896system. It keels over and dies. What's wrong?</ulink></para></term>
1897<varlistentry><term>Q:
1898<para><ulink url="faqgeneral.html#AEN511">What if the error is in
1899Mindi?</ulink></para></term>
1900<varlistentry><term>Q:
1901<para><ulink url="faqgeneral.html#AEN516">Can I trust
1902Mondo?</ulink></para></term>
1903<varlistentry><term>Q:
1904<para><ulink url="faqgeneral.html#AEN522">How do I report a
1905bug?</ulink></para></term>
1906<varlistentry><term>Q: <para><ulink url="faqgeneral.html#AEN527">I
1907think Mondo should (...insert suggestion here...) and I have
1908rewritten it accordingly. Would you like to see my
1909patch?</ulink></para></term>
1910<varlistentry><term>Q: <para><ulink url="faqgeneral.html#AEN532">I
1911think Mondo should (...insert suggestion here...); will you
1912incorporate this feature for me, please?</ulink></para></term>
1913<varlistentry><term>Q:
1914<para><ulink url="faqgeneral.html#AEN537">Mondo says, "XXX is
1915missing," and then terminates. What's wrong?</ulink></para></term>
1916<varlistentry><term>Q:
1917<para><ulink url="faqgeneral.html#AEN543">Can Mondo handle multi-CD
1918backups and restores?</ulink></para></term>
1919<varlistentry><term>Q:
1920<para><ulink url="faqgeneral.html#AEN548">Can Mondo handle
1921Linux/Windows dual-boot systems?</ulink></para></term>
1922<varlistentry><term>Q:
1923<para><ulink url="faqgeneral.html#AEN553">Can Mondo backup
1924Windows-only systems?</ulink></para></term>
1925<varlistentry><term>Q:
1926<para><ulink url="faqgeneral.html#AEN558">Does Mondo support
1927LVM?</ulink></para></term>
1928<varlistentry><term>Q:
1929<para><ulink url="faqgeneral.html#AEN563">What if I don't use LILO?
1930What if I use GRUB?</ulink></para></term>
1931<varlistentry><term>Q:
1932<para><ulink url="faqgeneral.html#AEN568">Mondoarchive (or
1933mondorestore) segfaults when I run it. What could be
1934wrong?</ulink></para></term>
1935<varlistentry><term>Q: <para><ulink url="faqgeneral.html#AEN573">I
1936get the error, 'Cannot find /tmp/dev.0' or 'Cannot mount device
19370x0701'; what do I do?</ulink></para></term>
1938<varlistentry><term>Q:
1939<para><ulink url="faqgeneral.html#AEN578">Can I create a Mondo CD
1940and then use it to create an archive of any OS on any
1941PC?</ulink></para></term>
1942<varlistentry><term>Q:
1943<para><ulink url="faqgeneral.html#AEN583">Why do you insist on
1944putting floppy disk images on Mondo CD? They waste space and I
1945never use them. The CD works just fine, so why keep the floppy disk
1946images?</ulink></para></term>
1947<varlistentry><term>Q:
1948<para><ulink url="faqgeneral.html#AEN588">Why doesn't the Mondo
1949project have a cool-looking animal logo?</ulink></para></term>
1950<varlistentry><term>Q: <para><ulink url="faqgeneral.html#AEN593">Is
1951there a Mondo user 'Code of Conduct?</ulink></para></term>
1952</variablelist>
1953<para><anchor id="AEN496"/>Q: What is "Mindi"?</para>
1954<para>A: Mindi, a.k.a. Mindi-Linux, makes a mini-distribution from
1955your kernel, modules, modules, tools and libraries. It can also
1956generate an El Torito 2.88MB boot disk image. Mondo uses Mindi to
1957create a mini-distro, then boots from it and runs on it.</para>
1958<para><anchor id="AEN501"/>Q: Why is it called "Mondo"?</para>
1959<para>A: The Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles described cool things as
1960'mondo'. I wasn't sure what to call this project. 'Faust' was one
1961idea I had, partly as a dig at my former boss who practically owned
1962me because of my legal status at the time. In the end, I chose
1963something short and distinctive.</para>
1964<para><anchor id="AEN506"/>Q: Mondo does not work on my system. It
1965keels over and dies. What's wrong?</para>
1966<para>A: It works on Red Hat 7.x, Linux-Mandrake 8.x, some flavors
1967of SuSE, some flavors of Slackware, some flavors of Debian, etc.
1968The more distributions I support, the more moving targets I have to
1969hit. Please bear this in mind when e-mailing the list. :) If you
1970would like to help me by beta-testing Mondo (or Mindi) on your PC
1971then I would be very interested in working with you to work around
1972the eccentricities of your Linux distro. However, rest assured, 90%
1973of the bugs reported to me are actually symptoms of FooLinux X.Y's
1974unique way of doing things.</para>
1975<para><anchor id="AEN511"/>Q: What if the error is in Mindi?</para>
1976<para>A: Then send me a copy of /var/log/mindi.log (compressed,
1977please) along with a description of your distro, your kernel, etc.
1978Oh, and before sending it, please read it.</para>
1979<para><anchor id="AEN516"/>Q: Can I trust Mondo?</para>
1980<para>A: Mondo has generated reliable archives since May 2000. I
1981have lost data by using bad CD-R disks and not verifying their
1982contents. Some users have not tried booting from their CD until
1983crunch time. Remember to boot into Compare Mode to verify the
1984backup before you trust it. If Mondo did not work, you would not be
1985reading this. If it does not work for you, your kernel is usually
1986the culprit. Check <ulink url="kernelsupport.html">Linux Kernel
1987support</ulink> to see what your kernel should support. Please
1988e-mail the list (or me) if you need some help with this.</para>
1989<para><anchor id="AEN522"/>Q: How do I report a bug?</para>
1990<para>A: E-mail the bug report (mondo.err.xxxxx.tgz) to me. If you
1991want to discuss it, please e-mail the list. The list is for
1992talking; my e-mail address is for big files. :-) If you don't send
1993me a logfile then there isn't a lot that I can do for you, so
1994PLEASE include a logfile at the very least. Or, pop into #mondo on
1995irc.redhat.com and see if I'm there.</para>
1996<para><anchor id="AEN527"/>Q: I think Mondo should (...insert
1997suggestion here...) and I have rewritten it accordingly. Would you
1998like to see my patch?</para>
1999<para>A: Absolutely! :-) The best way for you to make Mondo do what
2000you want is to modify it and then send me the patch. That way, we
2001can all benefit.</para>
2002<para><anchor id="AEN532"/>Q: I think Mondo should (...insert
2003suggestion here...); will you incorporate this feature for me,
2004please?</para>
2005<para>A: I'll definitely think about it. Would you like to
2006help?</para>
2007<para><anchor id="AEN537"/>Q: Mondo says, "XXX is missing," and
2008then terminates. What's wrong?</para>
2009<para>A: A good Linux distribution should contain XXX but the
2010designers, in their infinite wisdom, decided not to include that
2011particular tool. Check <ulink url="linuxpackages.html">Related
2012Linux Packages</ulink> and install the missing package. If that
2013fails, contact the vendor/distributor/manufacturer/designer of your
2014distro.</para>
2015<para><anchor id="AEN543"/>Q: Can Mondo handle multi-CD backups and
2016restores?</para>
2017<para>A: Yes, up to twenty CD per set. This 20-CD limit results
2018from laziness on my part. I can remove it at any time. However, if
2019your system occupies more than 20 CD, may I recommend that you
2020invest in a tape streamer?</para>
2021<para><anchor id="AEN548"/>Q: Can Mondo handle Linux/Windows
2022dual-boot systems?</para>
2023<para>A: Yes. If your system currently boots into Linux or Windows
2024via LILO, you can backup and restore both OSes at the same time
2025using Mondo. If you are using NTFS then add the switch, '-x
2026&lt;device&gt;'.</para>
2027<para><anchor id="AEN553"/>Q: Can Mondo backup Windows-only
2028systems?</para>
2029<para>A: Sure, if you pay me to play catch-up to Microsoft. ;)
2030Seriously, Mondo can do it but I do not give away the
2031functionality. If you are a Microsoft-only user, you are accusomed
2032to paying for software and technical support. Please e-mail me for
2033more information.</para>
2034<para><anchor id="AEN558"/>Q: Does Mondo support LVM?</para>
2035<para>A: Mondo supports LVM, yes. Mondo backs up and restores your
2036existing setup but it does not make it easy for you to change your
2037LVM configuration. You have to edit /tmp/i-want-my-lvm at boot-time
2038to do that.</para>
2039<para><anchor id="AEN563"/>Q: What if I don't use LILO? What if I
2040use GRUB?</para>
2041<para>A: GRUB is supported by Mondo.</para>
2042<para><anchor id="AEN568"/>Q: Mondoarchive (or mondorestore)
2043segfaults when I run it. What could be wrong?</para>
2044<para>A: Install from tarball instead of RPM. (Or, try RPM if you
2045just installed from tarball.) Your compiler or your libraries may
2046be fubar. We'll see. If that doesn't work then please e-mail the
2047<ulink url="../../feedback/feedback.html">mailing
2048list</ulink>.</para>
2049<para><anchor id="AEN573"/>Q: I get the error, 'Cannot find
2050/tmp/dev.0' or 'Cannot mount device 0x0701'; what do I do?</para>
2051<para>A: Please free up /dev/loop0 using 'losetup /dev/loop0 -d' to
2052unmount that loop device. If your OS will not let you do that,
2053contact your local support group or Linux vendor.</para>
2054<para><anchor id="AEN578"/>Q: Can I create a Mondo CD and then use
2055it to create an archive of any OS on any PC?</para>
2056<para>A: Not yet. You can use Mondo to backup Linux or
2057Linux/Windows dual boot. One day, Mondo will let you backup
2058partitions it can't read or write, by treating each partition as
2059one long file to be backed up. This file will be chopped,
2060compressed and archived like any other big file.</para>
2061<para><anchor id="AEN583"/>Q: Why do you insist on putting floppy
2062disk images on Mondo CD? They waste space and I never use them. The
2063CD works just fine, so why keep the floppy disk images?</para>
2064<para>A: Because of my old college buddy, Justin Case. If you
2065really, truly want them gone then please submit a patch to make
2066<para><anchor id="AEN583"/>Q: Why do you insist on putting floppy
2067disk images on Mondo CD? They waste space and I never use them. The
2068CD works just fine, so why keep the floppy disk images?</para>
2069<para>A: Because of my old college buddy, Justin Case. If you
2070really, truly want them gone then please submit a patch to make
2071them optional.</para>
2072<para><anchor id="AEN588"/>Q: Why doesn't the Mondo project have a
2073cool-looking animal logo?</para>
2074<para>A: Excellent question! Please submit graphics of candidate
2075animal logos!</para>
2076<para><anchor id="AEN593"/>Q: Is there a Mondo user 'Code of
2077Conduct?</para>
2078<para>A: Yes. Read the HOWTO. Submit patches. Recommend realistic
2079improvements. Be courteous to other users on the discussion list.
2080Do not whine.</para>
2081</sect1>
2082
2083<sect1 id="faq-booting">
2084<title>Booting and Kernel related Questions</title>
2085<variablelist>
2086<listitem>
2087<para></para>
2088</listitem></varlistentry>
2089<varlistentry><term>Q:
2090<para><ulink url="faqbooting.html#AEN601">How do I know if Mondo
2091works with my Linux distro?</ulink></para></term>
2092<varlistentry><term>Q:
2093<para><ulink url="faqbooting.html#AEN607">When I try to boot from
2094the Mondo CD, it says, "VFS: Unable to mount root fs." I am using a
2095Debian distro. What do I do?</ulink></para></term>
2096<varlistentry><term>Q:
2097<para><ulink url="faqbooting.html#AEN612">When I try to boot from
2098the Mondo CD, it says, "Cannot mount root fs - kernel panic," or
2099something similar. What do I do?</ulink></para></term>
2100<varlistentry><term>Q:
2101<para><ulink url="faqbooting.html#AEN618">When I try to boot from
2102the Mondo CD, it says, "Mounting /tmp/tmpfs...fatal error! Failed
2103UPGRADE YOUR RAM". What does that mean?</ulink></para></term>
2104<varlistentry><term>Q:
2105<para><ulink url="faqbooting.html#AEN624">When I try to boot from
2106the Mondo CD, it says something about not finding my CD-ROM drive
2107and then it blames the kernel. What does that
2108mean?</ulink></para></term>
2109<varlistentry><term>Q:
2110<para><ulink url="faqbooting.html#AEN631">The Mondo CD/floppy takes
2111ages to boot. How can I speed it up?</ulink></para></term>
2112<varlistentry><term>Q: <para><ulink url="faqbooting.html#AEN636">I
2113made a Mondo CD using the failsafe kernel (i.e. I said 'no' when
2114Mondo asked if I wanted to use my own kernel). It still doesn't
2115boot. Help!</ulink></para></term>
2116<varlistentry><term>Q:
2117<para><ulink url="faqbooting.html#AEN641">What if my PC won't boot
2118from a CD?</ulink></para></term>
2119<varlistentry><term>Q:
2120<para><ulink url="faqbooting.html#AEN647">But why won't Mondo boot
2121from my CD? It says my kernel is flawed/outdated/ whatever, and
2122when I wrote to you, you told me the same thing... but I still
2123don't get it. I mean, my kernel works for everything else. Why not
2124Mondo?</ulink></para></term>
2125<varlistentry><term>Q:
2126<para><ulink url="faqbooting.html#AEN653">Why do I only need a boot
2127disk if I'm using a tape drive? Where are the data
2128disks?</ulink></para></term>
2129<varlistentry><term>Q:
2130<para><ulink url="faqbooting.html#AEN658">Why does it say, "Process
2131accounting FAILED" when I reboot?</ulink></para></term>
2132<varlistentry><term>Q:
2133<para><ulink url="faqbooting.html#AEN663">Why does it say,
2134&amp;#8220;request_module[block-major-1]: Root fs not mounted VFS:
2135Cannot open root device "100" or 01:00 Please append a correct
2136"root=" boot option kernel panic: VFS: Unable to mount root fs on
213701:00&amp;#8221; when i boot from the CD?</ulink></para></term>
2138<varlistentry><term>Q:
2139<para><ulink url="faqbooting.html#COPYBOOTDATADISK">How do i copy
2140boot+data disk images to physical floppy
2141disks?</ulink></para></term>
2142<varlistentry><term>Q: <para><link linkend="TAPENICE">My tape drive
2143doesn't play nicely with Mondo at boot-time. What do I
2144do?</link></para></term>
2145</variablelist>
2146<para><anchor id="AEN601"/>Q: How do I know if Mondo works with my
2147Linux distro?</para>
2148<para>A: Try running it. :) That's always a good way to find out.
2149Check the <ulink url="../../docs/docs.html">Documentation
2150page</ulink>, too.</para>
2151<para><anchor id="AEN607"/>Q: When I try to boot from the Mondo CD,
2152it says, "VFS: Unable to mount root fs." I am using a Debian
2153distro. What do I do?</para>
2154<para>A: Ask Debian's designers why they, unlike every other distro
2155I can find, have included cramfs and other 'goodies' with their
2156kernel. In the meantime, please use '-k FAILSAFE' in your command
2157line when calling Mondo.</para>
2158<para><anchor id="AEN612"/>Q: When I try to boot from the Mondo CD,
2159it says, "Cannot mount root fs - kernel panic," or something
2160similar. What do I do?</para>
2161<para>A: Recompile your kernel (or use '-k FAILSAFE'). Take a look
2162at <ulink url="kernelsupport.html">Linux Kernel support</ulink> to
2163see what you're kernel must support.</para>
2164<para><anchor id="AEN618"/>Q: When I try to boot from the Mondo CD,
2165it says, "UPGRADE YOUR RAM". What does that mean?</para>
2166<para>A: Recompile your kernel and add Virtual memory file system
2167support. Take a look at <ulink url="kernelsupport.html">Linux
2168Kernel support</ulink> to see what you're kernel must support. (Of
2169course, if your PC has less than 64MB of RAM, you could always...
2170what's the phrase? I know, upgrade your RAM!)</para>
2171<para><anchor id="AEN624"/>Q: When I try to boot from the Mondo CD,
2172it says something about not finding my CD-ROM drive and then it
2173blames the kernel. What does that mean?</para>
2174<para>A: Your kernel must support initrd, loopfs, IDE CD-ROM's, and
2175ramdisks. Take a look at <ulink url="kernelsupport.html">Linux
2176Kernel support</ulink> to see what you're kernel must support. If
2177your kernel does not support these things, Mondo will not boot from
2178your CD. However, when running Mindi, you may choose to use _its_
2179kernel instead of your own. In addition, you may boot from floppy
2180disk images instead the CD: copy the disk images from the CD
2181/images directory to floppy disks, using 'dd'. Take a look at
2182<ulink url="faqbooting.html#COPYBOOTDATADISK">Copy boot data
2183disks</ulink> on how to make those.</para>
2184<para><anchor id="AEN631"/>Q: The Mondo CD/floppy takes ages to
2185boot. How can I speed it up?</para>
2186<para>A: Edit mindi (it's a shell script, btw) and change
2187LILO_OPTIONS="" to LILO_OPTIONS="-c". This enables map compaction
2188in lilo and speeds up booting, for more info see the lilo man
2189page.</para>
2190<para><anchor id="AEN636"/>Q: I made a Mondo CD using the failsafe
2191kernel (i.e. I said 'no' when Mondo asked if I wanted to use my own
2192kernel). It still doesn't boot. Help!</para>
2193<para>A: OK, now that is a bug. :-) I included a kernel with Mondo
2194(technically, with Mindi, which Mondo uses) to make sure that users
2195could use Mondo despite flaws in their own kernels. If you are
2196using Mondo/Mindi's kernel but still cannot boot from your Mondo CD
2197then please e-mail the list.</para>
2198<para><anchor id="AEN641"/>Q: What if my PC won't boot from a
2199CD?</para>
2200<para>A: Copy the image files from the CD /images directory, using
2201the dd command. Take a look at
2202<ulink url="faqbooting.html#COPYBOOTDATADISK">Copy boot data
2203disks</ulink> on how to make those. Then boot from the first
2204floppy; follow it up with the data disks; finally, type 'mount
2205/mnt/cdrom' and then utilize the restore script as usual, e.g.
2206mondorestore.</para>
2207<para><anchor id="AEN647"/>Q: But why won't Mondo boot from my CD?
2208It says my kernel is flawed/outdated/ whatever, and when I wrote to
2209you, you told me the same thing... but I still don't get it. I
2210mean, my kernel works for everything else. Why not Mondo?</para>
2211<para>A: Because Mondo makes a boot disk using your kernel. I bet
2212your other software doesn't do that. Also, not all kernels are
2213suitable for boot disks. I'm sorry but that's Life. Upgrade your
2214kernel and/or recompile it. Take a look at
2215<ulink url="kernelsupport.html">Linux Kernel support</ulink> to see
2216what you're kernel must support.</para>
2217<para><anchor id="AEN653"/>Q: Why do I only need a boot disk if I'm
2218using a tape drive? Where are the data disks?</para>
2219<para>A: On the tape. :-) The first 32MB of the tape will be set
2220aside for a large tarball containing the data disks, a list of all
2221files backed up, and other sundries. If Mondo and Mindi do their
2222respective jobs then you won't need additional floppies, just the
2223boot floppy and the tape(s).</para>
2224<para><anchor id="AEN658"/>Q: Why does it say, "Process accounting
2225FAILED" when I reboot?</para>
2226<para>A: You were using Process Accounting. Red Hat (or whichever
2227distro you are using) does not provide a startup/shutdown script
2228yet. So, when you try to backup the process log, it just grows and
2229grows as Mondo tries to back it up. Mondo doesn't back it up
2230anymore and that's why. The unfortunate side-effect is... well,
2231what you see on your screen. Type 'touch /var/log/pacct' and then
2232'paccton' to fix the error message.</para>
2233<para><anchor id="AEN663"/>Q: Why does it say,
2234&amp;#8220;request_module[block-major-1]: Root fs not mounted VFS:
2235Cannot open root device "100" or 01:00 Please append a correct
2236"root=" boot option kernel panic: VFS: Unable to mount root fs on
223701:00&amp;#8221; when i boot from the CD?</para>
2238<para>A: Recompile your kernel and add initrd support. Take a look
2239at <ulink url="kernelsupport.html">Linux Kernel support</ulink>to
2240see what you're kernel must support.</para>
2241<para><anchor id="COPYBOOTDATADISK"/>Q: How do i copy boot+data
2242disk images to physical floppy disks ?</para>
2243<para>A: The images are in /root/images/mindi (eve if they are
2244created by Mondo) and also in the 'images' directory on the first
2245CD of your backup set, if you have backed up to CD. You can copy
2246the images to disk as follows:-</para>
2247<para></para>
2248<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2249<row>
2250<entry>
2251
2252[boot disk]bash# fdformat /dev/fd0u1722bash# dd if=/root/images/mindi/mindi-boot.1722.img of=/dev/fd0u1
2253772[data disk]bash# fdformat /dev/fd0bash# dd if=/root/images/mindi/mindi-data-N.img of=/dev/fd0Replace
2254 N with 1, 2, etc.
2255
2256</entry>
2257</row>
2258</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2259
2260<variablelist>
2261<listitem>
2262<para></para>
2263</listitem></varlistentry>
2264<varlistentry><term><para id="TAPENICE"></para>Q: My tape drive
2265doesn't play nicely with Mondo at boot-time. What do I do?</term>
2266<varlistentry><term>A: Play with 'mt'. Use its setblksize and
2267defblksize switches to reconfigure your tape drive if necessary.
2268<variablelist>
2269<listitem>
2270<para></para>
2271</listitem></varlistentry>
2272<varlistentry><term><para id="TAPENICE"></para>Q: My tape drive
2273doesn't play nicely with Mondo at boot-time. What do I do?</term>
2274<varlistentry><term>A: Play with 'mt'. Use its setblksize and
2275defblksize switches to reconfigure your tape drive if necessary.
2276Some tape drives just suck, I'm sorry to say. If yours is one of
2277them then God help you. Mondo can handle any tape drive whose drive
2278and firmware can handle fread(), fwrite(), fread() and fclose().
2279Mondo uses standard C libraries to talk to your tape streamer. If
2280your tape streamer can't handle that then you had better call a
2281priest. Either that or ask for a refund.</term>
2282</variablelist>
2283<para></para>
2284</sect1>
2285<sect1 id="faq-install">
2286<title>Installation related Questions</title>
2287<variablelist>
2288<listitem>
2289<para></para>
2290</listitem></varlistentry>
2291<varlistentry><term>Q:
2292<para><ulink url="faqinstallation.html#AEN678">Why do I get,
2293"newt.h not found," several times when I try to install
2294Mondo?</ulink></para></term>
2295<varlistentry><term>Q:
2296<para><ulink url="faqinstallation.html#AEN684">Newt won't compile
2297when i try, what's the problem?</ulink></para></term>
2298<varlistentry><term>Q:
2299<para><ulink url="faqinstallation.html#AEN690">I've just used up 6
2300CD-R, only to find that Mondo won't boot!</ulink></para></term>
2301<varlistentry><term>Q: <para><link linkend="PACKREQ">Lots of
2302packages, required by Mondo, are missing from my system. What do I
2303do?</link></para></term>
2304</variablelist>
2305<para><anchor id="AEN678"/>Q: Why do I get, "newt.h not found," or
2306"popt.h not found," several times when I try to install
2307Mondo?</para>
2308<para>A: You have not installed libnewt and/or libnewt-devel.
2309Please do so. Check <ulink url="linuxpackages.html">Related Linux
2310Packages</ulink> to see what Mondo requires and where you can get
2311tarballs and RPM's. Make sure you are using the right version of
2312newt/libnewt. Read the error messages carefully.</para>
2313<para><anchor id="AEN684"/>Q: Newt won't compile when I try. What's
2314the problem?</para>
2315<para>A: You are probably missing popt.h, which newt needs to
2316compile, it can be found in the 'popt' package. Check your
2317distribution and see if they have popt, if not check
2318<ulink url="linuxpackages.html">Related Linux Packages</ulink> to
2319see where you can get it.</para>
2320<para><anchor id="AEN690"/>Q: I've just used up 6 CD-R, only to
2321find that Mondo won't boot!</para>
2322<para>A: You should have used CD-RW. ;) In the HOWTO, it gives
2323instructions on how to create a test CD (one, not six).</para>
2324<variablelist>
2325<listitem>
2326<para></para>
2327</listitem></varlistentry>
2328<varlistentry><term><para id="PACKREQ"></para>Q: Lots of packages,
2329required by Mondo, are missing from my system. What do I do?</term>
2330<varlistentry><term>A: Install them. :) If you are using RPM or DEB
2331then you'll be told which packages you need. Mondo offers a lot of
2332those packages on its
2333<para><ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org/download/download.html">Download</ulink></para>
2334web page.</term>
2335</variablelist>
2336</sect1>
2337<sect1 id="faq-hardware">
2338<title>Hardware related Questions</title>
2339<variablelist>
2340<listitem>
2341<para></para>
2342</listitem></varlistentry>
2343<varlistentry><term>Q:
2344<para><ulink url="faqhardwarerelated.html#AEN698">Can Mondo handle
2345CD-RW?</ulink></para></term>
2346<varlistentry><term>Q:
2347<para><ulink url="faqhardwarerelated.html#AEN703">Does Mondo
2348support tape drives?</ulink></para></term>
2349<varlistentry><term>Q:
2350<para><ulink url="faqhardwarerelated.html#AEN708">Does Mondo
2351support my tape drive??</ulink></para></term>
2352<varlistentry><term>Q:
2353<para><ulink url="faqhardwarerelated.html#AEN713">How do I copy the
2354floppy images from the CD to floppy disks?</ulink></para></term>
2355<varlistentry><term>Q:
2356<para><ulink url="faqhardwarerelated.html#AEN722">Sometimes, my
2357laptop won't mount Mondo CD properly, or something.
2358Umm...</ulink></para></term>
2359<varlistentry><term>Q:
2360<para><ulink url="faqhardwarerelated.html#AEN727">Does Mondo
2361support RAID?</ulink></para></term>
2362<varlistentry><term>Q:
2363<para><ulink url="faqhardwarerelated.html#AEN732">Where is my CD
2364burner, in SCSI terms?</ulink></para></term>
2365<varlistentry><term>Q:
2366<para><ulink url="faqhardwarerelated.html#AEN740">Can Mondo handle
2367SCSI devices?</ulink></para></term>
2368</variablelist>
2369<para><anchor id="AEN698"/>Q: Can Mondo handle CD-RW?</para>
2370<para>A: Yes. Use '-Ow &lt;speed&gt; &lt;device&gt;' to make it
2371work.</para>
2372<para><anchor id="AEN703"/>Q: Does Mondo support tape
2373drives?</para>
2374<para>A: Yes. See above.</para>
2375<para><anchor id="AEN708"/>Q: Does Mondo support my tape
2376drive?</para>
2377<para>A: If your tape drive and its firmware and the kernel-level
2378driver support fopen(), fread(), fwrite() and fclose() - standard C
2379library calls - then yes, Mondo should support it. If not, well,
2380you need a refund. :) Mondo plays nicely with any sane, sensible
2381drives. That's most of them, by the way. :) If your drive doesn't
2382play nicely with Mondo then you may try tinkering with setblksize
2383and defblksize using 'mt', or tweaking Mondo's block size by
2384recompiling it with make INTTAPE=4096 or INTTAPE=8192 or something.
2385Other than that, you need a priest or a refund.</para>
2386<para><anchor id="AEN713"/>Q: How do I copy the floppy images from
2387the CD to floppy disks?</para>
2388<para>A: Mount the CD-ROM, e.g. at /mnt/cdrom. Insert a blank
2389floppy. Type:</para>
2390<para></para>
2391<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2392<row>
2393<entry>
2394
2395bash# cd /mnt/cdrom/imagesbash# dd if=mindi-boot.1722.img of=/dev/fd0u1722
2396
2397</entry>
2398</row>
2399</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2400
2401<para>Insert another blank floppy and type:</para>
2402<para></para>
2403<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2404<row>
2405<entry>
2406
2407bash# dd if=mindi-data-1.img of=/dev/fd0u1722
2408
2409</entry>
2410</row>
2411</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2412
2413<para>Do the above for each 'mindi-data' disk image.</para>
2414<para><anchor id="AEN722"/>Q: Sometimes, my laptop won't mount
2415Mondo CD properly, or something. Umm...</para>
2416<para>A: Please insert the CD, close the CD-ROM tray, wait a few
2417seconds and then press Enter to acknowledge insertion of the next
2418CD. Your laptop is on crack and is sucking a little too hard on the
2419pipe.</para>
2420<para><anchor id="AEN727"/>Q: Does Mondo support RAID?</para>
2421<para>A: Yes. You may backup and restore RAID systems. You may also
2422backup a non-RAID system and restore as RAID (or vice versa) by
2423using the mountlist editor to edit your RAID and non-RAID
2424partitions and their settings. Mondo will do the partitioning and
2425formatting for you.</para>
2426<para><anchor id="AEN732"/>Q: Where is my CD burner, in SCSI
2427terms?</para>
2428<para>A: Type:</para>
2429<para></para>
2430<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2431<row>
2432<entry>
2433
2434bash# cdrecord -scanbus
2435
2436</entry>
2437</row>
2438</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2439
2440<para>Find your CD burner's device# (e.g. '0,0,0'). Call Mondo with
2441the switch '-Oc &lt;speed&gt;' -d '&lt;device&gt;'. Or, if you feel
2442lucky, just use '-Oc 2'; Mondo will (a) assume you want to write at
24434x to</para>
2444<para>a CD-R and (b) will do its best to find your CD
2445burner.</para>
2446<para><anchor id="AEN740"/>Q: Can Mondo handle SCSI devices?</para>
2447<para>A: Mondo should be able to handle almost any hardware. So
2448long as your kernel and modules support it, Mindi will support it
2449and therefore so will Mondo.</para>
2450</sect1>
2451
2452<sect1 id="faq-backup">
2453<title>Backup related Questions</title>
2454<variablelist>
2455<listitem>
2456<para></para>
2457</listitem></varlistentry>
2458<varlistentry><term>Q: <para><link linkend="MMKM">Mondo says,
2459'Cannot run mindi --makemountlist' and aborts. What do I
2460do?</link></para></term>
2461<varlistentry><term>Q: <para><ulink url="faqbackup.html#AEN748">Can
2462Mondo burn CD as they are created?</ulink></para></term>
2463<varlistentry><term>Q:
2464<para><ulink url="faqbackup.html#AEN753">When I try to backup to
2465CD, cdrecord/mkisofs returns an error. Nothing else appears to be
2466wrong. What do I do?</ulink></para></term>
2467<varlistentry><term>Q:
2468<para><ulink url="faqbackup.html#AEN758">Mondo failed to burn my
2469CD. It said something like, "Error CDB A1 01 02 53 ..." and so on.
2470What does that mean?</ulink></para></term>
2471<varlistentry><term>Q: <para><ulink url="faqbackup.html#AEN763">May
2472I backup my system with one partition layout and restore with
2473another?</ulink></para></term>
2474<varlistentry><term>Q: <para><ulink url="faqbackup.html#AEN775">Why
2475does Mondo need so much free disk space?</ulink></para></term>
2476<varlistentry><term>Q:
2477<para><ulink url="faqbackup.html#AEN780">Will Mondo backup
2478partitions whose formats are not understood by Linux, such as
2479NTFS?</ulink></para></term>
2480<varlistentry><term>Q: <para><ulink url="faqbackup.html#AEN785">I
2481am trying to do something clever, e.g. write my ISO's to an NFS
2482mount, and I get some weird error messages. What do I
2483do?</ulink></para></term>
2484<varlistentry><term>Q: <para><ulink url="faqbackup.html#AEN790">Can
2485Mondo backup to data files on another partition, e.g. an NFS
2486mount?</ulink></para></term>
2487<varlistentry><term>Q: <para><ulink url="faqbackup.html#AEN795">Can
2488Mondo backup _to_ an NFS partition, i.e. backup over a network? How
2489about restoring?</ulink></para></term>
2490<varlistentry><term>Q:
2491<para><ulink url="faqbackup.html#AEN801">Does Mondo handle System
2492or Hidden attributes when archiving Dos/Win
2493files?</ulink></para></term>
2494<varlistentry><term>Q: <para><ulink url="faqbackup.html#AEN806">Why
2495do you include IO.SYS and MSDOS.SYS in mondo-vfat, when they belong
2496to Microsoft and are copyrighted?</ulink></para></term>
2497<varlistentry><term><para id="MMKM"></para>Q: Mondo says, 'Cannot
2498run mindi --makemountlist' and aborts. What do I do?</term>
2499<varlistentry><term>A: Look at /var/log/mindi.log and see what it
2500says. Also, try typing 'mindi --makemountlist /tmp/mountlist.txt'
2501to see what Mindi says. Compress the log and send it to the mailing
2502list if you get stuck.</term>
2503</variablelist>
2504<para><anchor id="AEN748"/>Q: Can Mondo burn CD as they are
2505created?</para>
2506<para>A: Yes. Use the '-Oc &lt;speed&gt;' switch. Use a negative
2507number for a dummy burn.</para>
2508<para><anchor id="AEN753"/>Q: When I try to backup to CD,
2509cdrecord/mkisofs returns an error. Nothing else appears to be
2510wrong. What do I do?</para>
2511<para>A: Upgrade cdrecord and mkisofs.</para>
2512<para><anchor id="AEN758"/>Q: Mondo failed to burn my CD. It said
2513something like, "Error CDB A1 01 02 53 ..." and so on. What does
2514that mean?</para>
2515<para>A: Cdrecord reported some serious errors while trying to burn
2516your CD. Check your CD burner, your CD-R and your kernel.</para>
2517<para><anchor id="AEN763"/>Q: May I backup my system with one
2518partition layout and restore with another?</para>
2519<para>A: Yes. Boot in Interactive Mode and edit the mountlist using
2520the snazzy new mountlist editor. Mondo can now edit your RAID
2521partitions for you. Just open /dev/md0 (or whatever) and select
2522"RAID.." to start. Or, to add a RAID device:</para>
2523<itemizedlist>
2524<listitem>
2525<para>Add two or more partitions, of type and mountpoint
2526'raid'</para>
2527</listitem>
2528<listitem>
2529<para>Add device '/dev/md0' and click OK</para>
2530</listitem>
2531<listitem>
2532<para>Follow the prompts and your own common-sense :)</para>
2533</listitem>
2534</itemizedlist>
2535<para><anchor id="AEN775"/>Q: Why does Mondo need so much free disk
2536space?</para>
2537<para>A: Because I'm a bitter, twisted man who lives to torment
2538you. Mwahahahaha! :-) Mondo has to work around the inadequacies of
2539mkisofs, cdrecord and your own Linux distribution; in return, it
2540asks for a lot of free disk space.</para>
2541<para><anchor id="AEN780"/>Q: Will Mondo backup partitions whose
2542formats are not understood by Linux, such as NTFS?</para>
2543<para>A: Yes. Use '-x &lt;device&gt;'. (You can have more than one
2544device.)</para>
2545<para><anchor id="AEN785"/>Q: I am trying to do something clever,
2546e.g. write my ISO's to an NFS mount, and I get some weird error
2547messages. What do I do?</para>
2548<para>A: Well, (a) use '-T /tmp' or '-T /home' or something in your
2549call to Mondo. Oh, and (b) send me /var/log/mondo-archive.log,
2550please :-)</para>
2551<para><anchor id="AEN790"/>Q: Can Mondo backup to data files on
2552another partition, e.g. an NFS mount?</para>
2553<para>A: Yes. Just backup as usual but add '-d /mnt/nfs' or
2554wherever your partition is mounted; don't use '-Oc' or '-Ot' at
2555all; just '-Oi -d /root'. Then, after booting from the floppies
2556which Mondo generates, you need to type 'ISO' at the
2557console.</para>
2558<para><anchor id="AEN795"/>Q: Can Mondo backup _to_ an NFS
2559partition, i.e. backup over a network? How about restoring?</para>
2560<para>A: Yes. Use '-On &lt;mount&gt; &lt;directory&gt;'. On my
2561system, I use:</para>
2562<para></para>
2563<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2564<row>
2565<entry>
2566
2567bash# mondoarchive -On 192.168.1.3:/home/nfs
2568
2569</entry>
2570</row>
2571</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2572
2573<para><anchor id="AEN801"/>Q: Does Mondo handle System or Hidden
2574attributes when archiving Dos/Win files?</para>
2575<para>A: No. It probably never will, either. Sorry.</para>
2576<para><anchor id="AEN806"/>Q: Why do you include IO.SYS and
2577MSDOS.SYS in mondo-vfat, when they belong to Microsoft and are
2578copyrighted?</para>
2579<para>A: Well, I used to, but I don't anymore. However, if you do
2580have a Windows partition, you can still use 'format-and-kludge-vfat
2581&lt;DEVICE&gt;/' to format and make bootable a VFAT partition.
2582AFAIK, I am the only person to write a Linux equivalent of the DOS
2583"SYS" command.</para>
2584</sect1>
2585
2586<sect1 id="faq-compare">
2587<title>Compare related Questions</title>
2588<variablelist>
2589<listitem>
2590<para></para>
2591</listitem></varlistentry>
2592<varlistentry><term>Q:
2593<para><ulink url="faqcompare.html#AEN814">When I compare my
2594archives to my file system, Mondo tells me there are differences or
2595errors. Are the archives bad?</ulink></para></term>
2596</variablelist>
2597<para><anchor id="AEN814"/>Q: When I compare my archives to my file
2598system, Mondo tells me there are differences or errors. Are the
2599archives bad?</para>
2600<para>A: Look at /tmp/changed.files; if the files are logfiles,
2601temp files or files which you think you may have changed recently
2602then the archives are simply out of date, albeit only by a few
2603minutes. Not a problem. However, if lots of files in /usr have
2604changed or if you get lots of errors then perhaps your CD, your
2605tapes or even your hardware could be to blame. Check your CD writer
2606or tape streamer.</para>
2607<para>Also, don't forget to review /var/log/mondo-archive.log for
2608more information.</para>
2609</sect1>
2610
2611<sect1 id="faq-restore">
2612<title>Restore related Questions</title>
2613<variablelist>
2614<listitem>
2615<para></para>
2616</listitem></varlistentry>
2617<varlistentry><term>Q:
2618<para><ulink url="faqrestore.html#AEN822">Can Mondo help me
2619move/resize/re-allocate my partitions?</ulink></para></term>
2620<varlistentry><term>Q: <para><ulink url="faqrestore.html#AEN827">My
2621zip drive is a SCSI drive. When I restore, Mondo craps out, saying
2622it can't mount the drive (because there is no disk in it). What do
2623I do?</ulink></para></term>
2624<varlistentry><term>Q: <para><ulink url="faqrestore.html#AEN832">I
2625received a message like, 'Fileset NNN failed' during restore. What
2626does it mean.</ulink></para></term>
2627<varlistentry><term>Q:
2628<para><ulink url="faqrestore.html#AEN837">Why does my ext3
2629partition have less space free than when I backed it
2630up?</ulink></para></term>
2631<varlistentry><term>Q: <para><link linkend="SEGF">When I restore
2632after booting from the CD/floppies, I sometimes get errors like,
2633"Running out of memory" or "Segmentation fault". What is going
2634on?</link></para></term>
2635<varlistentry><term>Q: <para><link linkend="LVM">I can't
2636nuke-restore my LVM or RAID or LVM-on-RAID setup. I have to do it
2637manually. What now?</link></para></term>
2638</variablelist>
2639<para><anchor id="AEN822"/>Q: Can Mondo help me
2640move/resize/re-allocate my partitions?</para>
2641<para>A: Yes. Just backup your system in Interactive Mode using
2642Mondo. Edit the mountlist when prompted.</para>
2643<para><anchor id="AEN827"/>Q: My zip drive is a SCSI drive. When I
2644restore, Mondo craps out, saying it can't mount the drive (because
2645there is no disk in it). What do I do?</para>
2646<para>A: Restore in Interactive Mode. Delete the SCSI drive from
2647the mountlist before you restore. Then Mondo won't try to partition
2648or format it. Next time you backup, use -E /dev/sdd (or whatever
2649your zip drive is). The /dev entry will be excluded from the
2650mountlist but not from the filelist. So, when you restore, you
2651won't accidentally reformat your zip disk. However, after
2652restoring, you will find that /dev/sdd (the _file_) will still be
2653present in your /dev directory. Cool, eh?</para>
2654<para><anchor id="AEN832"/>Q: I received a message like, 'Fileset
2655NNN failed' during restore. What does it mean.</para>
2656<para>A: It usually means either you had a very large (&gt;2GB)
2657file which was not archived owing to a flaw in your distro or your
2658filesystem has changed in relation to the backup.</para>
2659<para><anchor id="AEN837"/>Q: Why does my ext3 partition have less
2660space free than when I backed it up?</para>
2661<para>A: Mondo creates a 10MB journal file area. Your journal was
2662probably smaller than that, hence the difference.</para>
2663<variablelist>
2664<listitem>
2665<para></para>
2666</listitem></varlistentry>
2667<varlistentry><term><para id="SEGF"></para>Q: When I restore after
2668booting from the CD/floppies, I sometimes get errors like, "Running
2669out of memory" or "Segmentation fault". What is going on?</term>
2670<varlistentry><term>A: It sounds as if you are running out of disk
2671space, probably ram disk space. Type 'df -m' to see which
2672partitions are running low on space. Please send as much
2673information as you can to the mailing list. This problem is
2674believed to have been fixed in 1.63 and 1.71.</term>
2675</variablelist>
2676<para><anchor id="LVM"/>Q: I can't nuke-restore my LVM or RAID or
2677LVM-on-RAID setup. I have to do it manually. What now?</para>
2678<para>A: You said it yourself. You have to do it manually. :) Sorry
2679but that's about it. At least you have all the tools to do it. I
2680assume you know how. If you don't, look at i-want-my-lvm (a script
2681on the ramdisk) if you're using LVM. It should give you a few
2682clues. RAID is harder but in general Mondo's RAID support is good.
2683After you've prepped and formatted your drives, run mondorestore
2684again but say 'no' when asked if you want Mondo to prep or format
2685your drives.</para>
2686</sect1>
2687</chapter>
2688
2689&gfdl;
2690
2691</book>
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