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[324]1<!DOCTYPE BOOK PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook V4.1//EN" [
2<!ENTITY curdate "DDD">
3<!ENTITY curver "VVV">
4
[327]5<!ENTITY WWWB "http://www.mondorescue.org/">
6<!ENTITY WWW '<ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org">MondoRescue</ulink>'>
[330]7<!ENTITY ML '<ulink url="http://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/mondo-devel">mondorescue mailing list</ulink>'>
[327]8<!ENTITY gfdl SYSTEM "fdl.sgml">
9]>
[324]10
[327]11<book>
[328]12
[327]13<bookinfo>
[324]14<title>MondoRescue HOWTO</title>
15<subtitle>
16Utilisation and Configuration of Mondo and Mindi under Linux (Version &curver;)
17</subtitle>
[331]18<graphic fileref="images/protected-by-mondo" align="center">
[324]19
20<pubdate>
[328]21in its latest version the
22&curdate;
23</pubdate>
[324]24
25<abstract>
26<para>
27This document describes the use of mondo and mindi tools to realize disaster recovery backup of your systems. It provides information on installation, backup and restore modes, hardware and software requirements, and answers to some frequently asked questions.
28The goals are to offer a general view of the functions and their best usages.
29Mondo Rescue is a Disaster Recovery Solution which allows you
30to effortlessly backup and interactively restore Linux, Windows and
31other supported filesystem partitions to/from CD/DVD-+R/RW media, tape,
32NFS, ... and Mindi Linux provides the bootable emergency restore
33CD/floppy set which Mondo uses at boot-time.
34</para>
35</abstract>
[328]36
[324]37<author>
38<firstname>Bruno</firstname>
39<surname>Cornec</surname>
40<affiliation>
41<orgname>MondoRescue Project</orgname>
42<address><email>bcornec@users.berlios.de</email></address>
43</affiliation>
44</author>
45<!--
46Hugo Rabson
47Mikael Hultgren
48Stan Benoit
49Randy Delfs
50Cafeole
51Bryan J. Smith
52-->
[328]53
[324]54<copyright>
55<year>2000-2006</year>
56<holder role="mailto:bcornec@users.berlios.de">Bruno Cornec</holder>
57</copyright>
[328]58
[324]59<legalnotice>
60<title>License</title>
61<para>
62</para>
63<para>
64This HOWTO is a free documentation. you may copy, redistribute and/or modify it under the terms of the
65<Link LinkEnd="gfdl">
66GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1
67</link>.</para>
68<para>
69or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invarian
70t Sections, Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts. This document is distributed
71hoping it will be useful, but <emphasis>without any guaranty</emphasis>; you're
72completely responsible of its use, and coulnd't complain in case it doesn't work
73, or even if it breaks the hardware. All the software included in it, if not alr
74eady copyrighted is released under the GPL.
75</para>
76</legalnotice>
[328]77
[324]78<revhistory>
[328]79<revision>
80    <revnumber>2.06</revnumber>
81    <date>2006-01-16</date>
82    <authorinitials>Bruno Cornec</authorinitials>
83    <revdescription>
84    <para>
85    First SGML version publically available, remade from the HTML docs of the project.
86    </para>
87    </revdescription>
[324]88</revision>
89</revhistory>
[327]90</bookinfo>
[324]91
92<toc></toc>
93<lot></lot>
94
95
[329]96<chapter id="intro">
[324]97<title>About this Guide</title>
98
[329]99<sect1 id="intro-purpose">
[324]100<title>Purpose / Scope of this Guide</title>
101
102<para>
103This HOWTO serves to help people get started with using
104mondo/mindi as way to backup/restore their system. This is a work
105constantly evolving. It was started by Hugo Rabson and has
106since been worked upon by a number of people. See the
107'<ulink url="&WWWB;about.html#devteam">About</ulink>' web
108page for a list of members of the development team.</para>
109
110<para>There are many ways to contribute to the Linux movement
111without actually writing code. One of the most important is writing
112documentation, allowing each person to share their knowledge with
113thousands of others around the world. This HOWTO is designed to
114help you get familiar with how Mondo/Mindi works.</para>
115
116<para>
117Opinions expressed here are those of the authors.
118Informations are provided in the aim to be useful to the readers.
119However, there can't be, through this document, any warranty of any kind
120on the way it works on your systems, nor the author could be responsible for any problem caused by the use of these informations.
121However, software editors don't garantee you a lot either (re-read the contracts).
122</para>
[328]123</sect1>
[324]124
[329]125<sect1 id="intro-newversion"><title>New versions of this document</title>
[324]126
127<para>The newest version of this document can always be found on
128MondoRescue's homepage &WWW;.</para>
129<para>
130If you make a translation of this document into another language, please let meknow so that I can include a reference to it here.
131</para>
[328]132</sect1>
133
134<sect1><title>Suggestions / Feedback</title>
[324]135<para>
136I rely on you, the reader, to make this HOWTO useful. THis HOWTO is probably incomplete even if it tries to be accurate to the best of our knowledge.
137If you have any suggestions, corrections, recommandations or congratulations :-) don't hesitate to send them to me
138<email>bcornec@users.berlios.de</email>,
[330]139and I will try to incorporate them in a next revision or to the &ML;;
[324]140e-mail the list at
141<ulink url="mailto:mondo-devel@lists.sourceforge.net">mondo-devel@lists.sourceforge.net</ulink>;
142tell us what is wrong and how it should be fixed.
143Include the section title and recommended changes. Whenever possible, include
144the exact, spell-checked, grammar-checked text that you think would
145improve the document.
146</para>
147<para>See Mondo's
148<ulink url="../../feedback/feedback.html">Feedback</ulink> page for
149more information.
150</para>
151<para>
152Please note that we do our best to help everyone but it is
153difficult for us to help you if you do not attach a log file to
154your e-mail. Let me say that again - attach your log file to your
155e-mail! Thank you. Without it we can't offer
156any tangible help because you aren't either. That's what the log
157file is for. It is located at <filename>/var/log/mondo-archive.log</filename>; and <filename>/var/log/miindi.log</filename> or at <filename>/var/log/mondo-restore.log</filename>
[328]158</para>
[324]159<para>
160This document was originaly written by native english speakers, but is maintained by a non-native english speaker so help me correct mistaques instead of rumbling that I've done one :-)
161</para>
162<para>
163I am also willing to answer general questions on MondoRescue, the best I can.
164Before doing so, please read all of the information in this HOWTO, and then send me detailed information about the problem, especially including the logs generated by the tools, or traces obtained (Did I say that already :-].
165</para>
166<para>
167If you publish this document on a CD-ROM or in hardcopy form, a complimentary copy would be appreciated; mail me for my postal address. Also consider making a donation to the Linux Documentation Project to help support free documentation for Linux. Contact the Linux HOWTO coordinator,
168Guylhem AZNAR <email>guylhem@rrremovethis.oeil.qc.ca</email>.
169</para>
[328]170</sect1>
[324]171
[329]172<sect1 id=intro-thanks><title>Aknowledgements</title>
[324]173
174<para>Thanks goes to these people for helping and adding to this
175HOWTO.</para>
176
177<para>Document maintainer:</para>
178<itemizedlist mark="bullet" spacing="Compact">
179<listitem>
180<para>Bruno Cornec</para>
181</listitem>
182</itemizedlist>
183<para>Original Design Assistance by:</para>
184<itemizedlist>
185<listitem>
186<para>Xion Network.com</para>
187</listitem>
188</itemizedlist>
189<para>Original Document Assistance by:</para>
190<itemizedlist>
191<listitem>
192<para>Cafeole</para>
193</listitem>
194<listitem>
195<para>Troff</para>
196</listitem>
197<listitem>
198<para>Randy Delfs</para>
199</listitem>
200<listitem>
201<para>Mikael Hultgren</para>
202</listitem>
203</itemizedlist>
204<para>Original LinuxDoc and LaTeX Reformat by:</para>
205<itemizedlist>
206<listitem>
207<para>Bryan J. Smith</para>
208</listitem>
209</itemizedlist>
210<para>Original DocBook Reformat by:</para>
211<itemizedlist>
212<listitem>
213<para>Mikael Hultgren</para>
214</listitem>
215</itemizedlist>
216<para>Original author; 1.6x material:</para>
217<itemizedlist>
218<listitem>
219<para>Hugo Rabson</para>
220</listitem>
221</itemizedlist>
222
[328]223</sect1>
224</chapter>
[324]225
[328]226<chapter id="quickstart"><title>QuickStart</title>
[324]227<itemizedlist mark="bullet" spacing="Compact">
228<listitem>
229<para>We recommend that you read this complete
230HOWTO. However, if you are too busy or impatient, then
231please use this QuickStart guide to stay out of trouble.</para>
232</listitem>
233<listitem>
234<para>Install the tarball, RPM, or DEB mindi and mondo
[328]235packages. (see <link linkend="installation">Installation</link>
[324]236for more details)</para>
237</listitem>
238<listitem>
239<para>Execute as root (type 'su -' to become root if you are not
240logged in as root)</para>
241<para></para>
242
243<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
244<row>
245<entry>
246
247bash# mondoarchive
248
249</entry>
250</row>
251</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
252
253</listitem>
254</itemizedlist>
255<para></para>
256
257<informaltable><tgroup cols="2"><tbody>
258<row>
259<entry>
260<ulink url="images/mamain.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
[331]261<imagedata fileref="images/mamain-mini">
[324]262</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
263</ulink>
264</entry>
265<entry>
266Choose from the list of supported backup media types. The media you
267will use most often are CD/DVD-+R, CD/DVD-+RW, tape, NFS and hard disk. If
268you want to backup/restore over a network, choose 'NFS'. If you
269want to backup/restore to/from a local partition or if you simply
270want to store the ISO images in a local directory until you have
271time or facilities to burn them to CD's, choose 'hard disk'. If you
272choose 'CD/DVD-R[W]' or 'tape' then in general your hardware will be
273detected and configured for you.
274</entry>
275</row>
276<row>
277<entry>
278<ulink url="images/maburnproof.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
[331]279<imagedata fileref="images/maburnproof-mini">
[324]280</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
281</ulink>
282</entry>
283<entry>
284        If you are backing up to CD/DVD-+R[W] then Mondo will ask you if your CD
285burner has BurnProof technology, is inside a laptop, or is
286otherwise eccentric. If you are backing up to a tape streamer then
287you will not see this message.
288</entry>
289</row>
290<row>
291<entry>
292<ulink url="images/macompression.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
[331]293<imagedata fileref="images/macompression-mini">
[324]294</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
295</ulink>
296</entry>
297<entry>
298How much compression do you want? None, if your tape streamer has
299built-in hardware compression. Maximum, if your CPU is blazingly
300fast. Average should do just fine for most situations.
301</entry>
302</row>
303<row>
304<entry>
305<ulink url="images/mainclude.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
[331]306<imagedata fileref="images/mainclude-mini">
[324]307</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
308</ulink>
309</entry>
310<entry>
311If you want to backup the whole computer (excluding /tmp and /proc,
312naturally) then leave this as / which is the default. Otherwise,
313specify subsets, (e.g. /usr/local /home ) being sure to put a space
314in between each path.
315</entry>
316</row>
317<row>
318<entry>
319<ulink url="images/maexclude.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
[331]320<imagedata fileref="images/maexclude-mini">
[324]321</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
322</ulink>
323</entry>
324<entry>
325If you are backing up your whole computer then you might want to
326exclude certain directories, e.g. /shared/MP3. Please specify them
327in the 'exclude directories' dialog box. Please put a space in
328between each path, e.g. /shared/private /scratch /nfs /windows
329</entry>
330</row>
331<row>
332<entry>
333<ulink url="images/makernel.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
[331]334<imagedata fileref="images/makernel-mini">
[324]335</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
336</ulink>
337</entry>
338<entry>
339Is your kernel sane? Red Hat, Mandrake, SuSE, Debian and Slackware users
340should in general say 'yes' because these vendors are good at
341producing reliable kernels. If you are using Gentoo or LFS
342then your kernel might be non-standard, in which case say 'no' to
343use Mondo's failsafe kernel.
344</entry>
345</row>
346<row>
347<entry>
348<ulink url="images/maverifyq.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
[331]349<imagedata fileref="images/maverifyq-mini">
[324]350</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
351</ulink>
352</entry>
353<entry>
354If you want to verify the archives after writing them to media, say
355'yes' here. If you have absolute faith in your hardware and your
356Linux distribution, say 'no'... and a little prayer.
357</entry>
358</row>
359<row>
360<entry>
361<ulink url="images/maproceedq.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
[331]362<imagedata fileref="images/maproceedq-mini">
[324]363</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
364</ulink>
365</entry>
366<entry>
367If you are sure you want to go ahead, say 'yes' and find something
368else to do while Mondo backs up your computer. If you say 'no' then
369you will be unceremoniously dumped at the shell prompt. :-)
370</entry>
371</row>
372<row>
373<entry>
374<ulink url="images/1.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
[331]375<imagedata fileref="images/1-mini">
[324]376</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
377</ulink>
378</entry>
379<entry>
380The backup process will now commence. There are some pre-backup
381tasks to be carried out first but the backup is essentially
382underway. To simplify the backup process, you were asked a series
383of questions. Next time, if you like, you could call mondoarchive
384with various command-line switches to control its behavior, instead
385of answering a series of questions. See the man page for details.
386</entry>
387</row>
388<row>
389<entry>
390<ulink url="images/3.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
[331]391<imagedata fileref="images/3-mini">
[324]392</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
393</ulink>
394</entry>
395<entry>
396Mondo will make a catalog of all files to be backed up. This may
397take up to five minutes. The list of files will be divided into
398sets, approximately 4 MB (before compression) of files per set.
399This typically takes one minute.
400</entry>
401</row>
402<row>
403<entry>
404<ulink url="images/4.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
[331]405<imagedata fileref="images/1-mini">
[324]406</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
407</ulink>
408</entry>
409<entry>
410Mondo calls Mindi. Mindi generates bootable floppy disk images and
411auxiliary data disk images which are based on your existing Linux
412distribution and filesystem. That way, you can be sure Mondo's
413tools will be compatible with your existing filesystems and
414binaries: Mondo's tools are your tools. Mindi takes up to five
415minutes to run.
416</entry>
417</row>
418<row>
419<entry>
420<ulink url="images/5tape.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
[331]421<imagedata fileref="images/5tape-mini">
[324]422</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
423</ulink>
424</entry>
425<entry>
426Finally, Mondo begins backing up your computer. This process may
427take a few minutes or a few hours, depending on how much data you
428are archiving, how fast your CPU is, how much RAM you have, and so
429on. It will backup your regular files and then your large files
430(files larger than approximately 32MB). If you have opted to verify
431your backups, Mondo will do that too.
432</entry>
433</row>
434<row>
435<entry>
436<ulink url="images/10cd.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
[331]437<imagedata fileref="images/10cd-mini">
[324]438</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
439</ulink>
440</entry>
441<entry>
442Do you want to create a boot floppy at the end? Yes, if you're a
443tape or NFS user. No, if you are using CD/DVD-R[W]'s and your computer
444supports bootable CD's. Tape users only need one floppy but other
445users may need more. Mondo will advise accordingly.
446</entry>
447</row>
448</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
449
450<itemizedlist>
451<listitem>
452<para>Try to boot from the first CD of the backup (or the first
453floppy, if you made floppies). Choose 'Compare Mode' by typing
454compare at the boot screen.</para>
455</listitem>
456<listitem>
457<para>If you can boot, fine. If not, make a Mindi "Test" CD to
458checkout the compatibility of your system. (see
[330]459<link linkend="test-mindi">Testing Mindi</link> for more
[324]460details). Remove the CD/floppy; boot your computer as usual;
461execute as root</para>
462<para></para>
463<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
464<row>
465<entry>
466
467        bash# mindi
468        bash# cd /root/images/mindi
469
470</entry>
471</row>
472</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
473
474<para>(for CD-R)</para>
475<para></para>
476<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
477<row>
478<entry>
479
480bash# cdrecord dev=0,0,0 speed=4 -eject -v mindi.iso
481
482</entry>
483</row>
484</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
485
486<para>(for CD-RW)</para>
487<para></para>
488<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
489<row>
490<entry>
491
492bash# cdrecord dev=0,0,0 speed=4 blank=fast -eject -v mindi.iso
493
494</entry>
495</row>
496</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
497
498<para>Reboot your system with the created Mindi CD, with the BIOS
499set to boot from CD. If the result is a command line in 'Expert'
500mode, your system checks out. Remove the CD and reboot your
501system.</para>
502</listitem>
503<listitem>
504<para>If you still cannot boot from Mindi's CD then please e-mail
[330]505the &ML; for help.
[324]506</para>
507</listitem>
508</itemizedlist>
509<para>When making a backup on a live system, there will always be
510processes running that will write out data on the system after you
511have made the backup and before you have made the compare, this
512will result in difference showing up when comparing your backup.
513For a full explanation and what can be done to avoid this, please
514read this section.</para>
515<itemizedlist>
516
517        <listitem>
518<para>This QuickStart covers the ideal case. Upon receiving any
519system feedback/errors, read each related HOWTO section.</para>
520<para>Example 2-1. A test backup of your /home directory to CD-Rs
521using the command line</para>
522<para></para>
523<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
524<row>
525<entry>
526
527bash# mondoarchive -OVc 4 -I /home -gF
528
529</entry>
530</row>
531</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
532
533<para>The 'c' means you must be writing to CD-Rs, not CD-RWs (the
534latter would require 'w' instead of 'c'). The '4' is the speed of
535your CD writer. The string after -I is the path to be backed up.
536The '-gF' means you are going to see the pretty yellow-on-blue
537screen instead of the boring white-on-black screen. :) It also
538means Mondo will not offer to create physical boot floppies for
539you. It is assumed that you are able to boot from the CD which
540Mondo has generated.</para>
541<para>Example 2-2. A backup of your whole filesystem to NFS using
542the command line</para>
543<para></para>
544<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
545<row>
546<entry>
547
548        bash# mkdir -p /mnt/nfs
549        bash# mount 192.168.1.28:/home/nfs /mnt/nfs
550        bash# mondoarchive -OVn 192.168.1.28:/home/nfs -gF[...]
551        bash# umount /mnt/nfs
552        bash# cdrecord dev=0,0,0 speed=4 -eject -v /root/images/mindi/mindi.iso
553
554</entry>
555</row>
556</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
557
558<para>Note that you have to mount the NFS partition, backup to it,
559unmount it, and create a boot CD to allow you to restore from
560scratch if necessary. To reassure yourself that you will be able to
561restore from the NFS share even if your PC is wiped, please boot
562from the Mindi CD and type 'compare'. The on-screen instructions
563from that point on should be sufficient.</para>
564<para>Example 2-3. A backup of your whole
565filesystem to tape using the command line</para>
566<para></para>
567<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
568<row>
569<entry>
570
571bash# mondoarchive -OVt -d /dev/st0 -9 -L -g
572
573</entry>
574</row>
575</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
576
577<para>In this case, we assume Syslinux is incompatible with your
578boot media. For some reason, some BIOSes just don't like Syslinux.
579If you find this to be the case for your computer, please use '-L'
580to force Mondo to use LILO instead of Syslinux as the boot loader
581for its CD/floppies. (NB: This has nothing to do with which boot
582loader your hard drive uses.) Also, it is a good habit to specify
583your tape streamer with '-d &lt;device&gt;'. You don't usually need
584to but it's good to be on the safe side. Some computers call your
585tape streamer /dev/osst0, some call it /dev/ftape, ...</para>
586</listitem>
587</itemizedlist>
588
[328]589</chapter>
590
591<chapter id="overview"><title>Overview</title>
592
[329]593<sect1 id="overview-mondorescue">
[328]594<title>Mondo Rescue</title>
595<para>Mondo Rescue backs up your file system to CD, tape, NFS
596(archives stored remotely) or ISO's (archives stored locally).
597Mondo uses afio as the backup engine; afio is a well-respected
598replacement for tar. In the event of catastrophic data loss, you
599may restore some or all of your system, even if your hard drives
600are now blank. Mondo Rescue can do a lot of other cool
601things:</para>
602<itemizedlist>
603<listitem>
604<para>You can use Mondo to clone an installation of Linux. Just
605backup the crucial stuff and exclude /home, /var/log, etc.</para>
606</listitem>
607<listitem>
608<para>You can backup a non-RAID file system and restore it as RAID
609including the root partition (if your kernel supports that).</para>
610</listitem>
611<listitem>
612<para>You can backup a system running on one format and restore as
613another format.</para>
614</listitem>
615<listitem>
616<para>You can restructure your partitions, e.g. shrink/enlarge,
617reassign devices, add hard drives, etc, before you partition and
618format your drives. Mondo will restore your data and amend
619/etc/lilo.conf and /etc/fstab accordingly.</para>
620</listitem>
621<listitem>
622<para>You can backup Linux/Windows systems, including the boot
623sectors. Mondo will make everything right at restore-time.
624(However, do run "Scandisk" when you first boot into Windows, just
625in case.)</para>
626</listitem>
627<listitem>
628<para>You can use your Mondo backup CD to verify the integrity of
629your computer.</para>
630</listitem>
631</itemizedlist>
632<para>Mondo's principal virtue is that it protects you from the
633problems that can arise when you reinstall completely from scratch.
634If you want to wipe and restore your system every year just as a
635matter of 'good practice', Mondo is not for you. However, if you
636want to get up and running again in a hurry after someone breaks
637into your computer and wipes it (or if you accidentally wipe it
638yourself) then Mondo is definitely for you. It will permit you to
639roll back to a known-good installation in a very short period of
640time, sometimes as little as twenty minutes. Even if you backup
641large amounts of data to tape daily and do not want to add yet
642another backup regime, please consider backing up the core
643filesystem (i.e. everything but the directories containing your
644huge database and your prizewinning novel) every month or so, just
645in case. You will be glad you did.</para>
646<para>What is Mondo not?</para>
647<para>Mondo is not an everyday backup program. It is not designed
648to replace tar, afio, kbackup, etc. Mondo is designed to make it
649possible to recover from scratch if necessary. Tar and afio offer a
650quick, convenient way to backup small sets of files, sometimes to
651removable media.</para>
[324]652</sect1>
[328]653
[329]654<sect1 id="overview-mindi">
[328]655<title>Mindi</title>
656<para>
657Mindi Linux creates a set of boot/root floppy disk images
658that will let you perform basic system maintenance on your Linux
659distro. The principal virtues of Mindi's boot disks are the fact
660that they contain your kernel, modules, tools and libraries. You
661can ask for additional binaries (or other files) to be included on
662the kit. The libraries will be added for you.
663</para>
664<para>Whichever modules were loaded at backup-time, they are
665reloaded at boot-time. So, in theory, you will boot into almost the
666same environment as you were in when you backed up. If you want to
667add files to your Mindi boot disks, edit '&lt;INSTALLPATH OF
668MINDI&gt;/mindi/deplist.txt' and add the files to that list. The
669added files and dependencies, will be spread across the data disks
670at run-time.
671</para>
672<para>Mindi makes sure that Mondo has all the tools it needs at
673boot-time. Mondo uses fdisk, mkfs, cat, less, more, afio, gzip,
674bzip2, your keyboard configuration, your glibc libraries, your
675other libraries, your kernel, your modules, ... a lot! Mindi takes
676care of all that, so that Mondo can get on with the job of backing
677up or restoring your data.
678</para>
679<para>Mindi is also handy for making boot CDs/disks which stand on
680their own. You do not need Mondo. Indeed, if you like, you could
681use another backup/restore program with Mindi. Just add it to
682Mindi's dependency list (type 'locate deplist.txt' to find it).
683Mindi will include your software on its boot CD/disks the next time
684you run mindi.
685</para>
686</sect1>
687
688
[329]689<sect1 id="overview-linuxbackup">
[328]690<title>Linux Backup</title>
691<para>Mondo Rescue and Mindi Linux are used primarily as Linux
692backup and cloning tools. The fall in prices of CD-RW drives and
693writable discs will allow current users to keep good backups and
694future users to leverage the cloning capability.</para>
695<para>Tape drives are more likely to suit your needs if you run a
696larger installation (or have lots of MP3's). Warning! OnStream
697drives do not play well with Mondo. I do not know why. It is, in my
698opinion, something which OnStream should look into. Mondo uses
699fopen(), fread(), fwrite() and fclose() to interact with tape
700drives. That works for most drives but some drives just don't like
701that.</para>
702<para>I have tested it thousands of times on my own computer with
703my own data and with no alternate backup regime. It worked for me.
704Thousands of users testify to Mondo's stability and its ease of
705use. However, please test it on your own system before you rely on
706it. In fact, do not rely on any software until you have tested it
707to see if it performs as expected.</para>
708<para>To establish that Mondo will behave well in an emergency,
709please be prepared. Run a test backup as follows:-</para>
710<itemizedlist>
711<listitem>
712<para>Run mondoarchive without any command-line options.</para>
713</listitem>
[330]714<listitem>
715    <para>Backup a subset of files - e.g. /usr/local - to CD or
716            tape. Say 'yes' when asked if you want to verify them.</para>
717</listitem>
718<listitem>
719    <para>If you are not backing up to CD, please create boot
720    floppies when prompted.</para>
721</listitem>
[328]722</itemizedlist>
723<para>Next, restore archives to your live filesystem.</para>
724<itemizedlist>
725<listitem>
726<para>When mondoarchive terminates, run mondorestore without any
727command-line options.</para>
728</listitem>
[330]729<listitem><para>Insert the CD or the first boot floppy when prompted.
730                Press &lt;Enter&gt;. Wait a moment.</para></listitem>
731<listitem><para>Select a subset of files to restore, e.g. /usr/local/man
732                and /usr/local/bin. Hit OK.</para></listitem>
733<listitem><para>Restore files to /tmp or /root/RESTORED or something
734                similar.</para></listitem>
735<listitem><para>When mondorestore terminates, compare the restored files
736                to the originals using cmp or diff.</para></listitem>
[328]737</itemizedlist>
738<para>Finally, simulate an emergency restore.</para>
739<itemizedlist>
740<listitem>
741<para>Boot from CD/floppies.</para>
742</listitem>
[330]743<listitem><para>Select 'Interactive Mode' at boot-time. (Type
744                'interactive' and hit &lt;Enter&gt;.)</para></listitem>
745<listitem><para>Hit OK when shown the mountlist. Say 'yes' when asked if
746                you accept the mountlist.</para></listitem>
747<listitem><para>Select files to restore, e.g. /usr/local/man and
748                /usr/local/bin. Hit OK.</para></listitem>
749<listitem><para>Restore files to /tmp or /root/RESTORED or something
750                similar.</para></listitem>
751<listitem><para>When mondorestore terminates, please reboot and compare
752                the restored files to the originals.</para></listitem>
[328]753</itemizedlist>
754<para>FYI, the subroutines to repartition and reformat your drives
755are very stable. If you are a RAID or LVM user, you
756might&nbsp;encounter some difficulties when wiping and restoring
757from scratch because of the sheer range of filesystem layouts and
758the impossibility of testing Mondo on every single one. If you have
759trouble, just drop to the command-line and partition/format
760manually. Then, call mondorestore, select Interactive Mode, and say
761'no' when asked if you want Mondo to partition or format your
762drives for you.</para>
763<para>You see, even if you have trouble, you still have two hands
764and most of the tools you need - lvchange, pvcreate, fdisk, mkraid,
765etc. - to do it manually. After you have prepped and formatted your
766drives manually (if you have to), just run mondorestore again and
767say 'no' when asked if you want to prep or format your drives. What
768could be easier?</para>
769</sect1>
770
[329]771<sect1 id="overview-winbackup">
[328]772<title>Windows Backup</title>
773<para>Backing up windows partitions.</para>
[329]774<sect2 id="overview-winbackup-win95"><title>Windows ME/95/98</title>
[328]775<para>Verify that the partition is listed in /etc/fstab and is
776mounted (e.g. /dev/hda1). Mondo will take care of everything else.
777The files will be archived just like all other files in the live
778file system. At restore-time, Mondo will take care of the boot
779sector of /dev/hda1 prior to the restore.</para>
780<para>Note: if Windows ME/95/98 is not located on /dev/hda1 or
781/dev/sda1, then Mondo will not take care of the boot sector of
782/dev/hda1. The user will have to boot from a DOS floppy and run SYS
783C: to correct the Windows boot sector.</para>
784</sect2>
[329]785<sect2 id="overview-winbackup-winnt"><title>Windows NT4/2K/XP</title>
[328]786<para>Windows NT4/2K/XP typically use the NTFS file system, not
787VFAT.. The user should use '-x /dev/hda1' (or whichever device the
788Windows partition resides). Mondo will treat the partition as a
789biggiefile. Mondo will also add an entry to the mountlist to
790reflect the size and type of the partition. The user may not edit
791that partition's size at restore-time (for obvious reasons).</para>
792<para>Please bear in mind that Mondo was written for Linux users.
793If Mondo does not backup or restore your Windows system well, you
794might want to consider paying for 1-to-1 technical support.
795Ironically, the only people to pay for 1-to-1 technical support
796have been Linux users, whereas Windows users want a free ride. That
797is one reason why the Linux community gives me warm fuzzies.</para>
[330]798</sect2>
[328]799</sect1>
800
[329]801<sect1 id="overview-history">
[328]802<title>Mondo Rescue and Mindi Linux
803History</title>
804<para>Mondo Rescue was created in December 1999 as a utility to
805clone Linux/Windows installations. Norton Ghost would not do the
806job, and my boss wanted to jump on the Linux bandwagon. So, I wrote
807a few scripts and shoehorned them into the latest Linux-Mandrake
808CD. Since that time, Mondo grew into a disaster recovery suite for
809Linux and Windows. Mondo forced me to learn about the kernel, its
810initrd initial ramdisk, modules, library dependencies, disk
811partitioning, and the myriad differences between the Top 10 Linux
812distributions.</para>
[330]813<para>
[328]814a few scripts and shoehorned them into the latest Linux-Mandrake
815CD. Since that time, Mondo grew into a disaster recovery suite for
816Linux and Windows. Mondo forced me to learn about the kernel, its
817initrd initial ramdisk, modules, library dependencies, disk
818partitioning, and the myriad differences between the Top 10 Linux
819distributions.</para>
820<para>The first formal release was made on February 18th, 2000.
821Mondo is currently one of the top five Linux backup/restore
822programs. Mondo has been compared favorably to ArcServe, Arkeia and
823BRU. Although Mondo lacks the more advanced, enterprise-level
824features of ArcServe and Arkeia, for workstations and small- to
825medium-size servers it is ideal because it is small, fast,
826efficient, stable, comes with source code, and is being actively
827developed and supported.</para>
828</sect1>
829
[329]830<sect1 id="overview-sysreq">
[328]831<title>System
832Requirements</title>
[329]833<sect2 id="overview-sysrq-hwreq">
[328]834<title>Hardware Requirements</title>
835
836<para>Your computer must have:</para>
837<itemizedlist>
838<listitem>
839<para>Intel(R)-compatible CPU</para>
840</listitem>
841<listitem>
842<para>64MB of RAM (128MB recommended)</para>
843</listitem>
844<listitem>
845<para>800MB of hard disk space free</para>
846</listitem>
847<listitem>
848<para>CD writer, tape streamer, NFS share or some way to backup the
849backups :)</para>
850</listitem>
851</itemizedlist>
852<para>It is recommended that your computer have very good airflow.
853The backup with Mondo Rescue and Mindi Linux will utilize your CPU,
854CD drive and fixed disk(s) like very few other applications. With a
855few hours of system backup activity, computers without sufficient
856airflow may show symptoms such as not burning full CD discs. The
857solution is a $20 or less additional fan at your local electronics
858discount store.</para>
859</sect2>
860
[329]861<sect2 id="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">
[328]862<title>Kernel Requirements</title>
863
864<para>Your kernel must have:</para>
865<itemizedlist>
866<listitem>
867<para>stable loopfs support, which means it really needs to be
8682.2.19 or 2.4.7 (or later)</para>
869</listitem>
870<listitem>
871<para>CD-ROM device support</para>
872</listitem>
873<listitem>
874<para>ISO9660 file system support</para>
875</listitem>
876<listitem>
877<para>initrd ramdisk support (built-in)</para>
878</listitem>
879<listitem>
880<para>Virtual memory file system support (built-in)</para>
881</listitem>
882<listitem>
883<para>floppy disk support (built in)</para>
884</listitem>
885<listitem>
886<para>ext2 file system support (built-in)</para>
887</listitem>
888<listitem>
889<para>Support for the backup media (Tape, CD-RW, NFS, Hard
890disk)</para>
891</listitem>
892<listitem>
893<para>If the backup media is CD-RW then you need SCSI emulation
894also</para>
895</listitem>
896</itemizedlist>
897<para>Please note that the stock kernels of Red Hat 7.2, 7.3, 8.0,
898Mandrake 8.2, 9.0, SuSE 7.x,, 8.x, and Slackware 8.x all meet
899Mondo's requirements. If your kernel does not meet Mondo's
900requirements then there is something wrong with it. Mondo's demands
901are not unreasonable.</para>
902<para>Mondo (specifically Mindi) does not require any specific
903modules. It does require that your kernel support the initrd
904initial ramdisk facility. Typically this is supported by the Linux
905kernel. Modules used are needed to support the CD, floppy disks,
906hard disks, etc. If the support is modular, then the modules will
907be incorporated in a boot disk by Mindi. If the support is built-in
908(static), then it will be available at boot-time by default.</para>
909</sect2>
[329]910<sect2 id="overview-sysrq-swreq">
[328]911<title>Software Requirements</title>
912<para>See Mondo's <ulink url="../download.html">Download
913page</ulink> for details.</para>
914<para>Mondo requires afio, bzip2, cdrtools/cdrecord, ncurses, newt,
915isolinux/syslinux, lzo (optional), lzop (optional), mkisofs, slang,
916and a few other packages.</para>
917<para>Good Linux distributions provide all these packages. If yours
918does not then please go to the aforementioned Download page or surf
919the Net, preferably the website of the distribution you are
920using.</para>
921<para>Mondo's expectations are not unreasonable, either of your
922Linux distribution or of your kernel. However, if your distribution
923fails to meet its expectations and you cannot find out how to
[330]924resolve them, please feel free to e-mail the &ML;
925</para>
[328]926</sect2>
927</sect1>
928</chapter>
929
930<chapter id="installation">
931<title>Installation</title>
932
[329]933<sect1 id="installation-mindi">
[328]934<title>Mindi Installation</title>
935<para>If you are installing from a tarball then copy it to wherever
936you have enough space, for example /tmp and type:</para>
937<para></para>
938<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
939<row>
940<entry>
941
942bash# cd /tmpbash# tar -zxvf mindi-0.7x.tgzbash# cd mindi-0.7xbash# ./install.sh
943
944</entry>
945</row>
946</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
947
948<para>This installs mindi into /usr/local/share/mindi and installs
949links to the programs into /usr/local/sbin</para>
950<para>Or, if you are installing from an RPM then copy it to
951wherever you have enough space, for example /tmp and type:</para>
952<para></para>
953<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
954<row>
955<entry>
956
957bash# rpm -Uvh /tmp/mindi-0.7x-x.i386.rpm
958
959</entry>
960</row>
961</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
962
963<para>This installs mindi into /usr/share/mindi and installs links
964to the programs into /usr/sbin. This may be /usr/local/share/mindi
965and /usr/local/sbin, depending on the package you use. Different
966Linux distributions put system files in different places. The funny
967thing is, each distribution claims it is right and the others are
968wrong. Oh, and they all agree that I mustn't have read the LFS!
969:-)</para>
970<para>Debian users may wish to first create a .deb file and then
971use the debian package manager:</para>
972<para></para>
973<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
974<row>
975<entry>
976
977bash# cd /tmpbash# alien mindi*.rpmbash# dpkg -i mindi*.deb
978
979</entry>
980</row>
981</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
982
983<para>This installs mindi into /usr/share/mindi and installs links
984to the programs into /usr/sbin</para>
985</sect1>
986
[329]987<sect1 id="installation-mondo">
[328]988<title>Mondo Installation</title>
989<para>If you are installing from a tarball then copy it to wherever
990you have enough space, for example /tmp and type:</para>
991<para></para>
992<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
993<row>
994<entry>
995
996bash# cd /tmpbash# tar -zxvf mondo-1.xx.tgzbash# cd mondo-1.xxbash# make &amp;&amp; make install
997
998</entry>
999</row>
1000</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1001
1002<para>This installs mondo into /usr/local/share/mondo and installs
1003links to the programs into /usr/local/bin</para>
1004<para>Or, if you are installing from an RPM then copy it to copy it
1005to wherever you have enough space, for example /tmp and
1006type:</para>
1007<para></para>
1008<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1009<row>
1010<entry>
1011
1012bash# rpm -Uvh /tmp/mondo-1.5x-x.i386.rpm
1013
1014</entry>
1015</row>
1016</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1017
1018<para>This installs mondo into /usr/share/mondo and installs links
1019to the programs into /usr/bin</para>
1020<para>Debian users may wish to first create a .deb file and then
1021use the debian package manager:</para>
1022<para></para>
1023<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1024<row>
1025<entry>
1026
1027bash# cd /tmpbash# alien mondo*.rpmbash# dpkg -i mondo*.deb
1028
1029</entry>
1030</row>
1031</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1032
1033<para>This installs mondo into /usr/share/mondo and installs links
1034to the programs into /usr/bin</para>
1035</sect1>
1036</chapter>
1037
1038<chapter id="test">
1039<title>Tests</title>
1040
[329]1041<sect1 id="test-mindi">
[328]1042<title>Testing Mindi</title>
1043
1044<para>Mindi is a vital part of the backup procedure. If you have
1045used Mondo before or if you are in a hurry, skip steps 6.2 and 6.3;
1046go straight to QuickStart.</para>
1047<para>However, if you have time or if you have been having trouble
1048getting Mondo to work, I would recommend trying out Mindi directly
1049(rather than via Mondo) to see if it can produce a bootable CD on
1050your system.</para>
1051<para>Make sure you are root while doing this, otherwise mindi will
1052fail, now do this.</para>
1053<para>If you have any problems, please:-</para>
1054<itemizedlist>
1055<listitem>
1056<para>read /var/log/mindi.log</para>
1057</listitem>
[330]1058<listitem><para>feel free to edit mindi (it's a shell script, btw) to try
1059                to fix the problem yourself</para></listitem>
1060<listitem><para>contact the &ML; if you get stuck.</para></listitem>
[328]1061</itemizedlist>
1062<para>Type:-</para>
1063<para></para>
1064<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1065<row>
1066<entry>
1067
1068bash# mindi
1069
1070</entry>
1071</row>
1072</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1073
1074<para>Example screen output, selecting to use your own kernel, to
1075create boot disks, and to create a bootable CD image:</para>
1076<para></para>
1077<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1078<row>
1079<entry>
1080
1081Mindi Linux mini-distro generator v0.72 by HRabson &lt;hugorabson@msn.com&gt;--------------------------
1082----------------------------------------------------Do you want to use your own kernel to build the boo
1083t disk (y/n) ? yYour kernel is /boot/vmlinuz-2.4.14-k6 (v2.4.14-k6)Generating list of dependency files.
1084....................... Done.Analyzing your keyboard's configuration.Adding the following keyboard mapp
1085ing tables:................... DoneDropping i686-optimized libraries if appropriate.............DoneAss
1086embling dependency files........ Done.The files have been subdivided into 2 directories.Your mountlist
1087will look like this:-DEVICE MOUNTPOINT FORMAT SIZE (MB)/dev/hda3 / ext2 996/dev/hda2 swap swap 127/dev/
1088hda4 /usr ext2 6189Tarring and zipping the groups......... Done.Creating data disk #1...#2... Done.1722
1089KB boot disk was created OK............................ Done.2880KB boot disk was created OK...........
1090................. Done.In the directory '/root/images/mindi' you will find the images:-mindi-boot.1722.
1091img mindi-boot.2880.img mindi-data-1.img mindi-data-2.imgWould you like to create boot+data floppy disk
1092s now (y/n) ?yWARNING! THIS WILL ERASE YOUR FLOPPY DISKS.About to write boot disk. Please press ENTER.W
1093riting boot disk.................................................. Done.About to write data disk #1. Pl
1094ease press ENTER.Writing data disk #1........................... Done.About to write data disk #2. Plea
1095se press ENTER.Writing data disk #2........................... Done.Shall I make a bootable CD image? (
1096y/n) yFinished.One 1.72MB boot disk, one 2.88MB boot disk and 2 data disks were created.
1097
1098</entry>
1099</row>
1100</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1101
1102<para>If your kernel is too large (more than about 900KB) then you
1103cannot make boot floppies, although you can still make a bootable
1104CD image. The easiest way to test Mindi in either case is to say
1105'n' to its first question and 'y' to its second, then use the
1106separate application cdrecord to make a bootable CD-R or
1107CD-RW.</para>
1108<para>Use the cdrecord application to write the CD image:</para>
1109<para></para>
1110<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1111<row>
1112<entry>
1113
1114bash# cd /root/images/mindibash# cdrecord -scanbus
1115
1116</entry>
1117</row>
1118</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1119
1120<para>The output of the above call to cdrecord will tell you your
1121CD writer's node. It is usually '0,0,0'. Choose one of the
1122following calls to write the CD, depending on whether the disk in
1123the drive is a CD-R or a CD-RW. Please replace 'x,x,x' with your
1124writer's node. For further information, type 'man cdrecord" from a
1125Linux command line.</para>
1126<para>If writing to a CD-RW Drive/Disc:</para>
1127<para></para>
1128<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1129<row>
1130<entry>
1131
1132bash# cdrecord -blank fast dev=x,x,x speed=4 mindi.iso (for CD-RW)
1133
1134</entry>
1135</row>
1136</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1137
1138<para>If writing to a CD-R Drive/Disc:</para>
1139<para></para>
1140<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1141<row>
1142<entry>
1143
1144bash# cdrecord dev=x,x,x speed=4 mindi.iso (for CD-R)
1145
1146</entry>
1147</row>
1148</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1149</sect1>
[330]1150
1151<!--
[329]1152<sect1 id="test-mondo">
[328]1153<title>Testing Mondo</title>
1154</sect1>
[330]1155-->
[328]1156</chapter>
1157
1158<chapter id="backup">
1159<title>Backup</title>
1160
1161<sect1 id="backup-recommandations">
1162<title>Recommandations</title>
1163<para>Mama does Mondo? Papa does Mondo? Is that a Dean Martin song?
1164Well, anyway, here is how I backup my system:</para>
1165<itemizedlist>
1166<listitem>
1167<para>Shut down all possible applications (this minimizes any
1168compare differences following the backup)</para>
1169</listitem>
1170<listitem>
1171<para>Type:</para>
1172</listitem>
1173</itemizedlist>
1174<para></para>
1175<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1176<row>
1177<entry>
1178
1179bash# mondoarchive
1180
1181</entry>
1182</row>
1183</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1184
1185<para>For most users, that should be enough. :-) Mondoarchive will
1186usually autodetect your hardware and configure it for you.</para>
1187<para>If you are a power user (or you like to control every detail
1188of how Mondo runs) then you may want to look at the command-line
1189switches. For example:-</para>
1190<para></para>
1191<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1192<row>
1193<entry>
1194
1195bash# mondoarchive -Ow4 -gF -I /home
1196
1197</entry>
1198</row>
1199</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1200
1201<para>Cdrecord will tell me where my CD recorder lives, in SCSI
1202terms, which in my case is '0,0,0'. The call to mondoarchive tells
1203Mondo that I want to backup everything to a 4x CD-RW drive that has
1204a CD-RW disk in it. (Use -Oc instead of -Ow if you are using
1205CD-R.)</para>
1206<para>Please put the first CD-R(W) in the drive now. You will be
1207prompted to insert CD #2 but you will not be prompted to insert the
1208first disk. However, if you forget, do not worry: if Mondo fails to
1209write the first (or any) disk, it will offer to retry, abort or
1210fail.</para>
1211<para>I run Mondo at the highest compression available ('-9) and
1212then go to work. I then walk home at lunch (I live right by my
1213workplace), change CD, eat lunch, and go back to work. When I get
1214home, it has all been done.</para>
1215<para>Your mileage may vary. Experiment. Find the speed/compression
1216compromise that best suits your needs.</para>
1217<para>If you are using cron then please use -F to make sure that
1218Mondo does not prompt you to create bootable floppy disks. Cron
1219does not handle user interaction well because it pipes stdin and
1220stdout specially. Please consult cron's manual for more
1221information. Jesse Keating has written a script for cron/Mondo
1222users. It is available on the
1223<ulink url="../../docs/docs.html">Documentation</ulink>
1224page.</para>
1225</sect1>
1226
[329]1227<sect1 id="backup-cmd">
[328]1228<title>Backup Commands and Options</title>
1229
1230<para>Backup Command:</para>
1231<para></para>
1232<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1233<row>
1234<entry>
1235
1236mondoarchive &lt;-option1&gt; &lt;-option2&gt; ... &lt;-optionN&gt;
1237
1238</entry>
1239</row>
1240</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1241
1242<para>E.g.,</para>
1243<para></para>
1244<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1245<row>
1246<entry>
1247
1248bash# mondoarchive -E /mnt/dos /mnt/cdrom -9 -Oc 8
1249
1250</entry>
1251</row>
1252</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1253
1254<para>Would create backup CD to a CD-R disc at the highest
1255compression level, writing at speed 2 and ignoring the /mnt/dos and
1256/mnt/cdrom directories.</para>
1257<para>To see a detailed list of switches and their meaning, see the
1258<ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org/download/mondoarchive.1.html">HTML
1259man page</ulink> on the website or type 'man mondoarchive' at the
1260console.</para>
[329]1261<sect2 id="backup-cmd-cdr">
[328]1262<title>Standard Example With CD-R</title>
1263<para></para>
1264<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1265<row>
1266<entry>
1267
1268bash# mondoarchive -Oc 2 -g
1269
1270</entry>
1271</row>
1272</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1273
1274<para>Replace '2' in '-Oc2' with the writer's speed. If
1275mondoarchive cannot find your CD-R then please add '-d 0,0,0' (or
1276whatever your CD writer's SCSI node is; usually, it is 0,0,0) to
1277the call.</para>
1278<para>Please insert the first disk in the writer while the PC is
1279chugging away. If Mondo needs additional CD-R(W) then it will ask
1280for them.</para>
1281</sect2>
[329]1282<sect2 id="backup-cmd-cdrw">
[328]1283<title>Standard Example With CD-RW</title>
1284<para></para>
1285<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1286<row>
1287<entry>
1288
1289bash# mondoarchive -Ow 2 -g
1290
1291</entry>
1292</row>
1293</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1294
1295<para>Replace '2' in '-Ow2' with the writer's speed.</para>
1296</sect2>
[329]1297<sect2 id="backup-cmd-tape">
[328]1298        <title>Standard Example With Tape</title>
1299<para></para>
1300<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1301<row>
1302<entry>
1303
1304bash# mondoarchive -Ot -d /dev/st0 -g
1305
1306</entry>
1307</row>
1308</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1309
1310<para>With previous versions of Mondo, you needed to specify the
1311size of the tape. As of v1.51, that is no longer necessary.</para>
1312</sect2>
[329]1313<sect2 id="backup-cmd-failsafe">
[328]1314        <title>Standard Example With Failsafe kernel</title>
1315<para></para>
1316<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1317<row>
1318<entry>
1319
1320bash# mondoarchive -k FAILSAFE -Ow 2
1321
1322</entry>
1323</row>
1324</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1325
1326<para>Due to slight policy differences in the Debian distribution
1327approach, the '-k FAILSAFE' option is typically needed with
1328Debian.</para>
1329</sect2>
[329]1330<sect2 id="backup-cmd-network">
[328]1331        <title>Standard Example With Network Backup</title>
1332<para></para>
1333<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1334<row>
1335<entry>
1336
1337bash# mount 192.168.1.3:/home/nfs -t nfs /mnt/nfsbash# mondoarchive -OVn 192.168.1.3:/home/nfs -g -s 20
13380mbash# umount /mnt/nfs
1339
1340</entry>
1341</row>
1342</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1343
1344<para>The resultant ISO's can be burned to CD's if you want (which
1345isn't a good idea unless you're a Mondo expert because they'll try
1346to restore over a network by default, which is silly cos the
1347archives are on the CD's). Or, you can boot from the Mindi floppies
1348(or mondorescue.iso) and hit ENTER a few times to restore.</para>
1349</sect2>
1350</sect1>
[329]1351</chapter>
[328]1352
[329]1353<chapter id="compare">
1354<title>Compare</title>
1355<para>Before you trust your backup CD, make sure your BIOS can boot
1356CD (and that it is configured to do so).</para>
1357<itemizedlist>
1358<listitem>
1359<para>Boot from the first CD.</para>
1360</listitem>
1361<listitem>
1362<para>Type:</para>
1363</listitem>
1364</itemizedlist>
1365<para></para>
1366<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1367<row>
1368<entry>
1369
1370bash# compare
1371
1372</entry>
1373</row>
1374</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1375
1376<para>Follow the on-screen instructions. This will compare your
1377backup against your original file system.</para>
1378<para>FYI, no bad archives have been created since May 2000. Having
1379said that, I would still encourage you to run Compare before
1380trusting the backups.</para>
1381<para>To view the file differences, look at the file
1382'/tmp/changed.txt'. Normal differences include logs and other
1383dynamic system files that changed during the time of the backup
1384process. If only a few files differ - e.g. files in /var, files
1385ending in '&amp;#732;', logs, temporary files, /etc/mtab,
1386/etc/adjtimex - then you know the archives are good. Your logs will
1387change over time, too. Bear in mind that a difference between the
1388backup and the live copy does not&nbsp;indicate a flaw in Mondo. It
1389indicates that you or your filesystem changed the files, so the
1390backup is no longer 100% up to date. However, that is inevitable,
1391as your filesystem changes from moment to moment (which is why you
1392back it up regularly).</para>
1393
1394</chapter>
1395
1396<chapter id="restore">
1397<title>Restore</title>
1398
1399<sect1 id="restore-overview">
1400<title>Overview</title>
1401
1402<para>I hope you don't have to restore from scratch very often.
1403It's nerve-wracking until you realize that Mondo's restore engine
1404is very reliable. I backup and restore my system 2 or 3 times a
1405week as part of the testing process. I have no other backup regime,
1406so it had better work.</para>
1407<para>If you find that you cannot make your PC boot from the CD,
1408take heart: the first backup CD of each set contains floppy disk
1409images to give you the same functionality as the CD (minus the
1410archives, of course) on floppies. Remember, your Mondo CD is a
1411fully functional CD-based mini-distribution as well as a recovery
1412CD.</para>
1413<para>You can choose from the following modes:</para>
[330]1414
[329]1415<variablelist>
1416<varlistentry><term>Interactive</term>
1417<listitem><para>Restore step-by-step, or restore a subset of the
1418archives. This is the method you should mainly use for your
1419recovery needs.</para>
1420</listitem></varlistentry>
1421<varlistentry><term>Nuke</term>
1422<listitem><para>Wipe your drives and restore everything,
1423automatically and unattended. Warning: This does exactly what is
1424says, so be carefull using it.</para>
1425</listitem></varlistentry>
1426<varlistentry><term>Expert</term>
1427<listitem><para>Boot to a shell prompt. If you want to do anything
1428creative, you should boot into Expert Mode. It's called expert, I
[330]1429think that says it all.</para>
1430</listitem>
1431</varlistentry>
[329]1432</variablelist>
[330]1433
[329]1434<para>If the CD is not found during the initial restore CD boot
1435attempt, reboot the PC a second time prior to reporting failure.
1436Occasional timing errors and hardware/software/system conflicts do
1437occur.</para>
1438</sect1>
1439
1440<sect1 id="restore-tips">
1441<title>Tips and Tricks</title>
1442
1443<para>Ideally, restore your system to a spare hard drive to test
1444the integrity and reliability of your disks. To do that, either
1445edit your mountlist to make the devices point to your spare hard
1446drive, or swap your hard drive cables between boots.</para>
1447<para>At a bare minimum, compare your CD against your file system
1448before you decide whether to trust them.</para>
1449<para>To test Mondo's ability to handle your LILO or GRUB boot
1450loader and accompanying configuration file:</para>
1451<itemizedlist>
1452<listitem>
1453<para>Boot from the backup CD into Expert Mode</para>
1454</listitem>
1455<listitem>
1456<para>Type:</para>
1457</listitem>
1458</itemizedlist>
1459<para></para>
1460<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1461<row>
1462<entry>
1463
1464bash# mondorestore --mbr
1465
1466</entry>
1467</row>
1468</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1469
1470<itemizedlist>
1471<listitem>
1472<para>To fix any mess it made (not that it should) type:</para>
1473</listitem>
1474</itemizedlist>
1475<para></para>
1476<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1477<row>
1478<entry>
1479
1480bash# mount-mebash# chroot /mnt/RESTORINGbash# lilo OR grub-install '(hd0)'bash# exitbash# unmount-me
1481
1482</entry>
1483</row>
1484</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1485
1486<itemizedlist>
1487<listitem>
1488<para>If it did not work then please copy /tmp/mondo-restore.log to
1489a floppy (or to your hard disk), gzip it and e-mail it to the
[330]1490&ML;.</para>
[329]1491</listitem>
1492</itemizedlist>
[330]1493
1494<sect2>
1495    <title>Barebones (Nuke) Restore</title>
[329]1496<para>Imagine that your hard drives happen to be wiped,
1497deliberately or accidentally. Or, imagine that you want to clone
1498your existing operating system. In either case, you want to run in
1499Nuke Mode.</para>
1500<para>If you want to wipe everything and restore your whole system
1501from CD, please:</para>
1502<itemizedlist>
1503<listitem>
1504<para>Boot from the first Mondo CD</para>
1505</listitem>
1506<listitem>
1507<para>Press &lt;enter&gt;</para>
1508</listitem>
1509<listitem>
1510<para>Insert the subsequent CD when asked</para>
1511</listitem>
1512<listitem>
1513<para>Watch the screen for errors</para>
1514</listitem>
1515</itemizedlist>
1516<para>That's it. The restoration process for tape or NFS users is
1517similarly easy: just boot, answer the on-screen prompts, and
1518wait.</para>
1519<para>Now, should something go wrong, you will be able to examine
1520/tmp/mondo-restore.log to see what happened. All is not lost. You
1521can fdisk and format the partitions yourself, using the tools that
1522come with the CD. You can then run mondorestore in Interactive Mode
1523and say 'no' when asked if you want Mondo to partition/format your
1524drives.</para>
1525<para>If you want to see exactly what Mondo is doing while it is
1526restoring, press &lt;Alt&gt;&lt;left cursor&gt; to view its
1527logfile, in a virtual console, scrolling past.</para>
[330]1528</sect2><sect2>
1529<title>Interactive Restore</title>
[329]1530<para>Interactive Mode is for people who have lost a subset of data
1531from their live file system, or perhaps who have lost some data
1532from their latest backup and want to restore a subset of data from
1533an earlier backup. If you want to restore only some files or if you
1534do not want to prep/format your drives, then you should boot into
1535Interactive Mode. The interactive mode will provide an 'Editing
1536mountlist screen' that allows you to setup a different disk
1537geometry.</para>
1538<para>To move up and down between partitions in the 'Editing
1539mountlist screen', use the Up and Down arrows. To move between the
1540main window and the buttons at the bottom, use the Left and Right
1541cursor keys. TAB shifts focus from one screen item to the other in
1542a haphazard fashion, owing to the complexities of the Newt
1543library.</para>
1544<para>If you want to restore selectively, just press &lt;enter&gt;
1545and follow the on-screen instructions. You will be asked to say
1546yes/no to a range of questions.</para>
1547<para>If you are planning to modify your partition table, you would
1548do well to read up on the partition layout and the use of fdisk, it
1549gives you some could pointers on how to best lay out partitions.
1550You can find good guide her.
1551<ulink url="http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/mini/Partition/index.html">http://www.ibiblio.o
1552rg/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/mini/Partition/index.html</ulink></para>
1553<para>If you want to restore a subset of the backup then:</para>
1554<itemizedlist>
1555<listitem>
1556<para>Boot from the CD</para>
1557</listitem>
1558<listitem>
1559<para>Type:</para>
1560</listitem>
1561</itemizedlist>
1562<para></para>
1563<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1564<row>
1565<entry>
1566
1567bash# interactive
1568
1569</entry>
1570</row>
1571</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1572
1573<itemizedlist>
1574<listitem>
1575<para>Then, after booting, answer the questions as follows:</para>
1576</listitem>
1577</itemizedlist>
1578<para></para>
1579<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1580<row>
1581<entry>
1582
1583Do you want to partition your devices? noDo you want to format them? noDo you want to restore everythin
1584g? noDo you want to restore something? yesWhich path do you want to restore? /home/hugo [e.g.]Do you wa
1585nt to run LILO to setup your boot sectors? Yes
1586
1587</entry>
1588</row>
1589</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1590
[330]1591</sect2>
1592
1593<sect2>
1594<title>Expert Restore</title>
[329]1595<para>If you are planning to modify your partition table, you would
1596do well to read up on the partition layout and the use of fdisk, it
1597gives you some could pointers on how to best lay out partitions.
1598You can find good guide her.
1599<ulink url="http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/mini/Partition/index.html">http://www.ibiblio.o
1600rg/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/mini/Partition/index.html</ulink></para>
1601<para>To restore manually, please:</para>
1602<itemizedlist>
1603<listitem>
1604<para>Boot from the first CD, then type:</para>
1605</listitem>
1606</itemizedlist>
1607<para></para>
1608<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1609<row>
1610<entry>
1611
1612bash# expert
1613
1614</entry>
1615
1616</row>
1617</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1618
1619<itemizedlist>
1620<listitem>
1621<para>Then do whatever you like. :) You may type the following, of
1622course:</para>
1623</listitem>
1624</itemizedlist>
1625<para></para>
1626<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1627<row>
1628<entry>
1629
1630bash# mondorestore
1631
1632</entry>
1633</row>
1634</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
[330]1635</sect2>
1636       
1637<sect2>
1638<title>Modified partitions - Restore to a different disk geometry</title>
[329]1639<para>One of the nice things about Mondo is that it lets you wipe
1640your existing system and restore it in any layout you like (within
1641reason). You can move from non-RAID to RAID,install and utilize
1642additional drives, move from ext2 to ReiserFS, etc., all without
1643risking the loss of data.</para>
1644<para>If the user excluded a particular partition from backup and
1645specifically excluded it from the mountlist itself using -E then
1646Mondo will insert a small (32MB) partition at restore-time, in
1647order to avoid having to re-jig fstab, the partition table,
1648etc.</para>
1649<para>To do this:</para>
1650<itemizedlist>
1651<listitem>
1652<para>Boot into Expert Mode, then type:</para>
1653</listitem>
1654</itemizedlist>
1655<para></para>
1656<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1657<row>
1658<entry>
1659
1660bash# mondorestore
1661
1662</entry>
1663</row>
1664</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1665
1666<itemizedlist>
1667<listitem>
1668<para>(edit the mountlist using the on-screen editor)</para>
1669</listitem>
1670</itemizedlist>
1671<para>If you want to move from ext2 to ReiserFS, you can do it here
1672(so long as your kernel supports ReiserFS). Ditto for XFS, JFS or
1673ext3.</para>
1674<para>Mondorestore will try to modify your /etc/fstab to reflect
1675changes you have made to the mountlist. If you are not using LILO,
1676you can still create your own /mnt/RESTORING/etc/lilo.conf and run
1677lilo -r /mnt/RESTORING to configure your boot sectors and Master
1678Boot Record.</para>
1679<para>Mondo (technically, Mindi on behalf of Mondo) creates a file
1680called a mountlist. This can be found on the ramdisk at
1681/tmp/mountlist.txt; it looks something like this:</para>
1682<para></para>
1683<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1684<row>
1685<entry>
1686
1687/dev/hda1/mnt/windows vfat 4096000/dev/hda5 / reiserfs 6023000&gt;/dev/hda6 /tmp xfs 955000/dev/hda7 /u
1688sr xfs 4096000
1689
1690</entry>
1691</row>
1692</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1693
1694<para>It is fairly easy to understand the list. Each line refers to
1695a single device/partition. The line format is:</para>
1696<para></para>
1697<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1698<row>
1699<entry>
1700
1701&lt;device&gt; &lt;partition&gt; &lt;format&gt; &lt;Kilobytes&gt;
1702
1703</entry>
1704</row>
1705</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1706
1707<para>If you have added a hard drive and want to take advantage of
1708the additional space, you could amend the above mountlist to
1709read:</para>
1710<para></para>
1711<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1712<row>
1713<entry>
1714
1715/dev/hda1/mnt/windows vfat 6096000/dev/hda5 / reiserfs 9123000/dev/hda6 /tmp xfs 955000/dev/hdb1 /usr x
1716fs 8192000/dev/hdb2 /home xfs 8192000
1717
1718</entry>
1719</row>
1720</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1721
1722<para>This assumes that your old hard drive is /dev/hda and the new
1723hard drive is /dev/hdb.</para>
1724<para>Or, if you want to add RAID support, create a new
1725/etc/raidtab on the ramdisk (which is beyond the scope of this
1726HOWTO) and then write a mountlist like this:</para>
1727<para></para>
1728<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1729<row>
1730<entry>
1731
1732/dev/hda1 /mnt/windows vfat 6096000/dev/md0 / reiserfs 9123000/dev/md1 /tmp xfs 955000/dev/md2 xfs 8192
1733000/dev/md3 /home xfs 8192000
1734
1735</entry>
1736</row>
1737</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1738
1739<para>So long as your /etc/raidtab file is sane, Mondo can
1740automatically partition and format your disks for you, including
1741the RAID devices.</para>
1742<para>Once you have finished editing /tmp/mountlist.txt using
1743mondorestore's built-in editor then you may choose 'OK'. Please
1744note that this will not write anything to your hard disk. You will
1745only reformat or repartition your disks if you say 'Yes' when asked
1746if you want to do those things.</para>
[330]1747</sect2>
1748
1749<sect2>
1750<title>Advanced</title>
[329]1751<para>It is now possible to restore to a live filesystem using
1752Mondo. In other words, you do not have to boot your PC from your
1753CD/floppy in order to restore files. Mondo was originally designed
1754for disaster recovery - situations in which you cannot boot your
1755PC. If you can boot your PC, it is not really a disaster, is it? :)
1756Well, if you have wiped out your priceless collection of "MTV's
1757Bjork Unplugged" MP3's, perhaps it is. Anyway, just type this as
1758root</para>
1759<para></para>
1760<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
1761<row>
1762<entry>
1763
1764bash# mondorestore
1765
1766</entry>
1767</row>
1768</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1769
1770<para></para>
1771<informaltable><tgroup cols="2"><tbody>
1772<row>
1773<entry>
1774<ulink url="images/rest1.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
[331]1775<imagedata fileref="images/rest1-mini">
[329]1776</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
1777</ulink>
1778</entry>
1779<entry>
1780Choose your type of backup media. The live restoration process is
1781very similar to what you'll experience if you type mondorestore
1782with no parameters after booting from a Mondo CD/floppy.
1783</entry>
1784</row>
1785<row>
1786<entry>
1787<ulink url="images/rest2.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
[331]1788<imagedata fileref="images/rest2-mini">
[329]1789</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
1790</ulink>
1791</entry>
1792<entry>
1793Hit 'OK' when you have inserted the tape/CD. If you generated a
1794tape backup, the tape itself should be enough. If you generated a
1795CD backup, the first CD should be enough. Otherwise, you may need
1796the boot floppy.
1797</entry>
1798</row>
1799<row>
1800<entry>
1801<ulink url="images/rest3.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
[331]1802<imagedata fileref="images/rest3-mini">
[329]1803</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
1804</ulink>
1805</entry>
1806<entry>
1807Flag the files and directories you wish to restore. Use the 'More'
1808and 'Less' buttons to open and close subdirectories.
1809</entry>
1810</row>
1811<row>
1812<entry>
1813<ulink url="images/rest4.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
[331]1814<imagedata fileref="images/rest4-mini">
[329]1815</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
1816</ulink>
1817</entry>
1818<entry>
1819Specify the location to restore the files to. In general, '/' is
1820appropriate. If you do not want to overwrite newer versions of the
1821files you are restoring then specify /tmp/BKP or similar as the
1822restore path.
1823</entry>
1824</row>
1825<row>
1826<entry>
1827<ulink url="images/rest5.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
[331]1828<imagedata fileref="images/rest5-mini">
[329]1829</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
1830</ulink>
1831</entry>
1832<entry>
1833Mondorestore will retrieve configuration information from the
1834media. (The sample screen is for tape users. CD users will see
1835something different.)
1836</entry>
1837</row>
1838<row>
1839<entry>
1840<ulink url="images/rest6.png"><inlinemediaobject><imageobject>
[331]1841<imagedata fileref="images/rest6-mini">
[329]1842</imageobject></inlinemediaobject>
1843</ulink>
1844</entry>
1845<entry>
1846Data will be restored to the hard disk - first the regular files,
1847then any big (32MB or greater) files in the restore set.
1848</entry>
1849</row>
1850</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1851
1852<para>I hope this manual is proving to be useful to you.</para>
[330]1853</sect2>
[329]1854</sect1>
1855
1856</chapter>
1857
1858<chapter id="faq">
1859<title>FAQ</title>
1860
1861<sect1 id="faq-overview">
1862<title>Overview</title>
1863<para>Are the errors from Mindi or Mondo? Look at
1864/var/log/mondo-archive.log, /var/log/mindi.log or the
1865mondo.err.xxxxx.tgz log indicated by the screen message. Pipe
1866screen errors which relate to the creation of boot disk(s) and or
1867data disk(s) to a text file.</para>
1868<para>See the <ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org">web
1869site</ulink> for details. If you are going to e-mail
1870<ulink url="../../feedback/feedback.html">the list</ulink> then
1871please attach that text file (zipped!) and tell me:</para>
1872<itemizedlist>
1873<listitem>
1874<para>Your kernel version</para>
1875</listitem>
1876<listitem>
1877<para>Your Linux distro's name and version</para>
1878</listitem>
1879<listitem>
1880<para>Whether your kernel supports initrd and loopfs; it
1881should!</para>
1882</listitem>
1883<listitem>
1884<para>What sort of PC you are using, including hard disk
1885configurations</para>
1886</listitem>
1887</itemizedlist>
1888<para>Mondo is freely available and you are given it for no charge.
[330]1889When you e-mail the &ML;, please bear that in mind.</para>
[329]1890</sect1>
1891<sect1 id="faq-general">
1892<title>General Questions</title>
[330]1893
1894<qandaset>
1895<qandaentry>
1896        <question><para>Q: What is "Mindi"?</para></question>
1897        <answer>
[329]1898<para>A: Mindi, a.k.a. Mindi-Linux, makes a mini-distribution from
1899your kernel, modules, modules, tools and libraries. It can also
1900generate an El Torito 2.88MB boot disk image. Mondo uses Mindi to
1901create a mini-distro, then boots from it and runs on it.</para>
[330]1902</answer>
1903</qandaentry>
1904<qandaentry>
1905        <question><para>Q: Why is it called "Mondo"?</para></question>
1906        <answer>
[329]1907<para>A: The Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles described cool things as
1908'mondo'. I wasn't sure what to call this project. 'Faust' was one
1909idea I had, partly as a dig at my former boss who practically owned
1910me because of my legal status at the time. In the end, I chose
1911something short and distinctive.</para>
[330]1912</answer>
1913</qandaentry>
1914<qandaentry>
1915<question><para>Q: Mondo does not work on my system. It
1916                keels over and dies. What's wrong?</para></question>
1917<answer>
[329]1918<para>A: It works on Red Hat 7.x, Linux-Mandrake 8.x, some flavors
1919of SuSE, some flavors of Slackware, some flavors of Debian, etc.
1920The more distributions I support, the more moving targets I have to
1921hit. Please bear this in mind when e-mailing the list. :) If you
1922would like to help me by beta-testing Mondo (or Mindi) on your PC
1923then I would be very interested in working with you to work around
1924the eccentricities of your Linux distro. However, rest assured, 90%
1925of the bugs reported to me are actually symptoms of FooLinux X.Y's
1926unique way of doing things.</para>
[330]1927</answer>
1928</qandaentry>
1929<qandaentry>
1930        <question><para>Q: What if the error is in Mindi?</para></question>
1931        <answer>
[329]1932<para>A: Then send me a copy of /var/log/mindi.log (compressed,
1933please) along with a description of your distro, your kernel, etc.
1934Oh, and before sending it, please read it.</para>
[330]1935</answer>
1936</qandaentry>
1937<qandaentry>
1938        <question><para>Q: Can I trust Mondo?</para></question>
1939        <answer>
[329]1940<para>A: Mondo has generated reliable archives since May 2000. I
1941have lost data by using bad CD-R disks and not verifying their
1942contents. Some users have not tried booting from their CD until
1943crunch time. Remember to boot into Compare Mode to verify the
1944backup before you trust it. If Mondo did not work, you would not be
1945reading this. If it does not work for you, your kernel is usually
[330]1946the culprit. Check <link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux Kernel
1947support</link> to see what your kernel should support. Please
[329]1948e-mail the list (or me) if you need some help with this.</para>
[330]1949</answer>
1950</qandaentry>
1951<qandaentry>
1952        <question><para>Q: How do I report a bug?</para></question>
1953        <answer>
[329]1954<para>A: E-mail the bug report (mondo.err.xxxxx.tgz) to me. If you
1955want to discuss it, please e-mail the list. The list is for
1956talking; my e-mail address is for big files. :-) If you don't send
1957me a logfile then there isn't a lot that I can do for you, so
1958PLEASE include a logfile at the very least. Or, pop into #mondo on
1959irc.redhat.com and see if I'm there.</para>
[330]1960</answer>
1961</qandaentry>
1962<qandaentry>
1963<question><para>Q: I think Mondo should (...insert
[329]1964suggestion here...) and I have rewritten it accordingly. Would you
[330]1965like to see my patch?</para></question>
1966<answer>
[329]1967<para>A: Absolutely! :-) The best way for you to make Mondo do what
1968you want is to modify it and then send me the patch. That way, we
1969can all benefit.</para>
[330]1970</answer>
1971</qandaentry>
1972<qandaentry>
1973<question><para>Q: I think Mondo should (...insert
[329]1974suggestion here...); will you incorporate this feature for me,
[330]1975please?</para></question>
1976<answer>
[329]1977<para>A: I'll definitely think about it. Would you like to
1978help?</para>
[330]1979</answer>
1980</qandaentry>
1981<qandaentry>
1982<question><para>Q: Mondo says, "XXX is missing," and
1983                then terminates. What's wrong?</para></question>
1984<answer>
[329]1985<para>A: A good Linux distribution should contain XXX but the
1986designers, in their infinite wisdom, decided not to include that
[330]1987particular tool. Check <!--<link linkend="linuxpackages">-->Related
1988        Linux Packages<!--</link>--> and install the missing package. If that
[329]1989fails, contact the vendor/distributor/manufacturer/designer of your
1990distro.</para>
[330]1991</answer>
1992</qandaentry>
1993<qandaentry>
1994<question><para>Q: Can Mondo handle multi-CD backups and
1995                restores?</para></question>
1996<answer>
[329]1997<para>A: Yes, up to twenty CD per set. This 20-CD limit results
1998from laziness on my part. I can remove it at any time. However, if
1999your system occupies more than 20 CD, may I recommend that you
2000invest in a tape streamer?</para>
[330]2001</answer>
2002</qandaentry>
2003<qandaentry>
2004<question><para>Q: Can Mondo handle Linux/Windows
2005                dual-boot systems?</para></question>
2006<answer>
[329]2007<para>A: Yes. If your system currently boots into Linux or Windows
2008via LILO, you can backup and restore both OSes at the same time
2009using Mondo. If you are using NTFS then add the switch, '-x
2010&lt;device&gt;'.</para>
[330]2011</answer>
2012</qandaentry>
2013<qandaentry>
2014<question><para>Q: Can Mondo backup Windows-only
2015                systems?</para></question>
2016<answer>
[329]2017<para>A: Sure, if you pay me to play catch-up to Microsoft. ;)
2018Seriously, Mondo can do it but I do not give away the
2019functionality. If you are a Microsoft-only user, you are accusomed
2020to paying for software and technical support. Please e-mail me for
2021more information.</para>
[330]2022</answer>
2023</qandaentry>
2024<qandaentry>
2025        <question><para>Q: Does Mondo support LVM?</para></question>
2026        <answer>
[329]2027<para>A: Mondo supports LVM, yes. Mondo backs up and restores your
2028existing setup but it does not make it easy for you to change your
2029LVM configuration. You have to edit /tmp/i-want-my-lvm at boot-time
2030to do that.</para>
[330]2031</answer>
2032</qandaentry>
2033<qandaentry>
2034<question><para>Q: What if I don't use LILO? What if I
2035                use GRUB?</para></question>
2036<answer>
[329]2037<para>A: GRUB is supported by Mondo.</para>
[330]2038</answer>
2039</qandaentry>
2040<qandaentry>
2041<question><para>Q: Mondoarchive (or mondorestore)
2042                segfaults when I run it. What could be wrong?</para></question>
2043<answer>
[329]2044<para>A: Install from tarball instead of RPM. (Or, try RPM if you
2045just installed from tarball.) Your compiler or your libraries may
2046be fubar. We'll see. If that doesn't work then please e-mail the
[330]2047&ML;.</para>
2048</answer>
2049</qandaentry>
2050<qandaentry>
2051<question><para>Q: I get the error, 'Cannot find
2052                /tmp/dev.0' or 'Cannot mount device 0x0701'; what do I do?</para></question>
2053<answer>
[329]2054<para>A: Please free up /dev/loop0 using 'losetup /dev/loop0 -d' to
2055unmount that loop device. If your OS will not let you do that,
2056contact your local support group or Linux vendor.</para>
[330]2057</answer>
2058</qandaentry>
2059<qandaentry>
2060<question><para>Q: Can I create a Mondo CD and then use
2061                it to create an archive of any OS on any PC?</para></question>
2062<answer>
[329]2063<para>A: Not yet. You can use Mondo to backup Linux or
2064Linux/Windows dual boot. One day, Mondo will let you backup
2065partitions it can't read or write, by treating each partition as
2066one long file to be backed up. This file will be chopped,
2067compressed and archived like any other big file.</para>
[330]2068</answer>
2069</qandaentry>
2070<qandaentry>
2071<question><para>Q: Why do you insist on putting floppy
[329]2072disk images on Mondo CD? They waste space and I never use them. The
[330]2073CD works just fine, so why keep the floppy disk images?</para></question>
2074<answer>
[329]2075<para>A: Because of my old college buddy, Justin Case. If you
2076really, truly want them gone then please submit a patch to make
[330]2077</para>
2078</answer>
2079</qandaentry>
2080<qandaentry>
2081<question><para>Q: Why do you insist on putting floppy
[329]2082disk images on Mondo CD? They waste space and I never use them. The
2083CD works just fine, so why keep the floppy disk images?</para>
2084<para>A: Because of my old college buddy, Justin Case. If you
2085really, truly want them gone then please submit a patch to make
[330]2086them optional.</para></question>
2087<answer>
2088        </answer>
2089</qandaentry>
2090<qandaentry>
2091<question><para>Q: Why doesn't the Mondo project have a
2092cool-looking animal logo?</para></question>
2093<answer>
[329]2094<para>A: Excellent question! Please submit graphics of candidate
[330]2095        animal logos!</para>
2096        </answer>
2097</qandaentry>
2098<qandaentry>
2099<question><para>Q: Is there a Mondo user 'Code of
2100                Conduct?</para></question>
2101<answer>
[329]2102<para>A: Yes. Read the HOWTO. Submit patches. Recommend realistic
2103improvements. Be courteous to other users on the discussion list.
2104Do not whine.</para>
[330]2105</answer>
2106</qandaentry>
2107</qandaset>
[329]2108</sect1>
2109
2110<sect1 id="faq-booting">
2111<title>Booting and Kernel related Questions</title>
[330]2112<qandaset>
2113<qandaentry>
2114<question><para>Q: How do I know if Mondo works with my
2115                Linux distro?</para></question>
2116<answer>
[329]2117<para>A: Try running it. :) That's always a good way to find out.
2118Check the <ulink url="../../docs/docs.html">Documentation
2119page</ulink>, too.</para>
[330]2120</answer>
2121</qandaentry>
2122<qandaentry>
2123<question><para>Q: When I try to boot from the Mondo CD,
[329]2124it says, "VFS: Unable to mount root fs." I am using a Debian
[330]2125distro. What do I do?</para></question>
2126<answer>
[329]2127<para>A: Ask Debian's designers why they, unlike every other distro
2128I can find, have included cramfs and other 'goodies' with their
2129kernel. In the meantime, please use '-k FAILSAFE' in your command
2130line when calling Mondo.</para>
[330]2131</answer>
2132</qandaentry>
2133<qandaentry>
2134<question><para>Q: When I try to boot from the Mondo CD,
[329]2135it says, "Cannot mount root fs - kernel panic," or something
[330]2136similar. What do I do?</para></question>
2137<answer>
[329]2138<para>A: Recompile your kernel (or use '-k FAILSAFE'). Take a look
[330]2139at <link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux Kernel support</link> to
[329]2140see what you're kernel must support.</para>
[330]2141</answer>
2142</qandaentry>
2143<qandaentry>
2144<question><para>Q: When I try to boot from the Mondo CD,
2145                it says, "UPGRADE YOUR RAM". What does that mean?</para></question>
2146<answer>
[329]2147<para>A: Recompile your kernel and add Virtual memory file system
[330]2148support. Take a look at <link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux
2149Kernel support</link> to see what you're kernel must support. (Of
[329]2150course, if your PC has less than 64MB of RAM, you could always...
2151what's the phrase? I know, upgrade your RAM!)</para>
[330]2152</answer>
2153</qandaentry>
2154<qandaentry>
2155<question><para>Q: When I try to boot from the Mondo CD,
[329]2156it says something about not finding my CD-ROM drive and then it
[330]2157blames the kernel. What does that mean?</para></question>
2158<answer>
[329]2159<para>A: Your kernel must support initrd, loopfs, IDE CD-ROM's, and
[330]2160ramdisks. Take a look at <link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux
2161Kernel support</link> to see what you're kernel must support. If
[329]2162your kernel does not support these things, Mondo will not boot from
2163your CD. However, when running Mindi, you may choose to use _its_
2164kernel instead of your own. In addition, you may boot from floppy
2165disk images instead the CD: copy the disk images from the CD
2166/images directory to floppy disks, using 'dd'. Take a look at
[330]2167<link linkend="copybootdatadisk">Copy boot data
2168disks</link> on how to make those.</para>
2169</answer>
2170</qandaentry>
2171<qandaentry>
2172<question><para>Q: The Mondo CD/floppy takes ages to
2173                boot. How can I speed it up?</para></question>
2174<answer>
[329]2175<para>A: Edit mindi (it's a shell script, btw) and change
2176LILO_OPTIONS="" to LILO_OPTIONS="-c". This enables map compaction
2177in lilo and speeds up booting, for more info see the lilo man
2178page.</para>
[330]2179</answer>
2180</qandaentry>
2181<qandaentry>
2182<question><para>Q: I made a Mondo CD using the failsafe
[329]2183kernel (i.e. I said 'no' when Mondo asked if I wanted to use my own
[330]2184kernel). It still doesn't boot. Help!</para></question>
2185<answer>
[329]2186<para>A: OK, now that is a bug. :-) I included a kernel with Mondo
2187(technically, with Mindi, which Mondo uses) to make sure that users
2188could use Mondo despite flaws in their own kernels. If you are
2189using Mondo/Mindi's kernel but still cannot boot from your Mondo CD
2190then please e-mail the list.</para>
[330]2191</answer>
2192</qandaentry>
2193<qandaentry>
2194<question><para>Q: What if my PC won't boot from a
2195                CD?</para></question>
2196<answer>
[329]2197<para>A: Copy the image files from the CD /images directory, using
2198the dd command. Take a look at
[330]2199<link linkend="copybootdatadisk">Copy boot data
2200disks</link> on how to make those. Then boot from the first
[329]2201floppy; follow it up with the data disks; finally, type 'mount
2202/mnt/cdrom' and then utilize the restore script as usual, e.g.
2203mondorestore.</para>
[330]2204</answer>
2205</qandaentry>
2206<qandaentry>
2207<question><para>Q: But why won't Mondo boot from my CD?
[329]2208It says my kernel is flawed/outdated/ whatever, and when I wrote to
2209you, you told me the same thing... but I still don't get it. I
[330]2210mean, my kernel works for everything else. Why not Mondo?</para></question>
2211<answer>
[329]2212<para>A: Because Mondo makes a boot disk using your kernel. I bet
2213your other software doesn't do that. Also, not all kernels are
2214suitable for boot disks. I'm sorry but that's Life. Upgrade your
2215kernel and/or recompile it. Take a look at
[330]2216<link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux Kernel support</link> to see
[329]2217what you're kernel must support.</para>
[330]2218</answer>
2219</qandaentry>
2220<qandaentry>
2221<question><para>Q: Why do I only need a boot disk if I'm
2222                using a tape drive? Where are the data disks?</para></question>
2223<answer>
[329]2224<para>A: On the tape. :-) The first 32MB of the tape will be set
2225aside for a large tarball containing the data disks, a list of all
2226files backed up, and other sundries. If Mondo and Mindi do their
2227respective jobs then you won't need additional floppies, just the
2228boot floppy and the tape(s).</para>
[330]2229</answer>
2230</qandaentry>
2231<qandaentry>
2232<question><para>Q: Why does it say, "Process accounting
2233                FAILED" when I reboot?</para></question>
2234<answer>
[329]2235<para>A: You were using Process Accounting. Red Hat (or whichever
2236distro you are using) does not provide a startup/shutdown script
2237yet. So, when you try to backup the process log, it just grows and
2238grows as Mondo tries to back it up. Mondo doesn't back it up
2239anymore and that's why. The unfortunate side-effect is... well,
2240what you see on your screen. Type 'touch /var/log/pacct' and then
2241'paccton' to fix the error message.</para>
[330]2242</answer>
2243</qandaentry>
2244<qandaentry>
2245<question><para>Q: Why does it say,
[329]2246&amp;#8220;request_module[block-major-1]: Root fs not mounted VFS:
2247Cannot open root device "100" or 01:00 Please append a correct
2248"root=" boot option kernel panic: VFS: Unable to mount root fs on
[330]224901:00&amp;#8221; when i boot from the CD?</para></question>
2250<answer>
[329]2251<para>A: Recompile your kernel and add initrd support. Take a look
[330]2252at <link linkend="overview-sysrq-kernelreq">Linux Kernel support</link>to
[329]2253see what you're kernel must support.</para>
2254<para><anchor id="COPYBOOTDATADISK"/>Q: How do i copy boot+data
[330]2255        disk images to physical floppy disks ?</para>
[329]2256<para>A: The images are in /root/images/mindi (eve if they are
2257created by Mondo) and also in the 'images' directory on the first
2258CD of your backup set, if you have backed up to CD. You can copy
2259the images to disk as follows:-</para>
2260<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2261<row>
2262<entry>
2263
2264[boot disk]bash# fdformat /dev/fd0u1722bash# dd if=/root/images/mindi/mindi-boot.1722.img of=/dev/fd0u1
2265772[data disk]bash# fdformat /dev/fd0bash# dd if=/root/images/mindi/mindi-data-N.img of=/dev/fd0Replace
2266 N with 1, 2, etc.
2267
2268</entry>
2269</row>
2270</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
[330]2271</answer>
2272</qandaentry>
[329]2273
[330]2274<qandaentry>
2275<question><para id="TAPENICE">Q: My tape drive
2276doesn't play nicely with Mondo at boot-time. What do I do?</para></question>
2277<answer><para>A: Play with 'mt'. Use its setblksize and
[329]2278defblksize switches to reconfigure your tape drive if necessary.
2279Some tape drives just suck, I'm sorry to say. If yours is one of
2280them then God help you. Mondo can handle any tape drive whose drive
2281and firmware can handle fread(), fwrite(), fread() and fclose().
2282Mondo uses standard C libraries to talk to your tape streamer. If
2283your tape streamer can't handle that then you had better call a
[330]2284priest. Either that or ask for a refund.
2285</para>
2286</answer>
2287</qandaentry>
2288</qandaset>
[329]2289</sect1>
[330]2290
[329]2291<sect1 id="faq-install">
2292<title>Installation related Questions</title>
[330]2293<qandaset>
2294<qandaentry>
2295<question><para>Q: Why do I get, "newt.h not found," or
[329]2296"popt.h not found," several times when I try to install
[330]2297Mondo?</para></question>
2298<answer>
[329]2299<para>A: You have not installed libnewt and/or libnewt-devel.
2300Please do so. Check <ulink url="linuxpackages.html">Related Linux
2301Packages</ulink> to see what Mondo requires and where you can get
2302tarballs and RPM's. Make sure you are using the right version of
2303newt/libnewt. Read the error messages carefully.</para>
[330]2304</answer>
2305</qandaentry>
2306<qandaentry>
2307<question><para>Q: Newt won't compile when I try. What's
2308                the problem?</para></question>
2309<answer>
[329]2310<para>A: You are probably missing popt.h, which newt needs to
2311compile, it can be found in the 'popt' package. Check your
2312distribution and see if they have popt, if not check
2313<ulink url="linuxpackages.html">Related Linux Packages</ulink> to
2314see where you can get it.</para>
[330]2315</answer>
2316</qandaentry>
2317<qandaentry>
2318<question><para>Q: I've just used up 6 CD-R, only to
2319                find that Mondo won't boot!</para></question>
2320<answer>
[329]2321<para>A: You should have used CD-RW. ;) In the HOWTO, it gives
2322instructions on how to create a test CD (one, not six).</para>
[330]2323</answer>
2324</qandaentry>
2325<qandaentry>
2326<question>
2327<para id="PACKREQ">Q: Lots of packages,
2328required by Mondo, are missing from my system. What do I do?</para>
2329</question>
2330<answer>
2331<para>
2332A: Install them. :) If you are using RPM or DEB
[329]2333then you'll be told which packages you need. Mondo offers a lot of
2334those packages on its
[330]2335<ulink url="http://www.mondorescue.org/download/download.html">Download</ulink>
2336web page.</para>
2337</answer>
2338</qandaentry>
2339</qandaset>
[329]2340</sect1>
[330]2341
[329]2342<sect1 id="faq-hardware">
2343<title>Hardware related Questions</title>
[330]2344<qandaset>
2345<qandaentry>
2346        <question><para>Q: Can Mondo handle CD-RW?</para></question>
2347        <answer>
[329]2348<para>A: Yes. Use '-Ow &lt;speed&gt; &lt;device&gt;' to make it
2349work.</para>
[330]2350</answer>
2351</qandaentry>
2352<qandaentry>
2353<question><para>Q: Does Mondo support tape
2354                drives?</para></question>
2355<answer>
[329]2356<para>A: Yes. See above.</para>
[330]2357</answer>
2358</qandaentry>
2359<qandaentry>
2360<question><para>Q: Does Mondo support my tape
2361                drive?</para></question>
2362<answer>
[329]2363<para>A: If your tape drive and its firmware and the kernel-level
2364driver support fopen(), fread(), fwrite() and fclose() - standard C
2365library calls - then yes, Mondo should support it. If not, well,
2366you need a refund. :) Mondo plays nicely with any sane, sensible
2367drives. That's most of them, by the way. :) If your drive doesn't
2368play nicely with Mondo then you may try tinkering with setblksize
2369and defblksize using 'mt', or tweaking Mondo's block size by
2370recompiling it with make INTTAPE=4096 or INTTAPE=8192 or something.
2371Other than that, you need a priest or a refund.</para>
[330]2372</answer>
2373</qandaentry>
2374<qandaentry>
2375<question><para>Q: How do I copy the floppy images from
2376                the CD to floppy disks?</para></question>
2377<answer>
[329]2378<para>A: Mount the CD-ROM, e.g. at /mnt/cdrom. Insert a blank
2379floppy. Type:</para>
2380<para></para>
2381<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2382<row>
2383<entry>
2384
2385bash# cd /mnt/cdrom/imagesbash# dd if=mindi-boot.1722.img of=/dev/fd0u1722
2386
2387</entry>
2388</row>
2389</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2390
2391<para>Insert another blank floppy and type:</para>
2392<para></para>
2393<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2394<row>
2395<entry>
2396
2397bash# dd if=mindi-data-1.img of=/dev/fd0u1722
2398
2399</entry>
2400</row>
2401</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2402
2403<para>Do the above for each 'mindi-data' disk image.</para>
[330]2404</answer>
2405</qandaentry>
2406<qandaentry>
2407<question><para>Q: Sometimes, my laptop won't mount
2408                Mondo CD properly, or something. Umm...</para></question>
2409<answer>
[329]2410<para>A: Please insert the CD, close the CD-ROM tray, wait a few
2411seconds and then press Enter to acknowledge insertion of the next
2412CD. Your laptop is on crack and is sucking a little too hard on the
2413pipe.</para>
[330]2414</answer>
2415</qandaentry>
2416<qandaentry>
2417        <question><para>Q: Does Mondo support RAID?</para></question>
2418        <answer>
[329]2419<para>A: Yes. You may backup and restore RAID systems. You may also
2420backup a non-RAID system and restore as RAID (or vice versa) by
2421using the mountlist editor to edit your RAID and non-RAID
2422partitions and their settings. Mondo will do the partitioning and
2423formatting for you.</para>
[330]2424</answer>
2425</qandaentry>
2426<qandaentry>
2427<question><para>Q: Where is my CD burner, in SCSI
2428                terms?</para></question>
2429<answer>
[329]2430<para>A: Type:</para>
2431<para></para>
2432<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2433<row>
2434<entry>
2435
2436bash# cdrecord -scanbus
2437
2438</entry>
2439</row>
2440</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2441
2442<para>Find your CD burner's device# (e.g. '0,0,0'). Call Mondo with
2443the switch '-Oc &lt;speed&gt;' -d '&lt;device&gt;'. Or, if you feel
2444lucky, just use '-Oc 2'; Mondo will (a) assume you want to write at
24454x to</para>
2446<para>a CD-R and (b) will do its best to find your CD
2447burner.</para>
[330]2448</answer>
2449</qandaentry>
2450<qandaentry>
2451        <question><para>Q: Can Mondo handle SCSI devices?</para></question>
2452        <answer>
[329]2453<para>A: Mondo should be able to handle almost any hardware. So
2454long as your kernel and modules support it, Mindi will support it
2455and therefore so will Mondo.</para>
[330]2456</answer>
2457</qandaentry>
2458</qandaset>
[329]2459</sect1>
2460
2461<sect1 id="faq-backup">
2462<title>Backup related Questions</title>
[330]2463
2464<qandaset>
2465<qandaentry>
2466<question><para id="MMKM">Q: Mondo says, 'Cannot
2467                run mindi --makemountlist' and aborts. What do I do?</para></question>
2468<answer>
2469        <para>
2470A: Look at /var/log/mindi.log and see what it
[329]2471says. Also, try typing 'mindi --makemountlist /tmp/mountlist.txt'
[330]2472to see what Mindi says. Compress the log and send it to the &ML; if you get stuck.
2473</para>
2474</answer>
2475</qandaentry>
2476<qandaentry>
2477<question><para>Q: Can Mondo burn CD as they are
2478                created?</para></question>
2479<answer>
[329]2480<para>A: Yes. Use the '-Oc &lt;speed&gt;' switch. Use a negative
2481number for a dummy burn.</para>
[330]2482</answer>
2483</qandaentry>
2484<qandaentry>
2485<question><para>Q: When I try to backup to CD,
[329]2486cdrecord/mkisofs returns an error. Nothing else appears to be
[330]2487wrong. What do I do?</para></question>
2488<answer>
[329]2489<para>A: Upgrade cdrecord and mkisofs.</para>
[330]2490</answer>
2491</qandaentry>
2492<qandaentry>
2493<question><para>Q: Mondo failed to burn my CD. It said
[329]2494something like, "Error CDB A1 01 02 53 ..." and so on. What does
[330]2495that mean?</para></question>
2496<answer>
[329]2497<para>A: Cdrecord reported some serious errors while trying to burn
2498your CD. Check your CD burner, your CD-R and your kernel.</para>
[330]2499</answer>
2500</qandaentry>
2501<qandaentry>
2502<question><para>Q: May I backup my system with one
2503                partition layout and restore with another?</para></question>
2504<answer>
[329]2505<para>A: Yes. Boot in Interactive Mode and edit the mountlist using
2506the snazzy new mountlist editor. Mondo can now edit your RAID
2507partitions for you. Just open /dev/md0 (or whatever) and select
2508"RAID.." to start. Or, to add a RAID device:</para>
2509<itemizedlist>
2510<listitem>
2511<para>Add two or more partitions, of type and mountpoint
2512'raid'</para>
2513</listitem>
2514<listitem>
2515<para>Add device '/dev/md0' and click OK</para>
2516</listitem>
2517<listitem>
2518<para>Follow the prompts and your own common-sense :)</para>
2519</listitem>
2520</itemizedlist>
[330]2521</answer>
2522</qandaentry>
2523<qandaentry>
2524<question><para>Q: Why does Mondo need so much free disk
2525                space?</para></question>
2526<answer>
[329]2527<para>A: Because I'm a bitter, twisted man who lives to torment
2528you. Mwahahahaha! :-) Mondo has to work around the inadequacies of
2529mkisofs, cdrecord and your own Linux distribution; in return, it
2530asks for a lot of free disk space.</para>
[330]2531</answer>
2532</qandaentry>
2533<qandaentry>
2534<question><para>Q: Will Mondo backup partitions whose
2535                formats are not understood by Linux, such as NTFS?</para></question>
2536<answer>
[329]2537<para>A: Yes. Use '-x &lt;device&gt;'. (You can have more than one
2538device.)</para>
[330]2539</answer>
2540</qandaentry>
2541<qandaentry>
2542<question><para>Q: I am trying to do something clever,
[329]2543e.g. write my ISO's to an NFS mount, and I get some weird error
[330]2544messages. What do I do?</para></question>
2545<answer>
[329]2546<para>A: Well, (a) use '-T /tmp' or '-T /home' or something in your
2547call to Mondo. Oh, and (b) send me /var/log/mondo-archive.log,
2548please :-)</para>
[330]2549</answer>
2550</qandaentry>
2551<qandaentry>
2552<question><para>Q: Can Mondo backup to data files on
2553                another partition, e.g. an NFS mount?</para></question>
2554<answer>
[329]2555<para>A: Yes. Just backup as usual but add '-d /mnt/nfs' or
2556wherever your partition is mounted; don't use '-Oc' or '-Ot' at
2557all; just '-Oi -d /root'. Then, after booting from the floppies
2558which Mondo generates, you need to type 'ISO' at the
2559console.</para>
[330]2560</answer>
2561</qandaentry>
2562<qandaentry>
2563<question><para>Q: Can Mondo backup _to_ an NFS
2564                partition, i.e. backup over a network? How about restoring?</para></question>
2565<answer>
[329]2566<para>A: Yes. Use '-On &lt;mount&gt; &lt;directory&gt;'. On my
2567system, I use:</para>
2568<para></para>
2569<informaltable><tgroup cols="1"><tbody>
2570<row>
2571<entry>
2572
2573bash# mondoarchive -On 192.168.1.3:/home/nfs
2574
2575</entry>
2576</row>
2577</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
2578
[330]2579</answer>
2580</qandaentry>
2581<qandaentry>
2582<question><para>Q: Does Mondo handle System or Hidden
2583                attributes when archiving Dos/Win files?</para></question>
2584<answer>
[329]2585<para>A: No. It probably never will, either. Sorry.</para>
[330]2586</answer>
2587</qandaentry>
2588<qandaentry>
2589<question><para>Q: Why do you include IO.SYS and
[329]2590MSDOS.SYS in mondo-vfat, when they belong to Microsoft and are
[330]2591copyrighted?</para></question>
2592<answer>
[329]2593<para>A: Well, I used to, but I don't anymore. However, if you do
2594have a Windows partition, you can still use 'format-and-kludge-vfat
2595&lt;DEVICE&gt;/' to format and make bootable a VFAT partition.
2596AFAIK, I am the only person to write a Linux equivalent of the DOS
2597"SYS" command.</para>
[330]2598</answer>
2599</qandaentry>
2600</qandaset>
[329]2601</sect1>
2602
2603<sect1 id="faq-compare">
2604<title>Compare related Questions</title>
[330]2605
2606<qandaset>
2607<qandaentry>
2608<question><para>Q: When I compare my archives to my file
[329]2609system, Mondo tells me there are differences or errors. Are the
[330]2610archives bad?</para></question>
2611<answer>
[329]2612<para>A: Look at /tmp/changed.files; if the files are logfiles,
2613temp files or files which you think you may have changed recently
2614then the archives are simply out of date, albeit only by a few
2615minutes. Not a problem. However, if lots of files in /usr have
2616changed or if you get lots of errors then perhaps your CD, your
2617tapes or even your hardware could be to blame. Check your CD writer
2618or tape streamer.</para>
2619<para>Also, don't forget to review /var/log/mondo-archive.log for
2620more information.</para>
[330]2621</answer>
2622</qandaentry>
2623</qandaset>
[329]2624</sect1>
2625
2626<sect1 id="faq-restore">
2627<title>Restore related Questions</title>
[330]2628<qandaset>
2629<qandaentry>
2630<question><para>Q: Can Mondo help me
2631                move/resize/re-allocate my partitions?</para></question>
2632<answer>
[329]2633<para>A: Yes. Just backup your system in Interactive Mode using
2634Mondo. Edit the mountlist when prompted.</para>
[330]2635</answer>
2636</qandaentry>
2637<qandaentry>
2638<question><para>Q: My zip drive is a SCSI drive. When I
[329]2639restore, Mondo craps out, saying it can't mount the drive (because
[330]2640there is no disk in it). What do I do?</para></question>
2641<answer>
[329]2642<para>A: Restore in Interactive Mode. Delete the SCSI drive from
2643the mountlist before you restore. Then Mondo won't try to partition
2644or format it. Next time you backup, use -E /dev/sdd (or whatever
2645your zip drive is). The /dev entry will be excluded from the
2646mountlist but not from the filelist. So, when you restore, you
2647won't accidentally reformat your zip disk. However, after
2648restoring, you will find that /dev/sdd (the _file_) will still be
2649present in your /dev directory. Cool, eh?</para>
[330]2650</answer>
2651</qandaentry>
2652<qandaentry>
2653<question><para>Q: I received a message like, 'Fileset
2654                NNN failed' during restore. What does it mean.</para></question>
2655<answer>
[329]2656<para>A: It usually means either you had a very large (&gt;2GB)
2657file which was not archived owing to a flaw in your distro or your
2658filesystem has changed in relation to the backup.</para>
[330]2659</answer>
2660</qandaentry>
2661<qandaentry>
2662<question><para>Q: Why does my ext3 partition have less
2663                space free than when I backed it up?</para></question>
2664<answer>
[329]2665<para>A: Mondo creates a 10MB journal file area. Your journal was
2666probably smaller than that, hence the difference.</para>
[330]2667</answer>
2668</qandaentry>
2669<qandaentry>
2670<question><para id="SEGF">Q: When I restore after
[329]2671booting from the CD/floppies, I sometimes get errors like, "Running
[330]2672out of memory" or "Segmentation fault". What is going on?</para></question>
2673<answer><para>A: It sounds as if you are running out of disk
[329]2674space, probably ram disk space. Type 'df -m' to see which
2675partitions are running low on space. Please send as much
[330]2676information as you can to the &ML;. This problem is
2677believed to have been fixed in 1.63 and 1.71.</para>
2678</answer>
2679</qandaentry>
2680<qandaentry>
2681<question>
2682<para id="LVM"/>Q: I can't nuke-restore my LVM or RAID or
2683LVM-on-RAID setup. I have to do it manually. What now?</para></question>
2684<answer>
[329]2685<para>A: You said it yourself. You have to do it manually. :) Sorry
2686but that's about it. At least you have all the tools to do it. I
2687assume you know how. If you don't, look at i-want-my-lvm (a script
2688on the ramdisk) if you're using LVM. It should give you a few
2689clues. RAID is harder but in general Mondo's RAID support is good.
2690After you've prepped and formatted your drives, run mondorestore
2691again but say 'no' when asked if you want Mondo to prep or format
2692your drives.</para>
[330]2693</answer>
2694</qandaentry>
2695</qandaset>
[329]2696</sect1>
2697</chapter>
2698
[328]2699&gfdl;
2700
[327]2701</book>
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